1 Baillie's Letters and Journals, vol. iii. pp.286-288, MSS in Bib. Col. Glas.

2 "A Letter from Head Quarters in Scotland"

"SIR, We came hither on Saturday last, April 19th. The ministers and townsmen generally staid at home, and did not quit their habitations as formerly. These ministers that are here are those that have deserted from the proceedings beyond the water, yet they are equally dissatisfied with us. And though they preach against us in the pulpit to our forces, yet we permit them without disturbance, as willing to gain them by love. My Lord General sent to them to give us a friendly Christian meeting, to discourse of those things, which they rail against us for, that (if possible) all misunderstandings between us may be taken away, which accordingly they gave us on Wednesday last. There was no bitterness nor passion vented on either side, with all moderation and tenderness. My Lord General the Major-Gen. Lambert, for the most part maintained the discourse, and on their part, Mr. James Guthrie, and Mr. Patrick Gelaspy. We know not what satisfaction they have received. Sure I am, there was no such weight in their arguments, that might in the least discourage us from what we have undertaken, the chiefest thing on which they insisted being our invasion into Scotland" -- Sev. Proc. in Parl. May 1, to 8 Cromwelliana, p.102. See also Durham's Comment on Revel. Life of the Author, p. xi.

3 Nicoll's Diary, pp.68, 94.

4 Along with Dr. John Owen, Joseph Caryl, John Oxenbridge, and Cuthbert Sydenham officiated as chaplains in the army of Cromwell in Scotland. Orme's Memoirs of Dr. Owen, p.128. Neal's History of the Puritans, vol. iv. p.490, Lond.1822.

5 Memoirs of Dr. Owen, p.127.

6 See note, p.512.

7 Annals of Scotland, vol. iv. p.208.

8 Baillie's Letters, vol. iii. p.200. MSS in Bib. Col. Glas.

9 Memorials of English Affairs from the beginning of the Reign of Charles I. to the Restoration, pp.444-446, Lond.1682.

10 Hist. of Eng. vol. vi. pp.180, Lond.1825.

11 Memoirs of Dr. Owen, p.126.

12 Thurlow's State Papers, vol. i. p.189.

13 Thurlow's State Papers, vol. i. pp.139, 160.

14 Orme's Life and Times of Richard Baxter, vol. i. pp.140, 141.

15 P.520.

16 "At Cathcart Kirk, 19th Oct., 1652

"Mr. Robert Baylie renewed his protestation given in be him the last daye, against Mr. Hew Binnen moderating of the Presbyterie, in his own name and in the name of so many as would adhere to that protestation; and that upon the additional reason that Mr. Hew Binnen of his own accord, had gone in to hear an Englishman preach in his own kirk in the parish of Govan, who attended Colonel Overtoun's regiment, and that the said Mr. Hew, be his example and counsel, had moved the people to do the like, and did maintain the lawfulness of this his action, in the face of the presbyterie as if the abstaining from this should have been a needless separatione upon his part, and the part of his people, though that having found that some took offence at it, he did no more countenance that man's preaching" -- (Records of Presbytery of Glasgow). At the previous meeting Bailie had protested against Mr. Binning's appointment to the moderator's chair because he maintained, another member of the presbytery had a greater number of uncontraverted votes. -- Id.

17 An Apology for the Clergy of Scotland, p.45, London, 1692.

18 Orme's Mem. of Dr. Owen, p.488.

19 Christian Instructor, vol. xxi. p.547; Biog. Presb., vol. i. p.131; Lorimer's Eldership, p.155.

20 Neal's History of the Puritans, vol. iii. p.120.

21 Id. p.318. Mr. Herle, who came to Scotland with the Earl of Nottingham and the Earl of Stanford preached in the High church of Edinburgh on Sunday the 27th of February, 1648. Mr. Stephen Marshall not long after, at the request of Mr. George Gillespie one of the ministers of Edinburgh, preached in the same church, "he," says Bishop Guthry "who being here four years ago professed to be a presbyterian, but since turned independent." -- (Memoirs of Bishop Guthry, &c., pp.256-258, second edition). Fuller however says of Mr. Marshall that he died a presbyterian. -- (Fuller's Worthies, book 2, p.53; apud. Neal's Hist. vol. iv. p.134). And Baillie represents him to have been the best preacher in England. -- (Letters and Journal, vol. i. p.440.

22 Pp.360, 362.

23 Miscellanea Scotica, vol. ii. p.32.

24 See p.497 note.

25 This was followed by a written controversy between the parties (Wodrow MSS. vol. ix. in 13th Ad.). The same person disputed publicly in the church of Cupar on two successive days, in 1652, with Mr. James Wood, professor of theology at St. Andrews. -- Lamont's Diary, p.48.

26 Wodrow's Hist. of the Suf. of Ch. of Scot. vol. i. p.165. Glas.1829.

27 See note, p.512.

28 Balfour's Annals vol. iv. pp. 141-160. Brown's Hist. of Glas. vol. i. p.109. Peterkin's Rec. of Kirk of Scot. p.672.

29 P.489.

30 Small quarto, pp.51.

31 Shields Faithful Contendings pp.485-488. Faithful Witness Bearing Exemplified, preface, p. iv.

32 Faithful Contendings, p.66.

33 Memoirs of the First Years of James Nisbet, one of the Scottish Covenanters, written by himself, Append. p.287. Edin.1827.

34 Pp.54-58.

35 P.486. See also Life of the Author, p. xliii. note.

36 Verse 1193.

37 Mr. Alexander Peterkin, the annotator of the Records of the Kirk of Scotland, before presenting his readers with a long extract from the "Whigs Supplication," (ver 94-113) describing an armed body of Covenanters, gravely declares, it was "taken from a MS copy of a doggrel poem (by Cleland it is thought), which the editor presented some years ago to the Library of the Antiquarian Society of Edinburgh." See Rec. of Kirk of Scot. p.533.

38 Baillie's Letters, vol. ii. p.360.

39 Rec. of Kirk of Scot. pp.627-633.

40 Records of Presbyters of Glascow.

41 P. xvii.

42 Pp xxv, xxvi.

43 "The sermons preached at conventicles, which are ordinarily circulated, are a very unsafe rule by which to judge of the talents of the preachers, and the quality of the discourses which they actually delivered. We have never been able to ascertain that one of these was published during the lifetime of the author, or from notes written by himself. They were printed from notes taken by the hearers, and we may easily conceive how imperfect and inaccurate these must often have been. We have now before us two sermons by Mr. Welsh, printed at different times; and upon reading them, no person could suppose that they were preached by the same individual.{HORIZONTAL ELLIPSIS} We have no doubt that the memory of Mr. Peden has been injured in the same way. The collection of prophecies that goes under his name is not authentic; and we have before us some of his letters, which place his talents in a very different light from the idea given of them in what are called his sermons and his life." (Review of Sir Walter Scott's Tales of my Landlord written by Dr. McCrie, Christian Instructor, vol. xiv. pp.127, 128) -- We are cautioned not to judge of the talents of Samuel Rutherford as a preacher "from the sermons printed after his death, and of which it is probable he never composed a single sentence." (Murray's Life of Rutherford pp.221-223) -- And says Patrick Walker, the simple compiler of the "Life and Death of Mr. Daniel Cargill," "I have seen some of Mr. Cargill's sermons in writ, but I never saw none as he spake them; and I have been much pressed to publish them, and other old sermons, which I dare not do, upon several considerations; knowing that sermons would have past then, and very edifying, which will not pass now, in this critic and censorious age, without reflections; not knowing how they were taken from their mouth, nor what hands they have come through since." Biographia Presbyteriana, vol. ii. p.53.

44 The presbyterian clergy in Scotland were much offended when this silly yet mischievous book made its appearance, as they justly looked upon it as calculated not only to blacken their reputations, but to inflict a serious injury upon religion. (See "A Just and Modest Reproof of a pamphlet called The Scotch Presbyterian Eloquence," pp.36, 38. Edin.1693.) -- No one is more perseveringly held up to ridicule in it than the Rev. James Kirkton, whose character as a man of talents, and possessing a sound judgment, has been since sufficiently vindicated by the publication of his "Secret and True History of the Church of Scotland." Kirkton takes notice of the Scotch Presbyterian Eloquence, and informs us that its reputed authors were "Mr. Gilbert Crockat and Mr. John Munroe," adding "Truly one would think, a thinking man who reads this piece may wonder first, what conscience governs these men, who publish, to abuse the world, such stories, which they themselves know to be lies, as well as they whom they believe. Next, what wisdom is among them, who knew well enough there are thousands of honest people to refute their calumnies!" (p.194) -- Provoked by an insulting reference to the book under review, an able controversial writer of that period says "Thou hast, by the bye, mentioned the Presbyterian Eloquence. Every body knows that book to be a forgery out of the curates shop. But to give the world a true test both of the Presbyterian and the Episcopal eloquence, let us appeal to the printed sermons on both sides. Do thou take the printed sermons of the Presbyterians, and pick out of them all the ridiculous things thou ever canst. And if I don't make a larger collection of more impious and ridiculous things out of the printed sermons of the Episcopalians, citing book and page for them, I shall lose the cause." (Curate Calder Whipt, p.11.) -- In such a contest as is here proposed, religion must suffer, and truth be sacrificed. Lord Woodhouselee therefore, does not hesitate to pronounce both the Presbyterian Eloquence Displayed, and the Answer to it, to be "equally infamous and disgraceful libels." Life of Lord Kames, vol. i. Append., p.10.

45 Granger's Biog. Hist. of Eng. vol. i. part ii. p.416. London 1769.

46 Burnet's Hist. of his own Times vol. i. p.280. Oxford 1833.

47 Life of Professor Wodrow, p.61.

48 Analecta, at present printing by Maitland Club, vol. i. pp.277, 300. Biog. Presby. vol. i. pp.236, 237.

49 Burnets Hist. of his Own Times vol. i. p.279.

50 Watts Works vol. v.350.

51 P.213.

52 Journals and Letters vol. ii. p.385.

53 Analecta, vol. iv. p.171, vol. v. p.342 MSS in Bib. Ad.

54 "Their ministers generally brought then about them on the Sunday nights where the sermons were talked over, and every one women as well as men, were desired to speak their sense and their experience, and by these means they had a comprehension of matters of religion, greater than I have seen among people of that sort anywhere. The preachers went all in one track, of raising observations on points of doctrine out of their text, and proving these by reasons, and then of applying those, and shewing the use that was to be made of such a point of doctrine, both for instruction and terror, for exhortation and comfort, for trial of themselves upon it, and for furnishing them with proper directions and helps, and this was so methodical that the people grew to follow a sermon quite through every branch of it." Barnet's History of his own Times vol. i. p.2.

55 P.600.

56 P.356.

57 P.131. See also p.576.

58 Gillespie's Miscellany questions. p.247. Edin.1649.

59 P.135.

60 P.133.

61 Hist. of his Own Times, vol. i. p.348.

62 Mede's Works, General Preface.

63 Heber's Life of Bishop Taylor, p.171.

64 Pecock's Works, vol. i., Life of the Author, p.22.

65 Manton's Sermons, Life of the Author, p. v.

66 OEuvres De Massillon, tome vi. p.4; Essai Sur L'Eloquence de la Chaire, par le Cardinal Maury, tome ii. p.231.

67 Address to the Christian Reader.

68 Memorial for the Bible Societies in Scotland, p.91. See also pp.30, 90, 112.

69 P.5.

70 Pp.42, 48.

71 P.55.

72 P.303.

73 P.80.

74 P.279.

75 P.90.

76 Pp. 301-303.

77 P.74.

78 P.36.

79 P.46.

80 P.165.

81 P.216.

82 P.76.

83 P.248.

84 P.657.

85 P.619.

86 P.217.

87 [Mr. Robert Macward went to England as the secretary, or amanuensis, of the famous Samuel Rutherford, when the latter was appointed one of the commissioners to the Westminster Assembly (Murray's Life of Rutherford, p.233). When mentioning Macward's institution, as Professor of Humanity in the old college of St. Andrews, in April, 1650, Lamond says of him, that he was previously "servant to Mr. Sam Rutherford, m. of St. Andrews" (Diary, p.16, Edin.1830). Sir John Chiesley was, in the same sense, and at the same period, the servant of the celebrated Alexander Henderson, another of the commissioners (Kirkton's Hist. of the Ch. of Scot., note, p.71). It is justly remarked by Dr. M'Crie, when speaking of Richard Bannatyne, who was also called the servant of Knox, "that the word servant, or servitor, was then used with greater latitude than it is now, and, in old writings, often signifies the person whom we call by the more honourable name of clerk, secretary, or man-of-business" (Life of Knox, p.349. Sixth edition). Mr. Macward succeeded Mr. Andrew Gray as one of the ministers of Glasgow, in the year 1656, chiefly through the influence of Principal Gillespie (Baillie's Letters, vol. ii. pp.406, 407. Cleland's Annals of Glasgow, vol. i. p.128). A sentence of banishment was unjustly passed upon him for a sermon on Amos iii.2, which he preached in the Tron Church, Glasgow, after the Restoration. As to what he said in that sermon regarding the conduct of the parliament, Baillie declares, that "all honest men did concur with him," though he disapproves, at the same time, of Macward's "high language," and blames him, because "he obstinately stood to all," and thereby provoked his persecutors (Letters, pp.453, 454). But it appears, from Wodrow (Hist. of the Sufferings of the Ch. of Scot., vol. i. p.213, Glasg.1829), that when Mr. Macward understood that what had given offence was the use he had made, in his sermon, of the words "protest" and "dissent," he did not hesitate to explain he did not mean thereby a legal impugning of the acts, or authority of parliament, but "a mere ministerial testimony" against what he conceived to be sin. Macward retired to Holland.

