TO MY CHRISTIAN BRETHREN IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.
PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION.
PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION.
PREFACE TO THE FOURTH EDITION.
INTRODUCTION. CHAPTER I. THE IDEA OF THE HISTORY OF CHRIST IN GENERAL.
Section 1. The Indifference of Criticism rejected.
Section 2. The Truth, that Christ is God-MAN, presupposed.
Section 3. This presupposed Truth and the Historical Accounts mutually confirm and illustrate each other.
CHAPTER II. SOURCES FOR THE HISTORY OF CHRIST.
Section 4. Traditional Origin of the Synoptical Gospels.
Section 5. Genuineness of John's Gospel.
Section 6. Results of Criticism.
BIRTH AND CHILDHOOD OF JESUS. BOOK I. THE BIRTH AND CHILDHOOD OF JESUS. . CHAPTER I. PRELIMINARY REMARKS.
Section 7. Scantiness of our Information in regard to this Period of Christ's
Section 8. Fundamentally opposite Modes of apprehending the Accounts.
CHAPTER II. THE MIRACULOUS CONCEPTION.
Section 9. The Miraculous Conception demanded à priori, and confirmed à
Section 10. Mythical View of the Miraculous Conception.--No trace of it in the Narrative.--No such Mythus could have originated among the Jews.
Section 11. Objections to the Narrative drawn from the subsequent Dispositions of Christ's Relatives, answered (1) from the nature of the case; (2) from the name Jesus.
Section 12. Analogical Ideas among the Heathen.
CHAPTER III. THE BIRTH OF CHRIST.
Section 13. The Birth of Christ in its Relations to the Jewish Theocracy.
Section 14. The Miraculous Events that accompanied the Birth of Christ.
Section 15. The Taxing.--Birth of Christ at Bethlehem.
Section 16. The Announcement to the Shepherds.
Section 17. The Sacrifice of Purification, and the Ransom of the First-born; their Weight as Proof against the Mythical Theory.
Section 18. Simeon's Prophetic Discourse.
Section 19. The Longing of the Heathen for a Saviour.--The Star of the Wise Men.
Section 20. The Massacre of the Innocents and the Flight into Egypt.
Section 21. The Return to Nazareth.
Section 22. Brothers and Sisters of Jesus; the Mention of them in the Gospel Narrative, Proof of its historical Character.
Section 23. Consciousness of Messiahship in the Mind of Jesus.--Jesus among the Doctors.
BOOK II. THE MENTAL CULTURE OF JESUS. HIS LIFE TO THE TIME OF HIS PUBLIC MINISTRY. CHAPTER I. JESUS NOT EDUCATED IN THE THEOLOGICAL SCHOOLS OF THE JEWS.
Section 24. The Pharisees.
Section 25. The Sadducees.
Section 26. The Essenes.
Section 27. Supposed Influence of the Alexandrian--Jewish Doctrines.
Section 28. Affinity of Christianity, as absolute Truth, for the various opposing Religious Systems.
Section 29. Christ's Teaching revealed from within, not received from without.
Section 30. The popular Sentiment in regard to Christ's Connexion with the Schools.
CHAPTER II. COURSE OF CHRIST'S LIFE UP TO THE OPENING OF HIS PUBLIC M1NISTRY.
Section 31. Growing Consciousness of His Messiahship in Christ.
BOOK III. PREPARATIVES TO THE PUBLIC MINISTRY OF CHRIST. PART I. OBJECTIVE PREPARATION. THE MINISTRY OF JOHN THE BAPTIST. CHAPTER I. THE CALLING OF THE BAPTIST, AND HIS RELATIONS TO THE JEWS.
Section 32. How far the Baptist revived the Expectation of a Messiah.
Section 33. Causes of Obscurity in the Accounts left us of the Baptist.--Sources: The Evangelists. Josephus.
Section 34. The Baptist's Mode of Life and Teaching in the Desert.
Section 35. John as Baptist and Preacher of Repentance.
Section 36. Relations of the Pharisees and Sadducees to the Baptist.