After repeated applications from Charles the Second, the States General, on the 6th of February, 1677, ordered Mr. Macward, and other two Scottish exiles, to withdraw from the Seven Provinces of the Netherlands (Dr. M'Crie's Mem. of Veitch and Brysson, p.367). That the States came to this determination with very great reluctance, will appear from the following passage in one of Sir William Temple's Letters: "I will only say that the business of the three Scotch ministers hath been the hardest piece of negotiation that I ever yet entered upon here, both from the particular interest of the towns and provinces of Holland, and the general esteem they have of Mackand [Macward] being a very quiet and pious man" (Vol. i. p.291). It is creditable to the good feeling, though not certainly to the firmness of the States General that at the time they determined to require Macward and his two friends to leave the Seven Provinces, they voluntarily furnished them with a certificate bearing that each of them had lived among them "highly esteemed for his probity, submission to the laws, and integrity of manners" (Dr. M'Crie's Mem. of Veitch and Brysson, p.368). He was afterwards permitted to return to Rotterdam, where he had been officiating as minister of the Scottish Church at the time he was ordered to remove out of the country. He died there in the month of December, 1681. Dr. Steven's "History of the Scottish Church, at Rotterdam", p.336. -- Ed.]

88 [In his very interesting "History of the Scottish Church, Rotterdam," Dr. Steven mentions (p.72) that Mr. James Koelman was deprived of his charge at Sluys in Flanders, for refusing to observe the festival days and to comply with the formularies of the Dutch church. He appears to have been a very conscientious and pious man. Among the Wodrow MSS in the Library of the Faculty of Advocates Edinburgh (Vol. ix., Numb.28) there is a copy of "A Resolution of the States of Zeeland anent the suspension of Thomas Pots and Bernardus Van Deinse, ministers of Vlissing, because of their suffering or causing Jacobus Coelman to preach, together with the Placinet (or proclamation) whereby the said Coelman is for ever banished out of the province of Zealand, Sept.21, 1684." Extract out of the Registers of the Noble and Mighty Lords, the States of Zeeland, Sept 21, 1684. It is set forth in this paper, that though Koelman had been suspended from his office by the States of the Land and Earldom of Zealand, in consequence of their "Resolution and penal discharge of the 21st of September, 1674, made by reason of his perverse opinions, and disobedience to his lawful high superiors," he had notwithstanding "adventured and undertaken to go about private exercises within this province and also to preach twice publickly within the city Vliesing [Flushing] on Sabbath the 3d of this instant moneth, September, and so hath rendered himself guilty of the punishment contained in our forementioned Resolution, and penal discharge, bearing that he should be banished the province, so be he happened to hold any publick or private exercises there."

Mr. Koelman, Mr. Macward and Mr. Brown of Wamphray, were the three clergymen who officiated at the ordination of Mr. Richard Cameron in the Scottish Church, Rotterdam, previous to his coming to Scotland in the beginning of the year 1680 (Biographia Presbyteriana, Vol. i., p.197). It was Richard Cameron, when in the language of one of his friends, he was carrying Christ's standard over the mountains of Scotland, who repeated three times that simple and pathetic prayer, before he was killed at Airs-moss, Lord, spare the green, and take the ripe (Id. p.203) From a letter written from Holland, 7th December, 1685, by Mr. Robert Hamilton of Preston, it may be seen how much Mr. Koelman interested himself in the affairs of the Scottish refugees (Faithful Contendings Displayed, pp.203-205, 214, 215). There is prefixed to a Dutch translation of Binning's Common Principles of the Christian Religion, which was executed and published by Koelman at Amsterdam in 1678, a Memoir of the author. Koelman acknowledges he had derived all his information respecting Binning from a letter which he had received from Mr. Macward, through a mutual friend. This letter, or a copy of it, with some other of Macward's MSS., was in the possession of the publisher of the duodecimo volume of the sermons of the author, printed at Glasgow, 1760 (Preface, pp. iv, xxv). Koelman concludes his Memoir of Binning, which contains some excellent pious reflections, but almost no facts with which the English reader is not already acquainted, with a feeling allusion to his ejection from his charge at "Sluys in Vlaanderen." After this painful separation from his flock, besides writing many useful original works, he seems to have employed his leisure in translating into his native language some of the most esteemed practical writings of foreign divines, such as Guthrie's Great Concern, Rutherford's Letters, &c. Dr. Steven's Hist. ut supra. -- Ed.]

89 [Adverting to a sermon, which was preached by Mr. Matthew M'Kell, at a field meeting in the year 1669, Wodrow says, that he was "a true Nathanael, and a very plain dealer" (Hist. of the Suf. of Ch. of Scot., vol. ii. p.127). After having been, on different occasions brought before the Privy council, and imprisoned, he was, on the 8th of January, 1674, upon his refusing to engage not to preach, ordered to confine himself to the parish of Carluke, and security was required from him that he would appear before the Council at their summons (Id. vol. i. pp.371, 372, vol. ii. p.248. See also History of Indulgence, p.36). He died at Edinburgh, in March 1681 (Laws Memorialis, p.183).

Wodrow does not speak with much confidence, as to the degree of propinquity which existed betwixt Mr. Matthew M'Kail minister of Bothwell and Mr. Hugh M'Kail, the young licentiate who was executed at Edinburgh, 22d Dec, 1666, for being concerned in the insurrection at Pentland. But Colonel Wallace, who commanded the insurgents on that unfortunate occasion, styles "Mr. Hugh M'Kell son of Mr. Matthew M'Kell minister of Bothwell" (Wallace's Narrative of the Rising at Pentland, in Dr M'Crie's Memoirs of Veitch and Brysson, p.430). The unhappy father was allowed to see his son in prison, after his sentence. There is an affecting account in Naphtali (pp.339, 345) of this mournful interview, and of another which took place on the morning of the execution. The address of young M'Kail on the scaffold concluded with these sublime expressions -- "Farewell, father and mother, friends and relations. Farewell the world, and all delights. Farewell meat and drink. Farewell sun, moon and stars. Welcome God and Father! Welcome sweet Lord Jesus the Mediator of the new covenant! Welcome blessed Spirit of grace, and God of all consolation! Welcome glory! Welcome eternal life! Welcome death!" (Id. p.348 Edin.1761). We are told by Kirkton that "when Mr. M'Kail died, there was such a lamentation as was never known in Scotland before, not one dry cheek upon all the street or in all the numberless windows in the market place" (Hist. of Ch. of Scot. p.249). It was discovered afterwards, that Burnet, archbishop of Glasgow, had in his possession at the time, a letter from the king, forbidding any more blood to be shed. But to the disgrace of his sacred profession, and of his feelings as a man, "Burnet let the execution go on, before he produced his letter, pretending there was no council day between" -- Burnet's Hist. of his own Times, vol. ii. p.435 Oxford, 1833. -- Ed.]

90 [All accounts agree in stating that Mr. Hugh M'Kail, minister in Edinburgh, was uncle to the preacher of the same name who was executed. The minister of Bothwell, therefore, instead of being the father, must have been the brother of the minister in Edinburgh. In the years 1636, and 1637, when Mr. Samuel Rutherford was in Aberdeen, according to his own description of himself, "a poor Joseph, and prisoner," with whom his "mother's children were angry," he wrote several letters to Mr. Hugh M'Kail, in answer to others which he received from him (Rutherford's Letters, pp.41, 247, 272, 292 Sixth edition Edin., 1738). The name of Mr. Hugh M'Kail is included in the list of ministers who, on the 19th of August 1643, were by the General Assembly appointed Commissioners for the Visitation of the University of Glasgow (Evidence of Royal Commissioners for Visiting the Universities of Scotland, vol. ii. p.261, London, 1837). Mr. Hugh M'Kail, minister at Irvine, was likewise one of the ministers commissioned by the Assembly, in 1644, to visit the church in Ulster (Dr. Reid's History of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland, vol. ii. p.57). As a further proof of the estimation in which he was held by his brethren, when it was proposed by the Assembly, in 1648, to recommend to the general session of Edinburgh six ministers, that they might choose four from these to fill their vacant churches, Mr. Hugh M'Kail was selected to be one of the number (Baillie's Letters, vol. ii. p.303). He was a Resolutioner (Id. p.387). He died in 1660 (Lamont's Diary, p.121) The editor of Kirkton's History of the Church of Scotland for the purpose of bringing ridicule upon the presbyterian clergy of that day, quotes a passage from the MS. sermons of Mr. Hugh M'Kail. We are much mistaken, however, if on reading that passage and after making some allowance for an antiquated style, and a certain degree of quaintness, one of the characteristics of the age, -- the impression produced upon the mind of any candid person, who admires strong good sense, though presented in a homely dress, is not in a very high degree favourable to the character and talents of the author (See Kirkton's History, pp.227, 228). In the preface to Stevenson's History of the Church and State of Scotland, reference is made to a manuscript, having this title, "A true relation of the Prelates their practice for introducing the Service book, &c, upon the Church of Scotland, and the Subjects, their lawful proceedings in opposing the same." This manuscript, Mr. Stevenson observes, was believed to have belonged to "one of the Mr. Mackails, once famous ministers in this church". Some information respecting it will be found in the Appendix (pp.191, 192) to Lord Rothess' Relation of Proceedings concerning the Affairs of the Kirk of Scotland, printed in Edinburgh, 1830. for the Bannatyne Club. -- Ed.]

91 [It appears from the dedication prefixed to the "Theses Theologicae, Metaphysicae, Mathematicae et Ethicae, Preside Jacobo Darimplio, Glasg. Excudebat Georgius Andersonus, An. Dom.1646," that "Hugo Binningus" graduated "ad diem 27 Julii, Anno Domini 1646." Under the ancient Statutes of the University, no student was entitled to receive the degree of master, till he had reached his twentieth year. But this rule was not always strictly adhered to (Report of the Royal Commission of Inquiry into the state of the Universities of Scotland, appointed in 1830, p.220). Binning was not nineteen years of age at the date of his laureation. His distinguished contemporary, Mr. George Gillespie, took his degree in his seventeenth year. -- Ed.]

92 [General Monk, who, for the part he took in the restoration of Charles the Second, was made Duke of Albemarle, encouraged most during the time he was in Scotland the Resolutioners, while Cromwell, on the other hand, befriended the Protesters (Life of General Monk, by Dr. Gumble, one of his chaplains, who was with Monk in Scotland, p.51, London, 1671). Monk professed to be a Presbyterian ("The Mystery and Method of His Majesty's Happy Restoration," by John Price, D.D., one of the late Duke of Albemarle's chaplains. Baron Masseres, Tracts, pp.723, 775). "In Scotland Mr. Robert Douglas [one of the ministers of Edinburgh] was the first so far as I can find, who ventured to propose the king's restoration to General Monk, and that very early. He travelled, it is said, incognito in England, and in Scotland engaged considerable numbers of noblemen and gentlemen in this project. From his own original papers, I find that when Monk returned from his first projected march into England, Mr. Douglas met him and engaged him again in the attempt" -- Wodrow's Hist. of the Ch. of Scot., vol. i. p.59. -- Ed.]

93 [Physiologia Nova Experimentalis, Lugd. Bat.1686. -- Ed.]

94 [The Appointment of Mr. James Dalrymple, as one of the Regents of the University of Glasgow, took place by "Id Martu 1641" (Annales Collegae). He was then only twenty two years of age. In the year 1635, a clause was introduced into the oath, which the Regents were required to take at their election, binding them to resign their situation in the event of their marriage. Accordingly, having married in 1643, Mr. Dalrymple vacated his charge, but was immediately afterwards re-elected. Sir Walter Scott has said of James Dalrymple, that he was "one of the most eminent lawyers that ever lived, though the labours of his powerful mind were unhappily exercised on a subject so limited as Scottish Jurisprudence, on which he has composed an admirable work." It has been properly observed, that during the whole of the seventeenth century, not only at Glasgow, but in the other universities of Scotland, "the Regents, or Teachers of Philosophy (with very few exceptions), were young men who had recently finished their academical studies, and who were destined for the church. The course of study which it was their duty to conduct, was calculated to form habits of severe application in early life, and to give them great facility both in writing and in speaking. The universities had the advantage of their services during the vigour of life, when they were unencumbered by domestic cares, and when they felt how much their reputation and interest depended on the exertions which they made. After serving a few years (seldom more than eight, or less than four), they generally obtained appointments in the church, and thus transferred to another field the intellectual industry and aptitude for communicating knowledge, by which they had distinguished themselves in the university. It may well be conceived that, by stimulating and exemplifying diligence, their influence on their brethren in the ministry was not less considerable than on the parishioners, who more directly enjoyed the benefit of attainments and experience more mature, than can be expected from such as have never had access to similar means of improvement." Rep. of Roy. Com. ut. supra, p.221. -- Ed.]

95 [About the same period Mr. Alexander Jamieson, who was afterwards minister of Govan, obtained the appointment of Regent in the University of St. Andrews, after engaging in a public disputation. The description of what took place on that occasion given by Mr. John Lamont of Newton, is not devoid of interest as a picture of the times -- 1649 Apr.10, 11 -- "Ther were three younge men that did disputte for the vacant regents place in St. Leonard's Colledge, Mr. David Nauee, (formerlie possessing the same, bot now deposed, as is spoken before), viz., Mr. Alex Jamesone, ane Edenbroughe man, having for his subject, Syllogismus, Mr. William Diledaffe, a Cuper man, his subject, Liberum Arbitrium, and Mr. James Weymes, a St. Androus man, he having De Anima for his subject. All the tyme they had ther speeches, ther heads werre couered, bot when they came to the disputte, they were vncouered. Ther werre three of the five ministers forsaide present at the disputs, viz., Mr. Alexander Moncriefe, Mr. Walt. Greige, and Mr. Ja. Sharpe [afterwards archbishop of St. Andrews], wha had decisive voices in the electione of a Regent (thir werre the first ministers that ever had voice in the electione of a measter to ane of the colledges there, the custome formerlie, and of olde, was, that every colledge had libertie to chose thir owne measters) For Mr. Ja. Weymes he was the warst of the three, for in the disputs, he bracke Priscian's head verry often, for Mr. Alex. James and Mr. Wil. Diled they werre judged pares by the wholle meitting, so that after longe debeatte, they werre forcet to cast lotts, and the lott fell upon Mr. Alex Jamesone wha did succeide to the forsaide vacant regents place. Mr. Wil. Diled got a promise (bot with difficultie) of the next vacant place. Mr. Ro. Noue, professor of Humanitie in the said colledge, had no voice in the forsaide electione because, he was not present at all the meittings of the disputs." -- (Lamont's Diary, p.4, Edin.1830)

The last instance of a public competition for a chair in the University of Glasgow, occurred towards the close of the seventeenth century soon after the Revolution. It is remarkable enough that in this case also, the result was ultimately determined by lot. "A programme was immediately published, and on the day appointed no less than nine candidates appeared to enter the lists in a comparative trial. All of them acquitted themselves so well during the whole course of a long trial that the electors were at a loss whom to choose. Setting aside some of the nine who were thought less deserving, they could not find a ground of preference among the rest. It was therefore resolved, after prayer to God, to commit the choice to lot. The lot fell upon Mr. John Law, and a present of five pounds stirling was given to each of the other candidates. One of the competitors was Mr. William Jamieson, a blind man known to the learned world by his writings. He was after some years chosen to give public lectures in the college upon Ecclesiastical History for which he had a pension from the Crown till his death." -- MS. History of the University of Glasgow, written by Dr. Thomas Reid, formerly Professor of Moral Philosophy. -- Ed.]

96 [The day of his election was "iiij Cal. Nov 1646 (Annal. Colleg.)" The Nova Erectio or foundation charter, granted to the University of Glasgow 13th July, 1577, in the minority of James VI, made provision for the appointment of three Regents, or Professors, along with the Principal. The first Regent was required to teach Rhetoric and Greek, the second Logic, Ethics, and the principles of Arithmetic and Geometry, and the third, who was also sub principal, Physiology, Geography, Astrology, and Chronology (See Copy of the Nova Erectio in Evidence for University Commissioners for Scotland vol.8. p.241 London, 1837). In the year 1581, the Archbishop of Glasgow gifted to the University the customs of the city, which enabled them to establish the office of a fourth Regent, to whom was allotted exclusively the teaching of Greek, and, sometime previous to the year 1637, a fifth Regent was chosen, who was Professor of Humanity, "humanitarum literarum" (Old Stat. Acc. of Scot., vol xxi. Append. pp 24, 25). This professorship however, was not permanently established till the year 1706 (Rep. of Roy. Com. appointed in 1830, p.241). By the foundation-charter the Regents were restricted to particular professions, or departments of academical instruction, that they might be found better qualified for the discharge of their different functions (ut adolescentes qui gradatim ascendunt, dignium suis studus et ingenuus praeceptorem repettre queant). But this practice, as will be seen from the following minute of a University Commission, was changed in the year 1642. "The Visitat on after tryall, taking to consideration that everie Regent within the Colledge has beine accustomed hithertills to continue for more years togithere, in and on the same professione so that the schollers of one and the self-same class are necessitat yearlye to change theire masters, have found it more profitable and expedient, that the present course of teaching the schollers be altered, and that everie master educate his own schollers through all the foure classes, quhalk is appointed to begin presentlie thus that the classes, which are taken up with the masters the zeir they go on with them, so that Mr. David Munro having the Magistrand [or oldest] classe now, he take the Bejane classe [or the youngest students, the Bejani, derived from the French word bejaune, a novice] the next zeir." (Sessio 2da, September 17. Evid. for Univ. Com. ut supra p.260). This new mode of instruction continued to be followed till the year 1727, when the old system enjoined in the foundation charter was revived (Rep. of Roy. Com. ut supra p.223). It is said that Dr. Thomas Rand, the celebrated philosopher, was an advocate of the system of ambulatory professors, which was adhered to in Kings College, Aberdeen down to the beginning of the present century (Old Stat Acc. of Scot., vol. xxi. Append., p.83). The first class that Binning taught was the class of the Bejani (Wodrow's Analecta, vol. i, p.338. MSS in Bib. Ad.). He and the other Regents were all styled "Professors of Philosophy." Appendix to Spottiswood's Hist. of Ch. of Scot., p.22, London, 1777. -- Ed.]

97 [It was the custom of the Regents to dictate, to the students their observations on such parts of the writings of Aristotle, Porphyry, and others, as were read in their classes. This was done in Latin which was the only language allowed to be used by the students even in their common conversation. At a meeting of commissioners from the different universities of Scotland, which was held at Edinburgh on the 24th of July, 1648, one of the resolutions agreed upon, was to this effect -- "Because the diting [dictating] of long notes has in time past proved a hindrance, not only to necessary studies, but also to a knowledge of the text itself, and to the examination of such things as are taught, it is therefore seriously recommended by the commissioners to the dean and faculty of arts that the regents spend not so much time in diting of their notes, that no new lesson be taught till the former be examined." (Bower's History of the University of Edinburgh, vol. i. p.244). Binning, it is said, "dictated all his notes off hand" (Wodrow's Analecta, vol. i. p.338. MS in Bib. Ad.) Had he lived it was thought "he had been one of the greatest schoolmen of his time." -- Id. vol. v. p.342. -- Ed.]

98 [Long after the publication of the Novum Organum of Lord Bacon and even after the successful application of his principles by Sir Isaac Newton and Locke, the logic and metaphysics of Aristotle continued to occupy the chief place, in the course of instruction, in the most celebrated universities of Europe. The first great reform, in the mode of teaching philosophy, introduced into the college of Glasgow, was effected through a royal visitation, which took place in 1727. "The improvements in this university," says Professor Jardine, arising from the regulations introduced by the royal visitation, were greatly promoted by the appointment, which took place shortly afterwards of more than one professor of singular zeal and ability. The first of these was Dr. Francis Hutcheson. This celebrated philosopher, whose mind was stored with the rarest gifts of learning, illustrated, with a copious and splendid eloquence, the amiable system of morality which is still associated with his name, producing thus the happiest effects not only on his own students but also on his colleagues, and infusing at once a more liberal spirit, and a greater degree of industry, into all the departments of teaching. Great obstacles, however, still remained. The professor of the first philosophy class according to the practice of the times continued to deliver his lectures in the Latin language, a method of instruction which, although it must long have proved a great impediment to the ready communication of knowledge on the part of the teacher, and to the reception of it on the part of the pupil, was not discontinued in this college, till upon the following occasion.

In the year 1750 Adam Smith was appointed professor of logic and, being rather unexpectedly called to discharge the duties of his office he found it necessary to read to his pupils in the English language, a course of lectures on rhetoric and belles lettres, which he had formerly delivered in Edinburgh. It was only during one session however, that he gave these lectures, for at the end of it, he was elected professor of moral philosophy and it was on the occasion of this vacancy in the logic chair that Edmund Burke whose genius led him afterwards to shine in a more exalted sphere was thought of, by some of the electors, as a proper person to fill it. He did not, however, actually come forwurd as a candidate, and the gentleman who was appointed to succeed Dr. Smith, without introducing any change as to the subjects formerly taught in the logic class, followed the example of his illustrious predecessor in giving his prelections in English. -- Outlines of Philosophical Education Illustrated by the Method of Teaching the Logic class in the University of Glasgow, pp.20-21, Glasgow 182. -- Ed.]

99 [The office of principal of the University of Glasgow was disjoined from the cure of the parish of Govan, in 1621, and the immediate predecessor of Binning was Mr. William Wilkie, who was deposed by the synod on the 29th of April, 1649. "Mr. William Wilkie, I thought," says Principal Baillie "was unjustly put out of Govan, albeit his very evil carriage since, has declared more of his sins." (MS Letters, vol. iii., p.849, in Bib. Col. Glas.)

There are certain extracts from the letters of Mr. William Wilkie to Dr. Balcanqubal, dean of Rochester, published in Lord Hailes's Memorials and Letters (vol. ii pp.47, 48). The learned judge, however, has mistaken the name Wilkie for Willie. Not knowing, therefore, who the writer of the letter was, he says, in a note, "This Willie appears to have been a sort of ecclesiastical spy employed by Balcanqubal the great confident of Charles I. in every thing relating to Scotland" (Ibid.). In his preface, Lord Hailes acknowledges that the letters he has published were "chiefly transcribed from the manuscripts, amassed with indefatigable industry by the late Mr. Robert Wodrow." But Wodrow himself states, in his Life of Dr. Strang (Wodrow MSS, vol. xiii, pp.4, 5, in Bib. Coll. Glasg.), that he was possessed of six original letters, which had been written by Mr. William Wilkie, minister of Govan, during the sitting of the famous Glasgow Assembly in 1638, and addressed to Dr. Balcanqubal, who had come down to Scotland with the Marquis of Hamilton, the Lord Commissioner, and was then residing in Hamilton palace. He also informs us that these and some other letters were discovered "after Naseby encounter, or some other, where Dr. Balcanqubal happened to be, in a trunk found among the baggage, which fell into the hands of the parliament's army." Wilkie's letters contained an account of the proceedings of the Assembly, Wodrow says, not very favourable to the majority there. And he then adds it was "from these and such other informations upon the one side, Doctor Balcanqubal drew up The Large Declaration, under the Kings name, in 1642." At the time of the Glasgow Assembly, Mr. William Wilkie was one of the regents of the university.

Since this was written, Wilkie's letters have been printed, without abridgment in the Appendix to vol. of a new edition of Ballie's Letters, published at Edinburgh by the Bannatyne club.

"The originals of all these letters are contained in folio vol. xxv. of the Wodrow manuscripts, which is now preserved among the Archives of the Church of Scotland." -- Id. p.481. -- Ed.]

100 [The estate of Trochrigg which is one of the largest in the parish of Girvan, in the county of Ayr, is now the property of John Hutchieson Fergusson Esq. It was sold by the descendants of the ancient proprietors about the year 1782. It was to his paternal residence at Brodrigg that Principal Boyd retired with his family in 1621, when he resigned his office as Principal of the University of Glasgow, and it was in this retreat he wrote the Latin poem entitled, Ad Christum Servatorem Hecatombe. This beautiful poem has been justly described to be, cannon totius fere Christianae Religionis, seu evangeli ae doctrinae medullam, vel compendium verius, cultissians dul tissimisque versibus, ex intimoque Latio petitis, stropbarum Sopphicarum centuria lectori ob oculos proponens, "a song embracing almost the whole of the Christian religion, or placing before the eyes of the reader in a hundred Sapphic stanzas, the marrow, or rather a compend of evangelical doctrine, in the most polished and mellifluent verses and in language taken from that of the Augustan age." (Poet. Scot. Musa. Sacrae, p.198, praefaetio, vol. vi., Edin., 1739. Life of Boyd, Wodrow MSS., vol. xv. p.123 in Bib. Coll. Glas.).

The commentary on the Epistle to the Ephesians (Roberts Bodn, A frocheregia Scoti, In Epistolam ad Ephesios Praelectiones, fol. pp.1236. London, 1652) contains the substance of the Lectures, which Boyd delivered, when he was a professor of theology in the University of Saumur. This is attested by his cousin Mr. Zachary Boyd, who was one of the Regents at Saumur, and attended the delivery of them (harum prelectionum assidutis tuit auditor). Some time after the death of the learned and pious author, a copy of the Praelectiones was transmitted to Holland to his friend Andreas Rivetus, that he might superintend the printing of it. As Chouet, a well known Genevese printer, happened to be in Holland at the time, Rivetus parted with the manuscripts to him, that they might be put to press immediately on his return to Switzerland. But, unfortunately, the vessel in which the manuscripts were shipped was taken by another vessel from Dunkirk, and having thus fallen into the hands of some Jesuits they never could be recovered. Rivetus consoled himself with the reflection that the original manuscripts, in the author's own hand writing, were safe in Scotland in the keeping of the family. The church and the nation, however, being at this period in such a distracted state, the work was not given to the world till the year 1652, when it was published by the London Stationers Company, (Andrea Riveti Epistoli de vita, scriptis, moribus, et feliei exitu Roberti Bodn, ante Prelectiones Bodn) though the General Assembly had passed numerous acts, and entered into arrangements with different printers for the purpose. See Index of Unprinted Acts for the years 1645, 1646 and 1647. -- Ed.]

101 [When the Presbytery of Glasgow had met on the 22d August 1649, "The parochineris of Govane gave in ane supplicatione shewing that whereas you are destitute of ane minister, and being certanelie informed of the qualifications of Mr. Hew Binnen, one of ye regents of ye colledge of Glasgow, for ye work of ye ministrie," they were unanimously desirous he should be sent to preach to them, "so soone as he shall have past his tryels." The presbytery, in consequence of this supplication, "ordaines Mr. Patrik Gillespie, moderator of the presbyterie to wrytt to ye said Mr. Hew, to acquaint him wt the desyre of the parochineris of Govane, and to repar to the presbytery to undertake his tryels for ye effect forsaid." Records of the Presbytery of Glasgow.

On the 5th September, 1649, "Mr. Robert Ramsay reported Mr. Hew Binnen had exercised on the text prescribed, and had geven the brethrene full satisfaction. He is ordained to handle the contraversie scientia media, and to give in theses thereupon." Id.

"Sept 19, 1649 -- The qlk daye Mr. Hew Binnen gave in theses upon the contraversie prescribed unto him, de scientia media, to be sustenit by him, he presbyterie appoint him to handle this contraversie this daye eight dayes at nyne houres." Id.

"Sept 26, 1649 -- The qlk daye Mr. Hew Binnen made his Latin lesson, de scientia media, and sustenit the disputt thairupon, and was approven in both. The following ministers were present, Mr. Patrik Gillespie, Mr. David Dicksone, Doctor Jhone Strang, Mr. Zach. Boyde, Mr. George Young, Mr. Hew Blair, Mr. Gab. Conyngham, Mr. David Benett, Mr. Matthew Mackill. Mr. Wm. Young, Mr. Arch. Dennestoune, Mr. Jhone Carstaires, Mr. James Hamilton." The presbytery "ordaines Mr. Hugh Binnen to make ye exercise this daye fyfteen dayes, and the rest of his tryels to be ye said day." Id.

On the 10th October, 1649, after Mr. Hugh had "exercised" -- "compeared the laird of Pollok and the parochineris of Govane, and desyred that Mr. Hew Binnen might preach to them the next Lordis daye, qlk was granted, and he ordained to go and preach yr." Id.

On the 24th Oct., 1649, "Compeared the parochineris of Govane, and gave in ane call to have Mr. Hew Binnen to be their minister." Id.