Section 37. Relations of John to the People, and to the narrower circle of his own Disciples.
Section 38. John's Demands upon the People compared with those of Christ. --His humble Opinion of his own Calling.
CHAPTER II. RELATION OF THE BAPTIST TO MESSIAH.
Section 39. John's Explanation of his Relation to the Messiah. The Baptism by
Section 40. John's Conception of Messiah's Kingdom.
Section 41. John's Recognition of Jesus as the Messiah.
Section 42. The Phenomena at the Baptism, and their Import.
PART II. SUBJECTIVE PREPARATION. THE TEMPTATION. CHAPTER I. IMPORT OF THE INDIVIDUAL TEMPTATIONS.
Section 43. The Hunger.
Section 44. The Pinnacle of the Temple.
Section 45. Dominion.
CHAPTER II. IMPORT OF THE TEMPTATION AS A WHOLE.
Section 46. Fundamental Idea.
Section 47. The Temptation rot an inward one, but the Work of Satan.
BOOK IV. THE PUBLIC MINISTRY OF CHRIST IN ITS REAL CONNEXION. PART I. THE PLAN OF CHRIST. CHAPTER 1. A. THE PLAN OF CHRIST'S MINISTRY IN GENERAL.
Section 48. Had Christ a conscious Plan?
Section 49. Connexion with the Old Testament Theocracy.
Section 50. Christ's Steadfast Consciousness of his Messiahship.
Section 51. No alterations of Christ's Plan.
Section 52. Two-fold bearing of the Kingdom of God--an inward, spiritual Power, and a world-renewing Power.
CHAPTER II. THE PLAN OF CHRIST IN ITS RELATION TO THE OLD TESTAMENT IDEA OF THE KINGDOM OF GOD.
he question now arises, in what relation the new form of the kingdom
Section 53. Christ's Observance of the Jewish Worship and Law.
Section 54. His Manifestation greater than the "Temple."
Section 55. The Conversation with the Samaritan Woman.
Section 56. The "Destroying" and "Fulfilling" of the Law.
Section 57. The Interpolation in Luke, vi., 4. (Cod. Cant.)
We close our survey of Christ's sayings in regard to his relations to the Old Testament with a remark directly suggested by it, from which the weightiest consequences may be deduced.
CHAPTER III. NEW FORM OF THE IDEA OF THE PERSON OF THE THEOCRATIC KING.
Section 58. The Names Son of God and Son of Man.
Section 59. Import of the Title Son of Man, as used by Christ himself--Rejection of Alexandrian and other Analogies.
Section 60. Import of the Title Son of God.
PART II. THE MEANS AND INSTRUMENTS OF CHRIST. CHAPTER I A. THE MEANS OF CHRIST IN GENERAL.
Section 61. Christ a Spiritual Teacher.
Section 62. Different Theatres of Christ's Labours as Teacher.
Section 63. Choice and Training of the Apostles to be subordinate Teachers.
CHAPTER II. CHRIST'S MODE OF TEACHING IN REGARD TO ITS METHOD AND FORM. A. GENERAL PRINCIPLES.
Section 64. His mode of Teaching adapted to the Stand-point of his Hearers.
Section 65. His Teaching presented Seeds and Stimulants of Thought.
Section 66. Its Results dependent upon the Spirit of the Hearers.
Section 67. His Mode of Teaching corresponds to the General Law of Developement of the Kingdom of God.
Section 68 Idea of the Parable.--Distinction between Parable, Fable, and Mythus.
Section 69. Order in which the Parables were Delivered.--Their Perfection.--Mode of Interpreting them.
Section 70. Christ's Teaching not confined to Parables, but conveyed also in longer Discourses.
Section 71. John's Gospel contains chiefly connected and profound Discourses; and Why?
Section 72. The Parable of the Shepherd, in John, compared with the Parables in the other Gospels.
Section 73. Necessity of Accommodation.
Section 74. Distinction between Positive (Material) and Negative (Formal) Accommodation; the latter necessary, the former inadmissible.
Section 75. Christ's Application of Passages from the Old Testament.
CHAPTER III. CHRIST'S CHOICE AND TRAINING OF THE APOSTLES.
Section 76 Christ's Relation to the Twelve.--Significance of the Number
Section 77. Choice of the Apostles.--Of Judas Iscariot.
Section 78. The Apostles Uneducated Men.
Section 79. Two Stages in the Dependence of the Apostles upon Christ.
Section 80. Christ's peculiar Method of training the Apostles.
CHAPTER IV. THE CHURCH AND BAPTISM.
Section 81. Founding of the Church.--Its Objects.
Section 82. Name of the Church.--Its Form traced back to Christ himself.
Section 83. Later Institution of Baptism as an Initiatory Rite.
CHAPTER V. THE MIRACLES OF CHRIST.
Section 84. Connexion of Christ's Miracles with his Mode of Teaching.
Section 85. Negative Element of the Miracle.--Its Insufficiency.
Section 86. Positive Element.--Teleological Aim of Miracles.
Section 87. Relation of Miracles to the Course of Nature.
Section 88. Relation of the individual Miracles to the highest Miracle, the Manifestation of Christ.
Section 89. Relation of Miracles to History.
Section 90. Miracles deemed an essential Sign of Messiahship.
Section 91. Apparent Discrepancies, and Mode of Removing them.
Section 92. The Sign of the Prophet Jonah.
Section 93. "Destroy this Temple," &c.
Section 94. Christ's Distinction between the material Element of Miracles and their essential Object.--John, vi., 26.
Section 95. Christ appealed to the Miracles as Testimonies; John, xv., 24.--Three different Stages of Faith.
Section 96. The Communication of the Divine Life the highest Miracle.--John, xiv., 12.
CHAPTER VI. THE MIRACLES OF CHRIST CONSIDERED IN REGARD TO SUPERNATURAL AGENCY.
Section 97. Transition from the Natural to the Supernatural in the Miracles.
Section 98. The Spiritual Agencies employed.--Faith demanded for the Cure.
Section 99. Use of Physical Agencies in the Cure of Diseases.
Section 100. The Relation between Sin and Physical Evil.--Jewish Idea of Punitive Justice.--Christ's Doctrine on the Subject.
Section 101. Two Theories of the Affliction: (a) Possession by Evil Spirits (b) Insanity.--Analogous Phenomena in other Times.
Section 102. Connexion of the Phenomena with the State of the Times.--Conceptions of the Jews in regard to them: of the Demoniacs themselves.
Section 103. Accommodation of the two extreme Theories.
Section 104. Christ's Explanations of Demonism purely Spiritual.--His Accommodation to the Conceptions of the Demoniacs.
Section 105. Difference between Christ's Healing of the Demoniacs and the Operations of t/he Jewish Exorcists.
III. The Raising of the Dead.
B. CHRIST'S MIRACLES WROUGHT UPON MATERIAL NATURE.
To promote unity of view
Section 109. Differences as to the Theatre of Christ's Labours.
Section 110. Proof that Christ frequently exercised his Ministry in Judea and Jerusalem.
PART I. FROM THE COMMENCEMENT OF CHRIST'S PUBLIC MINISTRY TO THE TRIUMPHAL ENTRY.
PART I. FROM THE COMMENCEMENT OF CHRIST'S PUBLIC MINISTRY TO THE TRIUMPHAL ENTRY.CHAPTER I. JESUS AND JOHN THE BAPTIST.--THE FIRST DISCIPLES.
Section 111. Message of the Sanhedrim to John at Bethabara.
Section 112. John points to Jesus as the Suffering Messiah, and testifies to his Higher Dignity.
Section 113. John and Andrew, Disciples of John, attach themselves to Jesus.--Gradual Attraction of others.
CHAPTER II. COMMENCEMENT OF CHRIST'S PUBLIC TEACHING.
Section 114. The Miraculous Draught of Fishes.--Effect of the Miracle on
Section 115. The Calling of Nathanael.
CHAPTER III. JESUS AT CANA.