"December 19, 1649 -- The qlk day Mr. Hew Binnen handled the contraversie, de satisfactione Christi, and sustenit the disputt upon the theses given in be him, and was approven." Id.

On the 2d January, 1650, his admission to the ministerial charge of the parish of Govan is appointed to take place "next Fryday." The minister who presided on that occasion was Mr. David Dickson, who was one of the professors of Theology in the University of Glasgow. Id. -- Ed.]

102 [Dr. John Strang, who was the son of Mr. William Strang, minister of Irvine, was born in the year 1584. He studied at the University of St. Andrews, where he took the degree of master at sixteen. After having been a regent in St. Leonard's college for several years, he was ordained in 1614, minister of Errol, in the Presbytery of Perth. When Cameron le grand, as he was called, (Vide Bayle's Dict. Art. Cameron) resigned his situation as principal of the University of Glasgow, Dr. Strong succeeded him. He died at Edinburgh, on the 20th of June, 1654, in the seventieth year of his age and was buried near his distinguished predecessor, Principal Boyd. At his death, an old friend and very learned man, Andreas Rawinaeus octogenarius, composed some Latin verses, as an affectionate tribute to his memory. These may be seen in a short Life of Dr. Strang which was written by Baillie and prefixed to Dr. Strang's work, De Interpretatione et Perfectione Scripturae, Rotterodami, 1663. It is from this Life the preceding particulars respecting the learned author have been taken.

It appears to have been chiefly through the influence of Archbishop Law, who was his cousin, that Dr. Strang was made principal of the University of Glasgow. When the latter understood that Trocheregius wished to be reinstated in his office, a correspondence took place betwixt them, which is in the highest degree honourable to the feelings and character of Dr. Strang. This correspondence is inserted by Wodrow in his Life of Robert Boyd of Trochrig (Wodrow MSS. vol. xv. pp.99-104 in Bib. coll. Glasg.). Butler represents Dr. Strang to have been an acute philosopher, and second to none in the kingdom as a disputant (nullique ad hunc usque diem, in nostra gente, hac in parte secundus. Vita Autoris, ut supra.) The strongly expressed commendation of such a man was no mean compliment to Binning's talents and learning. Wodrow says he was told by a neighbouring clergyman, Mr. Patrick Simson, minister of Renfrew, who was ordained the same year that Binning died, and who lived for some years after the commencement of the following century, "yt qn they were seeking to get old principal Strang out of the colledge, ye principal said, 'Ye are seeking to get me out of my place, qm have ye to fill my room? I know none, unless it be a young man newly come out of the school, viz., Mr. Hugh Binning' " (Analecta, vol. iv. p.171. MSS in Bib. Ad.) -- The Presbytery Records show that the common head which was presented to Binning was not, De concursu, &c, but one closely allied to it: De scientia media. -- Ed.]

103 [See his epitaph, p.1. -- Ed.]

104 [Her name was Mary, or Maria Simpson. The inventory of the effects of "Mr. Hew Binning, at Govane, deceiasit in ye monith of Sept.1658," is given up "be Marie Sympsone, his relict, and onlie exerix dative." (Com. Rec. Glasg.). Towards the close of her life, Mrs. Binning became connected with the Society people. She seems to have corresponded with the Rev. James Renwick, one of their ministers, who, in a letter dated July 9, 1685, speaks of her as "like to die in prison," and in another, of her having "gone to Ireland" (Renwick's Letters, pp.104, 179). Howie of Lochgoin, the author of "Lives of the Scots Worthies," assures us that it is Mrs. Binning who is alluded to by Renwick in his Letters pp.49, 104. He likewise quotes part of a letter written to her in 1692 by Sir Robert Hamilton of Preston, who commanded the army of the Covenanters at the battle of Bothwell bridge (Shields' Faithful Contendings, pp.486, 487). In a catalogue of the manuscripts of the Rev. Robert Wodrow, minister of Eastwood, which is in the library of the Faculty of Advocates vol. xxiv. folio is stated to contain "50 letters from Mrs. Binning to Mr. Ham." It is not known where this volume is now to be found. -- Ed.]

105 ["The Rev. James Simpson was chaplain to the Lord Sinclair's regiment. He appears to have settled in the charge of a congregation in Ulster, perhaps at Newry, which was the headquarters of his regiment for several years -- He was still in his charge in Ireland in 1650 in which year the Rev. Hugh Binning, minister of Govan, was married to his daughter." Dr. Reid's History of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland, vol. i. pp.369, 370. -- Ed.]

106 [What Koelman says is this that the adjoining parish to which he and his friends went was the one in which after sermon, the marriage ceremony was to be performed. Mrs. Binning it is probable was residing there at the time. -- Ed.]

107 [His eloquence procured for him, according to Macward, the name of the Scots Cicero. Along with a distinct articulation be possessed great fluency. When he preached in Glasgow, which being the minister of a neighbouring parish was frequently the case, he was much admired and followed (Koelman's "Het Leven en Sterven van Mr. Hugo Binning" prefixed to his translation of Binning's Common Principles of the Christian Religion). With regard to the estimation in which as a preacher, he was held in his own parish, his mode of preaching being so completely different from what they had been accustomed to, it is said "he was more valued by Govan people after his death, than when alive." Analecta, vol. i. p.338, MSS in Bib. Ad. -- Ed.]

108 [The writer of "A Short Account of the Life and Writings of Mr. Hugh Binning," prefixed to the small volume of his sermons, published for the first time in 1760, remarks "By the haranguing way I suppose he means those sermons that are not divided or sub-divided into dominant observations and heads, marked by the numbers 1, 2, 3, &c. But the reader will see many of these discourses, where there are no figures, no first, second, third, or any number of heads mentioned, as regularly divided or sub-divided, as those sermons where we will see a good number of doctrines and heads.{HORIZONTAL ELLIPSIS} Some useful sermons have been often perplexed with a great multitude of minds consisting of two or three sentences without any proof or illustrations of which the hearer or reader will remember or retain less than some sermons that contain five or six heads, or have not their distinct divisions marked with different figures or faces;" pp. xxii-xxiii. -- Ed.]

109 [It being "the perfection of art to conceal art." -- Ed.]

110 [Mr. James Durham, minister of the Inner High church, Glasgow, was the son and heir of John Durham of Easter Powrie, now named Wedderburn, a considerable estate in the parish of Muirhouse, and county of Forfar (Old Stat. Acc. of Scot., vol. xiii, pp.162, 163). In the time of the civil wars, and before he contemplated being a clergyman, he was a captain in the army. He held the office of king's chaplain, when Charles the Second was in Scotland. The description which "Old Aitkenhead, who had it from the gentlewoman," gave, of Cromwell's visit, in April 1651, to the High church of Glasgow, where Mr. Durham was preaching, is this: "The first seat that offered him was P. Porterfield's, where Miss Porterfield sat, and she, seeing him an English officer, was almost not civil. However he got in and sat next Miss Porterfield. After sermon was over he asked the minister's name. She sullenly enough told him, and desired to know wherefore he asked. He said because he perceived him to be a very great man, and in his opinion might be chaplain to any prince in Europe, though he had never seen him nor heard of him before. She inquired about him, and found it was O. Cromwell" (Wodrow's Anal., vol. v. p.186, MSS in Bib. Ad.).

Mr. Durham sided neither with the Resolutionists nor Protestors. For this he was strongly blamed at the time by Principal Baillie, who took a keen part in the controversy, (Let. and Jour., vol. ii. p.376) though after his death, he recorded, in the following terms, his opinion of Mr. Durham's character and talents. "From the day I was employed by the presbytery to preach, and to pray, and to impose, with others, hands upon him, for the ministry at Glasgow, I did live to the very last with him in great and uninterrupted love, and in high estimation of his egregious endowments, which made him to me precious among the most excellent divines I have been acquainted with in the whole isle. O, if it were the good pleasure of the Master of the vineyard to plant many such noble vines in this land!" (Durham's Commentary upon the book of Revelation, Address to the Reader, p. vi). The work written by Durham, entitled, "The Law Unsealed, or a Practical Exposition of the Ten Commandments," has commendatory prefaces prefixed to it, by two distinguished English puritans, Dr. John Owen, and Mr. William Jenkyn. Dr. Owen wrote likewise a preface to the Clavis Cantici, or an Exposition of the Song of Solomon, by James Durham, minister at Glasgow, 4to, 1669. Doubts have been expressed, however, whether Wood, in his Athenae Oxomenses, (vol. ii, p.747, Lond.1721) was warranted to attribute this preface to Owen, "as the preface is anonymous" (Orme's Life of Owen, Append., p.505). But the only copy of the work, which is in my possession, (Glas.1723) has attached to it the name of "John Owen, May 20, 1669."

The widow of Mr. Durham, who was the daughter of Mr. William Muir of Glanderston, a branch of the family of the Muirs of Caldwell, was, in 1679, twice committed to prison, for having in her house religious meetings, or conventicles, as they were called in those days of relentless tyranny and oppression. On one of the occasions, she was taken to Edinburgh, and imprisoned there, along with her sister, the mother of Principal Carstairs. Wodrow's Hist. of the Suff. of the Church of Scot., vol. iii, pp.10, 54. -- Ed.]

111 [See page 368. -- Ed.]

112 [See page 406. -- Ed.]

113 [The following account of the origin of the differences between the Resolutioners and Protesters, is that given by Kirkton. "After the defeat of Dumbar, the king required a new army to be levyed, wishing earnestly it might be of another mettale than that which hade been lossed. So he desired that sort of people who were called Malignants, his darlings, might be brought into places of trust, both in council and army, though they hade been secluded from both by their own consent. And this request was granted both by committee of estates and commission of the church sitting at Perth. But there was a party in both these councils which alledged confidently, that though the malignants were content to profess repentance for their former practices, yet they should be found to be men neither sincere in their profusions, nor successful in their undertakings. This was the beginning of the fatal schism in the Scottish church. For though the king, to secure Scotland, was content once more to take the covenant at his coronation in Scoon (which instrument he caused burn at London) yet the dissatisfied party continued still in their jealousies, and even of the king himself whom they doubted most of all. This party was called Protesters and Remonstrators as the other was called Resolutioners, which names occasioned lamentable distraction" (History of the Church of Scotland p.53). A more particular account of this unhappy controversy, so fatal in its results to both parties, may be seen in the introduction to Wodrow's history.

Though Baillie was a Resolutioner, he seems to have had some misgivings as to the course he adopted. "We carried unanimously at last," says he in a letter to Mr. Spang, dated Perth, January 2, 1651, "the answer herewith sent to you. My joy for this was soon tempered when I saw the consequence, the loathing of sundry good people to see numbers of grievous bloodshedders ready to come in, and so many malignant noblemen as were not like to lay down arms till they were put into some places of trust, and restored to their vote in parliament." (Letters and Journals, vol. ii, p.366). In the Life of Professor Wodrow written by his son, (pp.29, 30, Edin.1828) it is said, "There were great endeavours used in the year 1659, and 1660, entirely to remove that unhappy rent 'twixt the public Resolutioners and Protesters in this church, and had not Mr. Sharp struck in by his letters from London in order to serve his own designs, and ruin both, and made Mr. Douglas and other ministers at Edinburgh cold in this matter of the union, it had no doubt succeeded. These put Mr. Wodrow upon an inquiry into that debate, and when leaving the lessons during the vacation in the summer he desired Mr. Baillie's directions what to read for understanding that subject. The professor said to him, 'Jacobe, I am too much engaged personally in that debate to give you either my judgement on the whole, or to direct you to particular authors on the one side and the other,' but taking him into his closet he gave him the whole pamphlets that had passed on both sides in print and manuscript, laid ranked in their proper order, and said, there is the whole that I know in that affair; take them home to the country with you, and read them carefully and look to the Lord for his guiding you to determine yourself aright upon the whole." -- Ed.]

114 [This treatise was afterwards printed and is included in the present edition of the works of the author. -- Ed.]

115 [See page 226. -- Ed.]

116 [Mr. Patrick Gillespie, who was brother to George Gillespie one of the ministers of Edinburgh, was for some time minister of Kirkcaldy. On the 4th December, 1641, "Mr. Pa. Gillespie produceit," to the magistrates and council of Glasgow, "a presentation grantit to him, be his Majestie, of the place of the Highe Kirke, instead of the bischope" (Glasgow Burgh Records). He was one of the three ministers who, in 1651, were summarily deposed by the Assembly, for their opposition to the Public Resolutions, and protesting against the lawfulness of that Assembly (Lamont's Diary, p.33). His sentence was reversed by the Synod of Glasgow (Baillie's Letters, vol. ii., pp.414, 415). Gillespie was evidently desirous to effect a reconciliation between the Resolutioners and Protesters, by means of mutual concessions (Id. pp.388, 401, 411). In the year 1553, he was elected principal of the University of Glasgow, by the English sequestrators (Id. p.371, Lamont's Diary, p.53).

No one in Scotland had more influence with Cromwell than Principal Gillespie, who is said to have been the first minister in the Church of Scotland, who prayed publicly for him (Nicol's Diary, p.162). In April 1654, the Protector called him up to London, along with Mr. John Livingston of Ancrum, and Mr. John Menzies of Aberdeen, to consult with them on Scottish affairs (Life of Livingston, p.55). He preached before the Protector in his chapel, and obtained from him, for the University of Glasgow, the confirmation of "all former foundations, mortifications, and donations made in its favour, particularly that of the bishopric of Galloway, to which he added the vacant stipends of the parishes, which had been in the patronage of the bishop of Galloway, for seven years to come; and also in perpetuity the revenues of the deanery and sub-deanery of Glasgow" (Old Stat. Acc. of Scot., vol. xxi., Append. pp.25, 26). Through his influence with the Protector, he likewise procured a grant to the town of Glasgow, "for the use of the poor who had been injured by the fire in 1653," [1652] (Brown's Hist. of Glasg., p.120) and "assisted and pleasured sundry in the matter of their fines" (Baillie's Letters, vol. ii. p.390). As to what is said by the editor of Kirkton's History, that after the Restoration, "Gillespie had made great efforts for a pardon, and offered to promote episcopacy in Scotland" (p.111), the reader is referred to a Review of that work, in the Christian Instructor (Vol. xvii. pp.339, 340). He died not long after this at Leith (Law's Memorials, p.11).

Gillespie's work, entitled "The Ark of the Covenant Opened," (London, printed for Tho. Parkhurst, 1677) has a preface from the pen of Dr. John Owen, who was with Cromwell in Scotland, as one of his chaplains, and in this way, no doubt, became acquainted with Gillespie (Wood's Athenae Oxomensis, vol. ii., p.738, London, 1721). In his preface, Dr. Owen says, "My long Christian acquaintance with the author made me not unwilling to testify my respects unto him and his labours in the church of God, now he is at rest, for whom I had so great an esteem while he was alive." Wodrow expresses his regret, that "the other three parts" of Gillespie's work have not been printed, which, he informs us, the author "wrote and finished for the press" (Hist. of the Suff. of Ch. of Scot., vol. i., p.204, Glasg.1829). The Synod of Glasgow were informed, on the 8th of Oct., 1701, that "Mr. Parkhurst, at London," possessed two unpublished parts of Gillespie's Ark of the Covenant. They, therefore, appointed a committee to communicate with him on the subject, through some of the booksellers of Glasgow, "conceiving that the publishing of these pieces may be of use to the Church, from the experience they have had of the works of that worthy author already come to light, upon the same subject" (Records of Synod). On the 5th April, 1709, "Mr. Robert Wodrow reports, that Mr. Parkhurst continues still indisposed, so that nothing can be done with respect to the printing of Mr Gillespie's book formerly mentioned. Wherefore, the Synod lets the matter fall out of their minutes." Id.

Chalmers (Caledonia, vol. iii., p.591) seems to have imagined that Patrick Gillespie was the "Galasp" ridiculed by Milton, in one of his sonnets. Warton says, this was "George Gillespie, one of the Scotch ministers of the Assembly of Divines" (Warton's Milton, p.339, Lond.1791). But Milton referred neither to the one nor the other, but to Allaster Macdonald Macgillespie, (son of Archibald) otherwise known by the name of Colkittoch, or Colkitto, who commanded the Irish auxiliaries in Montrose's army. See the new edition of Baillie's Letters, now in course of publication, formerly quoted, vol. ii. p.499. -- Ed.]

117 [This is a simple marble tablet surmounted with a heart, and the emblems of mortality. It was placed in a niche in the front wall of the old parish church; but, in 1826, when the present church was erected, which is a Gothic structure, it was removed to the vestibule. It is seen in the vignette of the title page. The inscription may be turned into English, thus "Mr. Hugh Binning is buried here, a man distinguished for his piety, eloquence, and learning, an eminent philologist, philosopher, and theologian; in fine, a faithful and acceptable preacher of the gospel, who was removed from this world in the 26th year of his age, and in the year of our Lord 1653. He changed his country, not his company, because when on earth he walked with God. If thou wish to know any thing beyond this, I am silent as to any thing further, since neither thou nor this marble can receive it." -- Ed.]

118 [John Binning of Dalvennan was served heir to his grandfather on the 19th of March, 1672 (Inq. Ret. Ab. Ayr, 580). And the Retour of his heritable property, at the date of his forfeiture, specifies, as having belonged to him, the ten mark land of the ten pound land of Keires, comprehending the lands of Dalvennan, Yondertoun and Burntoun, Daluy, Milntown, The Fence, Drumore, Hillhead, Rashiefauld, Chappel, the mill of Keires, &c., in the parish of Straiton; the lands of Over Priest-Craig and Nether Priest-Craig in the parish of Colmonell; and a house, garden, and land in the parish of Maybole, in the county of Ayr -- Inq. De Possess Quinquen (18). -- Ed.]

119 [The name of "Binning of Dalvennan" appears in the Act of the Scottish parliament, "Rescinding the Forefaultures and Fynes since the year 1665" (Acts of the Parl. of Scot. vol. ix. p.165) Previous to the passing of that Act, however, a petition was presented to the parliament by Mr. Roderick McKenzie, who had been a Depute Advocate in the former reign, in which he stated, "That John Binning of Dalvennan having been forefault for being in armes at Bothwell bridge, anno 1679, and the deceased Matthew Colvill, writer in Edinburgh, John Binning's greatest enemy, being very active to obtain the gift of his forefaulture, with a designe of his ruine, and the prejudice of his numerous and just creditors, the deceased Mr. James Gordon, minister at Cumber in Ireland, John Binning's father in law and former Curator, to whom he was oweing a considerable soume of money, came over to Scotland, at John Binning's desire, who was then in Ireland, to obtaine the said gift, to disappoint Matthew Colvill thereof, who prevailed with the petitioner to lend the money to pay the compositione and expenses of the gift." Mr. McKenzie also affirmed, that he had "no other security for the money soe lent, but a right to the said gift," and that the money he had advanced "to the said Mr. James Gordon for the compositione and expenses of the gift, with what he has payed of John Binning's reall and confirmed debts, far exceeds the value of his land." In consequence of these representations, "Their Majesties High commissioner and said Estates of Parliament remitt the case of Mr. Roderick McKenzie, petitioner, anent the forfaulture of Dalvennan, to the consideratione of the commission nominate in the General Act recissory of ffynes and forefaulters, with power to them to hear the parties concerned thereanent, and to report to the next session of this, or any other ensuing parliament." -- Id. pp.162, 163.

John Binning was declared at this period to be "altogether insolvent." This is the reason probably, if he was not in the mean time satisfied that his claim was untenable, that his case does not appear to have been brought under the notice of parliament again, and that he did not persist in his attempts to regain possession of Dalvennan (Id. Appendix, p.32). To confirm his title to a property, which considering the office he held, seems to have been acquired under very suspicious circumstances, McKenzie had contrived to get an act of parliament passed in his favour, in the year 1685. In this Act, he is lauded for "suppressing the rebellious fanatical partie in the western and other shires of the realme, and putting lawes to vigorous execution against them, as His Majesties Advocate Deput," and the lands of Dalvennan are said to have been transferred to him by "Jean Gordon, as donatrix," who was the uterine sister of John Binning, and who is described as "relect of the deceist Daniel McKenzie sometime ensign to the Earle of Dalhousie, in the Earle of Marr's Regiment" (Id. vol. viii. pp.565-567). John Binning taught a school for some time (Faithful Contendings p.66). The General Assembly showed kindness to him, on different occasions, for his father's sake. In 1702, the Commission of the Assembly being informed by a petition from himself of his "sad circumstances," recommended him to the provincial Synods of Lothian and Tweedale, and of Glasgow and Ayr "for some charitable supply" (Rec. of Commission, Sess.39). In 1704, he applied for relief to the General Assembly, and stated that he had obtained from the Privy Council a patent to print his father's works, of which twelve years were then unexpired, and that it was his intention to publish them in one volume. The Assembly recommended "every minister within the kingdom to take a double of the same book, or to subscribe for the same." They likewise called upon the different presbyteries in the church to collect among themselves something for the petitioner (Unprinted Acts, Sess.11). The last application he made to the Assembly for pecuniary aid was in 1717, when he must have been far advanced in life -- Idem, 13th May. -- Ed.]

120 [Mr. James Gordon was minister of Comber, in the county of Down. He was ordained about the year 1646. We find his name in Wodrow's list of the non-conforming ministers in the synod of Ballimenoch in Ireland (Hist. of Suff. of Ch. of Scot. vol. i. p.324). According to Dr Reid, "Mr. Gordon, after having been deposed with the rest of his brethren in 1661, continued to officiate privately at Comber for many years, but about the year 1683, in his old age, he appears to have deserted his principles, and conformed to prelacy." Hist. of the Presb. Ch. in Ireland, vol. ii. pp.129, 130. -- Ed.]

121 [May 14, 1654 -- "Sederunt Mr John Carstaires and the Elders.

"The qlk day the session being conveened for election and calling of a minr to the kirk of Govan, and having now this forenoon heard Mr. David Veetch, with whom most are satisfied, but for the satisfaction of all persons interested, who heard him never but once, both of heritors and elders, the session have delayed their election till they hear him again in the afternoon, and the session then were to meet again for that effect.

"Sederunt Mr John Carstaires and the Elders.

"The heritors and elders having now heard the said Mr. David Veetch twise, and both being well satisfied, and clear, and unanimous, the satisfaction of the session being first enquired, and next of the heritors, which, being both of one mynd, cordially for the thing, a call was presently drawn up, and subt by moderator and clerk, also by session and heritors, according to order. After the forsd draught, at appointment of the presbytery and session, Mr. John preached in the sd church, and, after sermon, did intimat to the people their nomination of Mr. David to take charge in the ministrie of that congregation, and ordained, that if any person had any thing to object agt the said Mr. David being minr at the sd church, they would come and signifie it to the session, now presently to meet at the sd church for that effect, according to the practice in such cases. The session having met, and none compearand to signifie their dissent, or assent, they take their non compearance for their signification of satisfaction, so, after three severall byesses at the most patent door of the sd church, by the officer intimating the forsd words, none at all appeared. So the sd Mr. David being desired to come in to session, they presented to him their unanimous and cordiall call of election to the ministrie of the kirk of Govan, which he accepted." Records of Kirk-Session of Govan -- Ed.]

122 [12mo., Glasgow, 1609. -- Ed.]

123 [Macward's words are, a prima manu. Het Leven en Sterven van Mr. Hugo Binning. -- Ed.]

124 [A copy of "The Common Principles of Christian Religion" is now before me which was Printed by R. S. Printer to the Town of Glasgow, 1666, and which bears to be "The 5 Impression". -- Ed.]

125 [All the works of Binning, which were published in the lifetime of Koelman, were translated by him into the Dutch language. No fewer than four editions of these have been printed at Amsterdam. -- Ed.]

126 [See page 457. -- Ed.]

127 [See page 465. -- Ed.]

128 [A contemporary of Binning, Mr. P. Simson, minister of Renfrew, informed Wodrow, "That Dr. Strang was in hazard to have been staged for his Dictates qch wer smoothed in his printed book, De Voluntate Dei, and would have been removed from his place if he had not demitted." (Life of Dr. Strang, Wodrow MSS. vol. xiii. p.9, in Bib. Coll. Glas.) Complaints regarding Dr. Strang having been presented to the General Assembly, a committee was appointed, on the 18th of June, 1646, to examine his written dictates, a copy of which was produced by Dr. Strang, and to find out whether the doctrines which he taught were in accordance with the doctrines of their own and other reformed churches, and whether there were any expressions used by him which gave countenance to the views of the enemies of the truth. This committee was composed of some of the most able men in the church, including several professors from the four universities The list contains, along with others, the names of Alexander Henderson, John Sharpe, the author of Cursus Theologicus, Robert Douglas, George Gillespie, Robert Blair, Samuel Rutherford, James Wood, William Strahan, David Dickson, Robert Baillie, John Neave, Edward Calderwood and Robert Leighton, afterwards Archbishop of Glasgow. On the 27th of August, 1647, the committee gave in a Report to the General Assembly, to the effect that Dr. Strang had employed some expressions in his dictates which were calculated to give offence, but that on conferring with him, they were satisfied in regard to his orthodoxy, and that to put an end to all doubts as to his meaning, the Doctor had gratified them by proposing of his own accord the addition of certain words to what was previously somewhat ambiguous (Vita Autoris, Strangu De Interpret. Script.).

So far as can be collected from the imperfect account we have of the circumstances of the case, Dr. Strang discovered, it was imagined, a bias to Arminianism, whereas he seems to have been merely more of a sublapsarian than a supralapsarian. The "peculiar notions" he entertained were vented, we have been told, upon that profound subject De concursi et influxu deimo cum actionibus creaturarum or the concurrence and influence of God in the actions of his creatures. In the two chapters of his published work which treat expressly upon this point, we can perceive nothing that is at variance with our own Confession. But this does not warrant us to infer that the dictates, as originally delivered and before they were amended and enlarged by the author himself, may not have contained some very objectionable language at least, especially when we look to the Report of the committee of the Assembly regarding them. Indeed, all that Baillie himself says, who was one of that committee, is, that Dr. Strang was pursued "without any ground at all considerable," and that "he got him reasonably fair off." Letters and Journals, vol. ii., p.338.

The publication of Dr. Strang's work, "De Voluntate et Actionibus Dei circa Peccatum" (Amstelodami Apud Ludovicum et Danielson Elzeurios, 1657.4to. pp.886), was intrusted to Mr. William Spang, minister of the English church at Middleburgh in Zealand. The manuscripts were sent to him by his cousin, Mr. Robert Baillie, at that time Professor of Theology in the University of Glasgow, who, after the death of his first wife, had married a daughter of Dr. Strang. "Dr. Strang, your good friend," says Baillie, in a letter to Mr. Spang, dated July 20, 1654, "having to do in Edinburgh with the lawyers, concerning the unjust trouble he was put to for his stipends, did die, so sweetly and graciously, as was satisfactory to all, and much applauded over all the city, his very persecutors giving him an ample testimony. His treatise, Dei circa peccatum, he has enlarged, and made ready for the press. Be careful to get it well printed, according to the constant friendship that was always betwixt you and him." (Letters, vol. ii. pp.382, 383) At the request of Mr. Spang, Alexander Morus furnished a preface, and Ad Lectorem Commomito, for Dr. Strang's work. -- Ed.]