Section 116. The Change of Water into Wine.--Character and Import of the
CHAPTER IV. FIRST JOURNEY TO JERUSALEM TO ATTEND THE FEAST OF THE PASSOVER.
Section 117. The Purifying of the Temple.
Section 118. The Saying of Christ, "Destroy this Temple," &c.--Additional Exposition of it given by John.
Section 119. Interview of Christ with Nicodcmus.
CHAPTER V. JESUS AT ÆNON, NEAR SALIM.
Section 120. Jealousy of John's Disciples.--Final Testimony of the Baptist.--His Imprisonment.
CHAPTER VI. JESUS RETURNS THROUGH SAMARIA TO GALILEE.--THE SAMARITAN WOMAN. (John, iv.)
Section 121. Impressions made upon the Samaritan Woman.
Section 122. Christ's Decision between the Worship of the Jews and that of the Samaritans.
Section 123. The Worship of God in Spirit and in Truth.
Section 124. The Spiritual Worship.--Its Bearing upon Practical Life.
Section 125. Christ's Glances at the future Progress of his Kingdom, and at his own Death.
Section 126. Subsequent State of the Samaritans.
CHAPTER VII. CHRIST'S FIRST GENERAL MINISTRY IN GALILEE.
Section 127. Christ heals the Nobleman's Son.--Chooses Capernaum for his
Section 128. Christ appears in the Synagogue at Nazareth.--His Life is Endangered. (Luke, iv., 16-30.)
Section 129. The Parable of the Sower. --Christ's Explanation of the Parable to the smaller Circle of his Disciples.
Section 130. Parable of the various Kinds of Fish in the Net. --Of the Wheat and the Tares.
Section 131. Christ subdues a Storm on the Sea.--Character of the Act as a Miracle.--Its moral Significance.
Section 132. The Gadarene Demoniac. --Christ's Treatment of him after the Cure.--Inferences from it.
Section 133. Christ Returns to the west side of Genesareth.--Healing of the Issue of Blood.
Section 134. Raising of Jairus's Daughter.--And of the Widow's Son at Nain.
Section 135. Doubts of John the Baptist in his Imprisonment. --His Message to Christ, and its Result.--Christ's Testimony concerning Him. --His view of the relation between the Old and New Dispensations.
Section 136. Christ shows the Relation of his Contemporaries to the Baptist and to Himself. --The Easy Yoke and the Light Burden.--Jewish Legalism contrasted with Christian Liberty.
Section 137. Christ's Conversation with the Pharisees in regard to the Mode of Life indulged by his Disciples. --The Morality of Fasting.
Section 138. The Parable of the New Patch on the Old Garment, and of the New Wine in Old Bottles.
Section 139. Forms of Prayer.--The Lord's Prayer; its Occasion and Import. --Encouragements to Prayer; God gives no Stone for Bread.
Section 140. Christ forgives the Magdalen at the House of Simon the Pharisee. --The reciprocal action of Love and Faith in the Forgiveness of Sins.
Section 141. Matthew the Publican called from the Custom-house.--Familial Intercourse of Christ with the Publicans at the Banquet.--The Pharisees blame the Disciples, and Christ justifies them.--"The Sick need the Physician."
Section 142. Christ's different Modes of Reply to those who questioned his Conduct in consorting with Sinners.--The Value of a Soul.--Parable of the Prodigal Son.--Of the Pharisee and the Publican.
CHAPTER VIII. CHRIST'S SECOND JOURNEY TO JERUSALEM.
Section 143. The Miracle at the Pool of Bethesda.--The Words of Christ in the
Section 144. The Pharisees accuse Christ of Sabbath-breaking and Blasphemy.--His Justification. (John, v., 10, 17-19.)
Section 145. The Discourse continued: Christ intimates his future greater Works.--His Judgment, and the Resurrection. (John, v., 20-29.)
Section 146. The Discourse continued: Christ Appeals to the Testimony of his Works. (John, v., 30-37.)
Section 147. The Discourse continued: Incapacity of the Jews to Understand the Testimony of God as given in the Scriptures. (John, v., 37-47.)