129 ["This is somewhat strange, observes Howie of Lochgoin, "that a nameless author should quarrel that book because the publisher hath omitted to tell his name, and hath only inserted the author's name. He might have known that it was not long a secret that Mr. James Kid (who was afterwards settled minister in Queensferry) was the publisher, and upon that account suffered both long imprisonment at Utrecht, and the seizure of all that they could get of the books. And as for vouchers, Mrs. Binning the relict of the worthy author, being then alive, had connexion and much correspondence with Mr. Hamilton, Mr. Renwick, and many of the persecuted Society people, and was of the same sentiments with them, as appears by several letters yet extant in their own hand-writ -- and Mr. Renwick speaks of her in some of his letters, as in the 49 and 104 pages of the printed volume of his letters but especially it appears, by a paragraph which is omitted in the printed copy, page 58, (which shall be here transcribed from the original, written with his own hand,) wherein he says, 'Likewise, according to your direction, I challenged Mrs. Binning upon the commendation she gave to John Wilson in her letter to you. But she says that she had not then seen his testimony, and was sorry when she saw it that it was so contrary both to her thoughts and commendation of him.' And likewise a postscript to the 20th Letter, relative to the same matter is also omitted. And about the same time that Mr. Binning's book was printed, while Sir Robert Hamilton was prisoner, upon account of the declaration [Sanquhar Declaration] in 1692, he wrote a letter to Mrs. Binning, wherein he complains of her unwonted silence, in his honourable bonds for such a noble Master. Yet trusting her sympathy is not diminished, he adds, 'O, my worthy friend, I cannot express Christ's love and kindness since the time of my bonds. He hath broke up new treasures of felt love and sweetness, and hath been pleased to give me visitations of love and access to himself, to comfort and confirm poor feckless me many ways, that this is his way that is now persecuted, and that it is his precious truths, interests, and concerns, that I am now suffering for, whatever enemies with their associated ministers and professors may allege, &c.' "

"By which it is evident that they had much correspondence with Mrs. Binning. And there is yet a fair and correct manuscript copy of the foresaid book extant, which was in Sir Robert's custody, and it is more than probable that it was procured from Mrs. Binning, especially as she survived its publication without quarrelling it.

"It is unnecessary to notice what further is thrown out by the foresaid anonymous writer, against the book and the publisher, as Mr. Wodrow, in the preface to Mr. Binning's octavo volume of sermons, printed 1760, hath modestly animadverted thereupon, and says there is no reason to doubt if it was Mr. Binning's. He also ingenuously confesseth, that there is in it the best collection of scriptures he knows, concerning the sin and danger of joining with wicked and ungodly men, &c., and that it was wrote in a smooth good style, agreeable enough to Mr. Binning's sentiments in some of his sermons." Faithful Contendings Displayed, pp.486, 487, note. See likewise Faithful Witness-bearing Exemplified, preface, p. iv. -- Ed.]

130 [See page 527. -- Ed.]

131 [See page 527. -- Ed.]

132 [See page 528. -- Ed.]

133 [Ibid. -- Ed.]

134 [The word reduce is here used in its literal etymological sense, as signifying to bring back or to restore. -- Ed.]

135 [The allusion here appears to be to the doctrines of the Quakers who, in Binning's time, were increasing in the west of Scotland, and accustomed to rail, with impunity, at ministers in the face of their congregations. See Baillie's Letters, vol. ii., pp. 393, 413, 419. -- Ed.]

136 [That is felt. -- Ed.]

137 [These terms were made use of as descriptive of themselves by the sect called the Familists. See Discovery of Familism, p.7 apud Baillie's Anabaptism, pp.102-127, Lond.1647. -- Ed.]

138 [That is, propound a nice question. -- Ed.]

139 [That is, careless. -- Ed.]

140 [The heathen poet whose words these are, ("We move towards what is forbidden"), describes well the perversity and the imbecility of our nature. Vid Ovid Amor. lib. iii. eleg.4 ver.17 Met. lib. vii. ver.20. -- Ed.]

141 [That is, the most natural. -- Ed]

142 [That is, a twist or undue bend. -- Ed.]

143 [That is, "His will stands for reason." Juv. Sat. vi. ver.222. -- Ed.]

144 [Mr. Binning was a Supralapsarian. In this and the two following Lectures he treats of the "high mystery of predestination," the consideration of which, though it should be handled with special prudence and care, (West. Conf. of Faith, ch.3) is nevertheless, full of sweet pleasant and unspeakable comfort to godly persons. Art. of Ch. of Eng. Art. xvii. His views of this mysterious doctrine are stated with singular clearness, and the objections to it, which he notices and answers, are brought forward with the utmost ingenuousness and candour and expressed, it must be admitted, as strongly as a caviller could desire. -- Ed.]

145 [The reader will remember that at this time the country was convulsed from one end of it to the other. -- Ed.]

146 [That is, Fate leads the willing and drags the unwilling. -- Ed.]

147 [This was the only consolation which one learned Roman could administer to another on the death of a friend. "This is hard," said he, "but what cannot be remedied is more easily borne, with patience." Hor. Carm. lib. I. carm. xxiv. -- Ed.]

148 [Or by the by. -- Ed.]

149 [That is grains or particles. -- Ed.]

150 [What a sublime answer was that which one of the deaf and dumb pupils of M. Sicard gave to the question, "What is eternity?" It is "a day," said Massieu, "without yesterday or to-morrow, -- un jour sans hier ni demain." The thoughts of our author on this boundless theme are hardly less sublime. -- Ed.]

151 [That is, to have the same desires and aversions, that, in a word is strong friendship -- Sallust in Catil. c. xx. -- Ed.]

152 [That is, twist. -- Ed.]

153 [Lycurgus, the Spartan lawgiver, made no law against ingratitude, it is said, because he conceived that no one could be so irrational as to be unthankful for kindness done to him. -- Ed.]

154 [That is, quarter. -- Ed.]

155 [The discourse ends so abruptly here, as plainly to show that it is an unfinished production, and was not designed by the learned and pious author for publication. -- Ed.]

156 [Perhaps the word ought to be museum, used in the sense of a place for study. -- Ed.]

157 [That is, not to speak of. -- Ed.]

158 [This simple vernacular expression, which is used by other Scottish theological writers of the period as employed here, is particularly expressive. It signifies a place where either foes or friends have agreed to meet. Is that place the temple of the Lord? There surely will peace and harmony prevail. Is our Daysman there? He will make intercession for us and reconcile us to God. -- Ed.]

159 [That is, orders us into his Son. -- Ed.]

160 [The following baneful and impious doctrines, which were, in England, in those days, openly proclaimed from the pulpit, and disseminated through the press, were, it seems, not altogether unknown in the northern part of the island:

1. That the moral law is of no use at all to a believer, no rule for him to walk or examine his life by, and that Christians are free from the mandatory power of it.

2. That it is as possible for Christ himself to sin, as for a child of God to sin.

3. That a child of God need not, nay ought not, to ask pardon for sin, and that it is no less than blasphemy for him to do this.

4. That God does not chastise any of his children for sin.

5. That if a man, by the Spirit, know himself to be in a state of grace, though he should commit the greatest crimes, God sees no sin in him.

Three leading Antinomian teachers were brought before a committee of the House of Commons, for promulgating, in different ways, these and similar opinions, which were justly regarded as subversive of all morality. -- Gataker's "God's Eye on his Israel", -- preface, Lond.1645. -- Ed.]

161 ["Antinomians, contending for faith of assurance, and leading men to be persuaded that God loveth every one, whom he commandeth to believe, with an everlasting love, and that 'no man ought to call in question more whether he believe or no, than he ought to question the gospel and Christ,' do with Libertines acknowledge a faith of assurance, but deny all faith of dependence on God through Christ, as if we were not justified by such a faith." -- "A Survey of the spiritual Antichrist, opening the secrets of Familisme and Antinominianisme." by Samuel Rutherford, Professor of Divinity in the University of St. Andrew's, part II. p.235. London, 1648. -- Ed.]

162 [These observations discover an accurate knowledge of the philosophy of the human mind, as well as of the doctrines of Scripture. It is certainly one thing to believe in the Lord Jesus Christ, and another thing to feel assured of one's salvation, or to be persuaded that we are possessed of that true faith which is the gift of God, and by which the just shall live. To identify, as is sometimes done, faith in Christ and the assurance of salvation, is calculated, on the one hand, to encourage presumption; and, on the other hand, to give rise to despair, Prov. xxx.12, Ezek. xiii.22, 23. What an earlier writer even than Binning says upon this subject, is not unworthy of notice. "St. Paul, wishing well to the church of Rome, prayeth for them after this sort. 'The God of hope fill you with all joy in believing.' Hence an error groweth, when men in heaviness of spirit suppose they lack faith, because they find not the sugared joy and delight, which indeed doth accompany faith, but so as a separable accident, as a thing that may be removed from it, viz. there is a cause why it should be removed. The light would never be so acceptable, were it not for that usual intercourse of darkness. Too much honey doth turn into gall, and too much joy, even spiritual, would make us wantons. Happier a great deal is that man's case, whose soul by inward desolation is humbled, than he whose heart is, through abundance of spiritual delight, lifted up and exalted above measure. Better it is sometimes to go down into the pit, with him, who, beholding darkness, and bewailing the loss of inward joy and consolation, crieth from the bottom of the lowest hell, My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me? than continually to walk arm in arm with angels, to sit as it were in Abraham's bosom, and to have no thought, no cogitation; but, 'I thank my God it is not with me as it is with other men.' No; God will have them that shall walk in light to feel now and then what it is to sit in the shadow of death. A grieved spirit, therefore, is no argument of a faithless mind." -- Hooker's Works, vol. iii. pp.527, 528. Oxford.1807. -- Ed.]

163 [That is, collect or obtain. -- Ed.]

164 [That is, between extremes. -- Ed.]

165 [Perhaps the word should be plungy, that is rainy. Chauc. -- Ed.]

166 [That is, cover with mist. -- Ed.]

167 [That is, deserving of consideration. -- Ed.]

168 [In the year 1661 Winston and some others sent a letter to Cromwell, through General Lambert, in which they charge the English army in Scotland "with divers errors countenancing of deposed ministers to preach silencing of ministers that preach of state proceedings, and suffering officers to preach," &c. -- Whithel's Memorials p.497. -- Ed.]

169 [Cromwell, in his despatches, after the battle of Dunbar, states the number of his prisoners, exclusive of officers, to be near 10,000. -- Cromwelliana, p.90. "The same daye the minister declaired yt yr wes a petitioune come from the prisoners at Tinmouth quho wer taiken at Dunbar, and representit to the presbyterie for support, because they wer in ane sterving conditione, and all comanders. And yt ye presbyterie hes recomendit the samen to ye several kirks of ye presbyterie, Therfoir ordaines that ane collectione be yranent upon Sondaye come 8 deyes, and intimation to be maid of it the next sabbathe to ye effect ye people may provide some considerable thing yranent." Records of the kirk session of Govan, 1st July, 1652. "Upon the desire of the Guinea Merchants (20th Sept., 1651,) 1,500 of the Scots prisoners were granted to them, and sent on shipboard to be transported to Guinea to work in the mines there." -- Whitelock's Mem. p.485. "Letters (25th October, 1651,) that many of the Scots prisoners and others at Shrewsbury were dead of a contagious fever." -- Id. p.488. -- Ed.]

170 [That is, in this world. -- Ed.]

171 [That is, he will get, or meet with, a fall or fall lower as he, who aims at being wise above what is written, is in danger of falling into error. -- Ed.]

172 [That is, treat with indignity. -- Ed.]

173 [That is, check (from compesco, Lat.). -- Ed.]

174 [Or, hesitation. -- Ed.]

175 [That is, more honoured. -- Ed.]

176 [That is, than. -- Ed.]

177 [That is, concourse. -- Ed.]

178 [Or pre-eminence above others. -- Ed.]

179 [That is, directions, or different points of the compass. -- Ed.]

180 [That is careless or slight. -- Ed.]

181 [This was long a current tradition. But Maundrell avers that he saw "several birds flying about and over the lake of Sodom," or Dead Sea as it is called "without any visible harm" -- Journey from Aleppo to Jerusalem A.D.1696 p.137. Edin.1812. -- Ed.]

182 [That is, destitute of reason. -- Ed.]

183 [Or property. -- Ed.]

184 [That is not so likely to happen. -- Ed.]

185 [That is, the obscurity or mystery of the gospel. -- Ed.]

186 [Coldly or carelessly. -- Ed.]

187 [That is, "If thou lovest the earth, thou art earth". -- Ed.]

188 [Increase. -- Ed.]

189 [Antiperistasis ({GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} from {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO} and {GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}, the act of hemming round) a term employed in ancient times by the Peripatetics to denote the increase of one quality by the action of another of an opposite nature as when internal heat or inflammation is increased by external cold. It would be "a holy Antiperistasis in a Christian," it is said (p.216) were the surrounding ignorance and wickedness of the world to make the grace of God unite itself and work more powerfully as fire out of a cloud and shine more brightly as a torch in the darkness of the night. A learned English divine who lived in the same age with Binning declares that in the case of the faithful themselves sin derives additional power, by antiperistasis from the law, to deceive, captivate, sell as a slave to make them do that which they hated and allowed not and do not that which they would and loved. -- Bishop Reynold's Works vol. I. p.146, Lond.1826. -- Ed.]

190 [Exuberant or abundant. -- Ed.]

191 [That is, conceived like that. -- Ed.]

192 [That is, than to look. -- Ed.]

193 [That is, opposite. -- Ed.]

194 [See Note, p.208. -- Ed.]

195 [That is disfigure. -- Ed.]

196 [That is, "The soul is where it loves, not where it animates." -- Ed.]

197 [That is, indictment or accusation. -- Ed.]

198 [That is, exert. -- Ed.]

199 [These were booths, or other temporary erections, put up for the reception of such as were infected with the plague. -- Ed.]

200 [In some of his epistles to his friends, Cicero expresses himself as if he thought death was to be followed by utter annihilation. But he speaks very differently in some of his other writings. The following passage occurs in a work (Consolatio) which has been ascribed to him -- Gorgias orator, jam aetate confectus ac morti proximus rogatus num libenter moreretur maxime vero inquit nam tamquam ex putri miseraque domo laetus egredior -- Mortem igitur in malus nullo modo esse ponendam sed in praecipius bonus numerandam debitaturum puto neminem -- Gorgias the orator, when worn out with age and near death being asked whether he would die willingly said: Very willingly indeed for I depart as if I were gladly leaving a filthy and wretched house. -- I therefore think that no one will hesitate to believe that death is not by any means to be ranked among evils but included among things which we account good in the highest degree. -- Cic. Oper. tom. iv. pp.1347, 1348. Basil 1681. -- Ed.]

201 [Animals that have a sting are called aculeata animalis. Plin. Nat. Hist. lib. xx. cap.91. -- Ed.]