CHAPTER IX. SECOND COURSE OF EXTENDED LABOURS IN GALILEE.
UCH was the affiliation of parties throughout Judea, that the
I. The Beatitudes.
Section 150. Moral Result of Entering the Kingdom of God, viz.: The "Pure in Heart see God."
Section 151. Moral Relations of the Members of the Kingdom to their Fellow men: viz., They are "Peace-makers," and "Persecuted."
II. Influence of the Members of the Kingdom of God in Renewing the World.
III. The Law of Christian Life the Fulfilment of the Old Law.
Section 154. "Fufilling of the Law" in the Higher Sense.--General Contrast between the Juridical and Moral stand-points.
Section 155. Fulfilling of the Law in the Higher Sense.--Particular Examples, viz., (1.) Murder; (2.) Adultery; (3.) Divorce; (4.) Perjury; (5.) Revenge; (6.) National Exclusiveness.
IV. True Religion contrasted with the Mock Piety of the Pharisees.
Section 157. Exhortation to Self-denial.--Caution against Seducers. (Matt., vii., 13-24.)
Section 158. Test of Discipleship. (Matt., vii., 24-27.)
Section 159. Healing of the Leper on the Road to Capernaum.
Section 160. Healing of the Heathen Centurion's Slave at Capernaum. --The Deputation of Elders.--Faith of the Centurion.
Section 161. Healing of the Deaf and Dumb Demoniac.--The Charge of a League with Beelzebub: a Visible Sign demanded.--The Charge refuted.
Section 162. The Conjurations of the Jewish Exorcists. (Luke, xi., 23-26.)
Section 163. Blasphemy against the Holy Ghost and against the Son of Man. (Matt., xii., 32.)
Section 164. Purpose of Christ's Relatives to confine him as a Lunatic.--He declares who are his Relatives in the Spiritual Sense
Section 165. The Demand of a Sign from Heaven answered only by the Sign of the Prophet Jonah. (Luke, xi., 16, 29-36.)
Section 166. Discourse pronounced at a Feast against the Hypocrisy of the Pharisees and the Lawyers. (Luke, xi., 37-52.)
Section 167. Christ Warns his Disciples against the Pharisees.--The Power of Divine Truth. (Luke, xi., 52; xii., 3.)
Section 168. Christ Heals a Paralytic at Capernaum, and the Pharisees accuse him of Blasphemy.--The Accusation Repelled. (Matt, ix., 1; Mark, ii., 1; Luke, v. 17.)
Section 169. The Withered Hand healed on the Sabbath.--The Objections of the Pharisees anticipated and refuted. (Mark, iii., 1-6; Luke, vi., 6-8; Matt., xii., 10.)
Section 170. Cure of the Infirm Woman on the Sabbath; the Pharisees disconcerted. (Luke, xiii., 10.)--Of the Dropsical Man. (Luke, xiv.)
Section 171. The Strife for Precedence at Feasts.--The Poor, not the Rich, to be invited.--Parable of the Great Supper. (Luke, xiv.)
Section 172. The Pharisees attack the Disciples for plucking Corn on the Sabbath.--Christ defends them. (Luke, vi., 1; Matt., xii., 18.)
Section 173. Christ's Discourse against the merely outward Cleanliness of the Pharisees.--He explains the Discourse to his Disciples. (Matt., xv., 1.-20.)
Section 174. Trial Mission of the Apostles in Galilee. (Luke, ix.; Matt., x.)
Section 175. Various Opinions entertained of Jesus. (Luke, ix., 7-9.)
Section 176. Return of the Apostles.--Miraculous Feeding of the Five Thousand. (Matt., xiv.; Mark, vi.; Luke, ix.)--Object and Significance of the Miracle.--Its Effect upon the Multitude.
Section 177. Christ Walks upon the Waters. (John, vi., 16; Matt., xiv., 2; Mark, vi., 45.)
Section 178. Christ in the Synagogue at Capernaum. (John, vi.)
CHAPTER X. JESUS IN NORTH GALILEE, AND ON THE WAY TO CESAREA PHILIPPI.