202 [That is, not knowing. -- Ed.]

203 [Dr. Mead describes the means which were formerly resorted to in this country to check the progress of the plague. "The main import of the orders issued out at these times was as soon as it was found that any house was infected, to keep it shut up, with a large red cross, and these words 'Lord, have mercy upon us,' painted on the door, watchmen attending day and night to prevent any one's going in or out except such physicians, surgeons, apothecaries, nurses, searchers, &c., as were allowed by authority, and this to continue at least a month after all the family was dead or recovered.

"It is not easy to conceive a more dismal scene of misery than this, families locked up from all their acquaintance, though seized with a distemper which the most of any in the world requires comfort and assistance, abandoned it may be to the treatment of an inhuman nurse, (for such are often found at these times about the sick,) and strangers to every thing but the melancholy sight of the progress death makes among themselves, with small hopes of life left to the survivors and those mixed with anxiety and doubt, whether it be not better to die, than to prolong a miserable being, after the loss of their best friends and nearest relations." -- Dr. Mead's Medical Works p.273. -- Ed.]

204 [That is, stupified. -- Ed.]

205 [That is obstruction. "Mr. Prin and the Erastian lawyers are now our remora" -- Baillie's Letters and Journal, vol. ii., p.158. -- Ed.]

206 [The ancient heathens seem to have looked upon a future state, says Leland, (Advantage and Necessity of the Christian Revelation, vol. ii. p.305, Glasgow, 1819,) as too uncertain a thing to be relied upon, and therefore endeavoured to find out motives to virtue independent on the belief of the rewards prepared for good men after this life is at an end. They represented, in an elegant and beautiful manner, the present conveniences and advantages of virtue, and the satisfaction which attends it, but especially they insisted upon its intrinsic excellency, its dignity and beauty, and agreeableness to reason and nature, and its self sufficiency to happiness, which many of them, especially the stoics, -- the most rigid moralists among them, -- carried to a very high degree. Cicero, in his Offices, and those excellent philosophers, Epictetus and Marcus Antoninus, in their works, which seem to be the best moral treatises pagan antiquity has left us, go upon this scheme. They were sensible, indeed that, in order to recommend virtue to the esteem of mankind, and engage them to pursue it, it was necessary to show that it would be for their own highest advantage. -- Ed.]

207 [The Sun and the Wind had once a dispute which of them could soonest prevail with a certain traveller to part with his cloak. The Wind began the attack and assaulted him with much noise and fury; but the man, wrapping his cloak still closer about him, doubled his efforts to keep it, and went on his way. And now the Sun silently darted his warm insinuating rays which, melting our traveller by degrees at length obliged him to lay aside that cloak which all the rage of the Wind could not compel him to resign. Learn hence, said the Sun that soft and gentle means will often accomplish what force and fury can never effect. (Fable of the Sun and the Wind. Boreas et Sol.) This is one of forty two fables ascribed to AEsop, which Avienus, a Latin poet who lived in the age of Theodosius turned into elegiac verse. The employment of apologues, which is sanctioned by scripture, seems to be a natural mode of imparting instruction. These arrest the attention, disarm prejudice, give to unwelcome truths a pleasing form and imprint deeply on the memory the lesson that is intended to be conveyed. It is mentioned by Vincent of Beauvais, who wrote in the middle of the thirteenth century, that the preachers of his age were accustomed to quote the fables of AEsop in order to rouse the indifference and relieve the languor of their hearers. Special Hist. lib. iii. cap. viii. p.31. Ven.1391, ap. Warton's Diss. on Gesta Romanorum p. i. -- Ed]

208 [That is united or interwoven. -- Ed.]

209 [Or available. -- Ed.]

210 [Mr. Binning had the authority of Jerome for saying this. When speaking of the Dead sea or as it is styled in Scripture, the Salt sea, his words are Demque si Jordanis auctus imbribus pisces illuc influens rapuerit statim mortuntur, et pinguibus aquis supernatant. In fine, if the Jordan, which runs into it, should when swollen with rain, carry any fish along with it, they die immediately, and float upon the surface of the bituminous waters. (Hieron Comment in Ezek. cap. xlvii.) He also states that no living creature of any description was to be found in the Dead sea. (Comment in Joel cap. ii.) According to Volney, clouds of smoke are still observed to issue from this lake, and he represents the lava and pumice stones which have been thrown upon its banks to be likewise indubitable indicators of the agency of fire. The water however of what Milton describes as --

"That bituminous lake where Sodom dam'd"

-- though excessively bitter, and so heavy that the most impetuous waves can scarcely ruffle its surface is now perfectly transparent. M. de Chateaubriand who mentions this also informs us that he heard a noise upon the lake about midnight, which the Bethlehemites who accompanied him told him, proceeded from legions of small fish, which come and leap about on the shore. -- (Travels, vol.1, p.397., Lond.1812). He adds, "M. Seetzen, who is yet travelling in Arabia, observed in the Dead sea neither the helix nor the muscle, but found a few shell snails." -- Ibid. -- Ed.]

211 [That is, guardians. -- Ed.]

212 [Or attempt to walk. -- Ed.]

213 [That is governed. "Most people in the world are acted by levity and humour." South's Sermons. -- Ed.]

214 [That is, spark. -- Ed.]

215 [That is, set conscience aside. -- Ed.]

216 [That is, corollary or consequence. -- Ed.]

217 [Of good spirit. -- Ed.]

218 [That is, compared to. -- Ed.]

219 [That is, disburthen. -- Ed.]

220 [That is, respecting. -- Ed.]

221 [Oyes, (from oyez, the old imperative of the French verb ouir, to hear) a word used by public criers, before making their proclamations. -- Ed.]

222 [That is, "pious frauds". -- Ed.]

223 [That is, sue for you or make their suit to you. -- Ed.]

224 [That is, compared to those &c. -- Ed.]

225 [That is, the quarter. -- Ed.]

226 [It is unquestionably a remarkable fact that Pythagoras, one of the most celebrated philosophers of antiquity, represented the Great Author of all things to be possessed of a threefold form (Cudworth System. Intell. cap. iv. p.446, June 1733). Nor is it less wonderful, as a learned writer has shown, that even the Chinese seem to have received, from the dispersed Jews, long before the birth of Christ, some knowledge of the doctrine of the Trinity. Bryant's Philo Judaeus, pp.283-290. -- Ed.]

227 [That is, a bottom, or ball of thread. -- Ed.]

228 [That is, to be manifested. -- Ed.]

229 [The word furniture had formerly a more varied and extensive signification than is now assigned to it. The old divines employed it to denote the union of the divine and human natures in the person of Christ, or the peculiar properties or qualifications with which, as the Messiah, he was furnished, to act in the character of our Mediator. "Consider that Christ's calling to the office of Mediatorship may import three things his designation, his furniture, his investiture in the office." -- Gillespie's Ark of the Covenant, p.176. Lond.1677. -- Ed.]

230 [Codrus respecting whom this incident is recorded was the last king of the Athenians. His subjects from reverence to his memory resolved that with him should terminate their regal form of government. -- Val. Max. lib. v. cap.6. Just. Hist. lib. v. cap.6. -- Ed.]

231 [That is, appeal. -- Ed.]

232 ["What Mahomet did, lies within any man's reach. He was authorized by no miracle, he was countenanced by no prediction. But what was performed by Jesus Christ, is absolutely above the power and the imitation of man.

"Mahomet established himself by slaughter, Jesus Christ by commanding us to lay down our lives. Mahomet, by forbidding his law to be read, Jesus Christ by engaging us to search and read. In a word, the two designs are in all respects so directly opposite that Mahomet took the way, in human probability to succeed, Jesus Christ, humanly speaking, to be disappointed. And hence, instead of so irrational a conclusion, as that because Mahomet succeeded, Jesus Christ might, in like manner have succeeded before, we ought to infer, that since Mahomet has succeeded, Christianity must inevitably have perished had it not been founded and supported by a power altogether divine" (Pascal's Thoughts p.95. Lond.1886). Whoever wishes to see this comparison carried farther, may consult the masterly sermons of Professor White, preached before the University of Oxford at the Bampton Lecture. These contain a view of Christianity and Mahometanism, in their history, their evidence and their effects pp.225-463. Lond.1792. -- Ed.]

233 [This was Cyrus, the younger son of Darius Nothus, king of Persia, and the brother of Artaxerxes. He was slain in battle, when fighting against his own brother. Plut. in Artax. -- Ed.]

234 [It has been said that the following circumstance led Alexander to lay claim to a divine origin. As he entered the temple of Jupiter Ammon in Libya, the high priest approached him, intending to address him as his son. But not being master of the Greek language, instead of saying {GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER DELTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}, (paidion) which signifies son he substituted s for n, calling him {GREEK SMALL LETTER PI}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA} {GREEK SMALL LETTER DELTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA} (pai dios) which signifies son of Jupiter. (Plot. in Alex.). Alexander required his soldiers to address him as the son of Jupiter. This excited the indignation and contempt of Hegelochus, one of his generals. "Do we acknowledge," he said, "him to be our king, who refuses to own Philip to be his father? It is all over with us if we can submit to these things. He who demands to be thought a God (qui postulat deus credi) despises not men only, but likewise the gods. We have lost Alexander. We have lost our king. We have encountered pride, not to be endured by the gods, to whom he equals himself nor by men from whom he withdraws himself." -- Quint. Curt. lib. vi. cap.11. See also the speech of Callisthenes in the presence of Alexander himself. -- Arrian lib. iv. cap.10. -- Ed.]

235 [These are the words of the Vulgate, signifying literally, that "grief occupies the heights of joy." A humiliating truth, akin to this, is contained in one of the maxims of Hippocrates: Ultimus sanitatis gradus est morbo proximus. "The highest state of health is as near as possible to disease." -- Ed.]

236 [The first of Francis Quarles, Emblems Divine and Moral, is the picture of a heart. A representation of the globe covers the whole of the heart with the exception of the three angles or corners on each of which a syllable of the word Tri ni tas is imprinted.

Frances Quarles was secretary to Archbishop Usher. He died in 1644. -- Ed.]

237 [That is, slight. -- Ed.]


239 [That is, compound. -- Ed.]

240 [That is, "the darkness of too much light". -- Ed.]

241 [That is, a defect. -- Ed.]

242 [That is, genius. -- Ed.]

243 [That is, who look upon a part or portion of the gospel, as if that were the whole of it. -- Ed.]

244 [A celebrated English preacher, who was cotemporary with Binning makes a similar remark: "No question but those that have been so bold as to deny that there was a God have sometimes been much afraid they have been in error, and have at last suspected there was a God, when some sudden prodigy hath presented itself to them and roused their fears. And whatsoever sentiments they might have in their blinding prosperity, they have had other kind of notions in them in their stormy afflictions, and like Jonah's mariners, have been ready to cry to him for help, whom they disdained to own so much as in being, while they swam in their pleasures. The thoughts of a Deity cannot be extinguished, but they will revive and rush upon a man at least under some sharp affliction. Amazing judgments will make them question their own apprehensions." (Charnock's Works, vol.1, p.42 Lond.1682). An ancient historian relates, concerning Caligula the Emperor of Rome, whose licentiousness knew no bounds, and who professed the utmost contempt for the gods of his country, that, when it thundered, he was accustomed from fear of the gods he derided, to shut his eyes, cover his head, and even conceal himself under a bed. -- Suet. in Calig. cap.51 Seneca de Ira, lib. i, cap.16. -- Ed.]

245 [That is, place or station. -- Ed.]

246 [That is, judge. -- Ed.]

247 [That is, to sue for. -- Ed.]

248 [Many of the speeches and actions of Philip, who was the father of Alexander the Great, are worthy of being remembered. A collection of his most memorable sayings has been made by Erasmus, in his Apothegmata Opus (pp.268-279, Lutetiae 154). The conduct of Philip, in many respects however, was very unlike that of a wise and virtuous prince. Like mankind in general, though he was reminded daily of this, he too often forgot that he was mortal. -- Ed.]

249 [There is no fact, connected with the history of former times, which can be more easily proved than this that religious sacrifices were prevalent throughout every part of the Gentile world. Animals, which were deemed suitable for sacrifice by one nation, might be considered improper for such a purpose by another. But in the most remote countries victims of one kind or another, and not unfrequently human victims were seen bleeding on the altars of superstition, and with the death of these, the idea of substitution, or of presenting life for life, was almost invariably connected. When sacrificing her victim, Ovid makes his votaress exclaim -- "I like heart for heart, I beseech thee, take entrails for entrails. We give to thee this life for a better one" --

Cor pro corde, precor, pro obras sumite fibras.
Hanc animam vobis pro meliore damus
Fast lib. vi. v.161

But "as Kennicot observes from Delaney, whatever practice has obtained universally in the world, must have obtained from some dictate of reason, or some demand of nature, or some principle of interest, or else from some powerful influence or injunction of some Being of universal authority. Now the practice of animal sacrifice did not obtain from reason, for no reasonable notions of God could teach men that he could delight in blood, or in the fat of slain beasts. Nor will any man say, that we have any natural instinct to gratify, in spilling the blood of an innocent creature. Nor could there be any temptation from appetite to do this in those ages, when the whole sacrifice was consumed by fire; or when, if it was not, yet men wholly abstained from flesh; and consequently this practice did not owe its origin to any principle of interest. Nay, so far from any thing of this, that the destruction of innocent and useful creatures is evidently against nature, against reason, and against interest, and therefore must be founded in an authority, whose influence was as powerful as the practice was universal and that could be none but the authority of God, the sovereign of the world; or of Adam, the founder of the human race. If it be said of Adam, the question still remains, what motive determined him to the practice? It could not be nature, reason, or interest, as has been already shown, it must therefore have been the authority of his Sovereign, and had Adam enjoined it to his posterity, it is not to be imagined that they would have obeyed him in so extraordinary and expensive a rite, from any other motive than the command of God. If it be urged, that superstitions prevail unaccountably in the world, it may be answered, that all superstition has its origin in true religion; all superstition is an abuse; and all abuse supposes a right and proper use. And if this be the case in superstitious practices that are of lesser moment and extent, what shall be said of a practice existing through all ages, and pervading every nation? -- See Kennic, Two Diss. pp.210, 211 and Rev. Exam. Diss.8 p.85-89." Magee on the Atonement, vol. ii. part i. pp.27-29. -- Ed.]

250 [That is, restrain. -- Ed.]

251 [See note page 96.]

252 [Lucius Cinna was the grandson of Pompey the Great. It was through the intercession of Livia, the wife of Augustus, that Cinna was pardoned. "Do" said she to Augustus, "what physicians are accustomed to do, who, when the remedies they have employed do not succeed, try others which are entirely different. You have done no good by severity -- Try now the effect of clemency. Forgive Lucius Cinna. Now that he has been discovered, he cannot injure you, but he can advance your reputation" -- Seneca de Clem. lib. i. -- Ed.]

253 [Language of this description was in common use with the Antinomians of the time, as may be seen in Edwards' Gangraena (Part First, p.22, Lond.1646). Gataker's Antinomiania Discovered and Confuted, (pp.18, 19, Lond.1652) and other similar works written about this period. -- Ed.]

254 [How inconsistent is this maxim of Machiavel with the semblance even of Christian integrity! Pascal, however, has supplied us with ample proofs not only from the books of the Jesuits but from their public Theses, that they hold it to be perfectly justifiable to calumniate their enemies or to charge them with crimes of which they know them to be innocent. He declares that this doctrine is so generally received by them (si constante,) that should a man dare to oppose it, he would be treated by them as a fool, -- Les Provinciales tome troisieme quinzieme lettre. -- Ed.]


256 [That is, arts or sciences. -- Ed.]

257 [The Records of the Presbytery of Glasgow show, that this Fast was appointed by the commission of the General Assembly. "The commissioun of the Generall Assemblie, upone the 25 day of June 1650 did emit ane seasonable warning concerning the present dangeris and dewties unto all the memberis of the kirk. To draw neir to God, to murne for thair ayin iniquiteis, and for all the synnes, prophanitie, and bakslydinges of the land, to studie to mak peace with God in Cryst Jesus, to searche and try our wayis and to return speedilie to the Lord, and to lift up our hartis with our handis to God in the heavines, that he may spair and save his pepill, that thai be not a prey to the enymie," &c. (Nicol's Diary of Public Transactions in Scotland, p.17. Printed by Bannatyne Club, Edin.1836). On the 28th of June, a copy of this warning was presented to the Scottish parliament, who thanked the commission of the General Assembly for it, and requested them to delay the printing of it for a few days, that it might be accompanied with a Declaration from them suited to the existing crisis (Sir James Balfour's Annals of Scotland, vol. iv. p.63.). When the Presbytery of Glasgow met on the 31st of July, 1650, "the brethrene that wer present declaired that yei had keepit the fast, that yei had read the warning" (Presb. Rec). See also Lamont's Diary, 7th July 1650. The appointment of Fasts to be observed on the Lord's day, was at a subsequent period disapproved of by the Church of Scotland. "Albeit by the treatise of fasting emitted by the Assembly 25 December, 1565, the Sundays were appointed for some fasts as being for the greater ease of the people, and since by the last act of Assembly 1646, a fast is appointed on the Sabbath next except one preceding the then following General Assembly, yet seeing the work to be performed on the first day of the week is, by divine institution, already determined, we ought to set about it exactly, which we all acknowledge to be a thanksgiving and not a fast. Extraordinary duties are not to interfere with the ordinary, nor is one duty to shuffle out another. If either should be allowed, it would look somewhat like the reverse of redeeming the time, for thereby diligence is rather diminished than doubled in the service of God." -- Overtures of the General Assembly, 1705. -- Ed.]

258 ["The abstinence is commanded to be from Saterday at eight of the clock at night, till Sonday eftir the exercise at eftir noone, that is, after five of the clock. And then onlie bread and drink to be used, and that with great sobrietie, that the bodie craving necessarie food, the soul may be provoked earnestly to crave of God, that which it most neideth, that is mercie for our former unthankfulnes, and the assistance of his holie spirit in tyme to cum." (The Ourdoure and Doctrine of the General Fast, set down by John Knox, and John Craig, at the Appoyntment of the Assemblie in the year 1565, Apud. Dunlop's Confessions, vol. ii. p.686.) This Order was afterwards observed in all the fasts appointed by the General Assembly. (Id. p.699.) -- Ed.]

259 [That is, "Nor does God please all, when he sends rain." -- Ed.]

260 [That is, parts. -- Ed.]

261 [The army of the Commonwealth was now on its march towards Scotland, under the command of Cromwell, who had been appointed by the English parliament captain general of their forces. But the hopes of the people of Scotland had been revived by the arrival of Charles II. from Breda, about a fortnight before this, who, at the mouth of the river Spey, before he landed, had signed the national covenant, and also the solemn league and covenant, though the commission appointed to receive his subscription appear, on too good grounds, to have suspected his sincerity (Sir Edward Walker's Hist. Disc., p.158. Life of Rev. J. Livingston, written by himself, p.51. Glasg.1754.) A letter, addressed by Charles to the Committee of Estates, immediately after the battle of Dunbar, and dated Perth, 12 September, 1650, contains the following passage: "Wee cannot but acknowledge that the stroke and tryall is very harde to be borne, and would be impossible for us and you, in humane strength, but in the Lord's wee are bold and confident, whoe hath always defended this ancient kingdome, and transmitted the governement of it upon us from so many worthy predecessors, whoe in the lyke difficulties have not fainted, and they had only the honor and civill liberties of the land to defend, but wee have with your religion, the gospel, and the covenant, against which Hell shall not prevaile, much lesse a number of sectains stirred up by it. Wee acknowledge, that what hath befallen is just from God for our sinns, and those of our house, and the whole land, and all the families in it, have lykewise helped to pull downe the judgement, and to kindle this fierce wrath. Wee shall strive to be humbled, that the Lord may be appeased, and that he may returne to the thousands of his people, and comfort us according to the days wee have beene afflicted, and the yeares that wee have seene. You are going, you sat, upon the deuites, for returne of the afflicted land, (you do well to do soe,) and to try the instrumentall causes and occasions of the disaster and surpressal. Looke not too much upon second causes, the pryme and originall, and only cause, is God's just displeasure: for the causes of defeats in armys, they are harder to be found out than in any other of the actions of men, a word, a sound, the mooving or remooving of any body or squadron, may be, and have beane, the causes of the losse of battles, and how often have pannicke feares seazed upon them, that never any ground or resone could be given for? Lay not the fault upon this or that, coming doune, or not staing upon a ground of advantage, or upon this person or the other. That is the worst way of all, for nothing devided nor discord can stand or prosper, but leaste of all ane army; any thing of that kinde is the sodaine ruine of it. Upon any other constitution it will not worke so soone. Therefore wee intreete and charge you, as ye feare God, love his cause in your hands, have affection to your countrie, or respect to us, that you will remember, you are brethren in a covenant, and that you now stand up and joyne together as one man for religion, your countrie, your wives, children, liberties, and us, as your predecessors have done in their difficulties in their generations. Wee shall as willingly as any of them be ready to hazarde our lyfe (nay to lay it down) with you for God, the covenant, and the honor and freedom of this hitherto unconquered kyngdome, with any handful you have together, or when it shall be thought convenient." (Thurloe's State Papers, vol. i. p.163.) The gross hypocrisy of Charles, in putting his name to a letter containing sentiments like these, and thus exciting false expectations in the minds of his credulous subjects, must be apparent to all who are acquainted with his subsequent history. -- Ed.]

262 [The narrative of Hume presents an affecting posture of the cruelties perpetrated at the time of the Irish insurrection and massacre. (Hist. of Eng. vol. iv. pp.361-366, Lond.1825). It is said that "200,000 Protestants in two months space, were murdered, and many by exquisite torments, and many more were despoiled of all their worldly fortunes." (May's Brevary, p.33. First printed in the year 1655. Reprinted London 1813). For several years after this period, Ireland was laid waste by contending armies and by the wild rage of the native inhabitants. -- Ed.]

263 [A reference to this passage may be seen in the Life of the Author prefixed to the Work. -- Ed.]

264 [That is, compensated. -- Ed.]

265 [When the national covenant was first subscribed by King James and his household, and by persons of all ranks, in the year 1581, a number of Jesuits and popish priests had unexpectedly made their appearance in the country. Various dispensations from the Pope likewise had been intercepted, whereby the Catholics were permitted to promise, swear, subscribe, and do what else should be required of them, so as in mind they continued firm, and did use their diligence to advance in secret the Roman faith. These dispensations, says Archbishop Spotswood, "being showed to the king, he caused his minister, Mr John Craig, form a short confession of faith, wherein all the corruptions of Rome, as well in doctrine as outward rites, were particularly abjured and a clause inserted (because of these dispensations) by which the subscribers did call God to witness that in their minds and hearts they did fully agree to the said confession, and did not feign or dissemble in any sort. This confession [or covenant] the king, for an example to others, did publicly swear and subscribe; the like was done by the whole council and court." (Hist. of Ch. of Scotland, pp.308, 309). By an ordinance of council and at the desire of the General Assembly, the national covenant, along with a Bond for the maintenance of the true religion, and the safety of the king's person and government, was again subscribed by persons of all ranks in the year 1590. This Bond had been previously entered into and signed by his majesty, and various men of rank and station in the kingdom, in anticipation of the threatened Spanish invasion, and as a counter association to the Holy League, which had been formed by the most powerful popish princes in Europe with a view to extirpate the reformed religion. When the national covenant was renewed in 1638, and once more subscribed by all classes of the community, the Bond which accompanied it was altered to suit the circumstances of the times. It expressed a solemn determination on the part of those who subscribed it to aim at "a personal reformation," as well as a resolution to withhold their sanction from the late innovations in religion, "till they be tried and allowed in free Assemblies, and in Parliaments." These are the words -- "And because we cannot look for a blessing from God upon our proceedings, except with our profession and subscription we join such a life and conversation as beseemeth Christians who have renewed their covenant with God. We therefore faithfully promise for ourselves, our followers, and all others under us, both in public, and in our particular families and personal carriage, to endeavour to keep ourselves within the bounds of Christian liberty, and to be good examples to others of all godliness, soberness, and righteousness, and of every duty we owe to God and man" (Dunlop's Confessions vol. II., p.136.). The following corresponding clause is contained in the Solemn League and Covenant, which was ratified by the parliaments both of England and Scotland, and subscribed generally by the people of both kingdoms in 1643, and renewed in Scotland in 1648. -- "And because these kingdoms are guilty of many sins and provocations against God, and his Son Jesus Christ, as is too manifest by our present distresses and dangers, the fruits thereof, we profess and declare before God and the world, our unfeigned desire to be humbled for our own sins, and for the sins of these kingdoms, especially that we have not, as we ought, valued the inestimable benefit of the gospel; that we have not laboured for the purity and power thereof, and that we have not endeavoured to receive Christ in our hearts, nor to walk worthy of him in our lives, which are the causes of other sins and transgressions so much abounding among us, and our true and unfeigned purpose, desire, and endeavour for ourselves, and all others under our power and charge, both in public and in private, in all duties we owe to God and to man, to amend our lives, and each one to go before another in the example of a real reformation, that the Lord may turn away his wrath and heavy indignation, and establish these churches and kingdoms in truth and peace." -- Ed.]

266 [Nemo repente fuit turpissimus -- Juv. Sat. II. v.83.]

267 [Num. xxiii.21. -- Ed.]

268 [Jer. l.20. -- Ed.]

269 ["About the time of the first renewing of the covenant, there was a sensible change to the better in men's carriage and conversation, most of all those who joined in opposing the defection not only reforming themselves from common and gross sins such as drunkenness, uncleanness, swearing, profaning the Lord's day, slighting of the ordinances, self seeking, covetousness, oppression, &c., but giving themselves to the duties of religion and righteousness, such as sobriety, edifying discourse, chaste behaviour, hallowing of the Lord's day, diligent seeking of the Lord in secret and in their families, attending on the preaching of the word as often as opportunity is offered, liberality, love, charity one toward another, a public spirit and zeal for God. But all these things are now decayed in many and they are again grown as ill if not worse than before." Causes of the Lord's Wrath against Scotland. pp.48, 49. Printed in the year 1653. -- Ed.]

270 [Much less. -- Ed.]

271 [An inference unfavourable to the religious character of the countrymen of Binning, has been too hastily drawn from this and some other passages in his works. (Orme's Mem. of Dr. Owen, p.129). The late Dr M'Crie observed, that this was like "the attempts of popish writers to prove the Reformation a Deformation, by culling quotations from the sermons of such Protestant preachers as inveighed most freely against prevailing vices." (Christ. Inst. vol. xx. p.624). In the "Representation, Propositions, and Protestations," however, "of divers Ministers, Elders, and Professors," printed in the year 1652, and probably about the time this sermon was preached, it is affirmed, that the religious aspect of the country had undergone an unhappy change, in the course of the two preceding years. "If we look back," it is said, p.3 "to that which we have already attained of the work of Reformation, (notwithstanding our short-coming in the power and practice of godliness,) what purity was there of worship, what soundness of doctrine, unity of faithful pastors, order and authority of assemblies, what endeavours for promoting the power of godliness, for purging of the ministry, judicatories and armies, and for employing such in places of power and trust as were of constant integrity and good affection to the cause, and of blameless conversation? And again, if we consider how in place of these, within these two years, have succeeded, for unity, division, for order, confusion, for purity of worship, outward contempt; for the power of godliness, atheism and profaneness; for purging of the ministry, judicatories and armies, sinful mixtures; for zeal, lukewarmness and toleration, -- it is too palpable that we are far gone on in the way of declining, having lost much of that which we had attained, and that which remains being ready to die." -- Ed.]

272 [The author and the other protesters disapproved not only of the proceedings of the civil and ecclesiastical judicatures, but of the composition of these courts, after the act of classes had been rescinded on the 30th of May, 1651. In consequence of the repeal of this act, they who, on account of what was in the language of the times called malignancy, had formerly been excluded from their places in the Scottish parliament, were allowed to take possession of their seats, by signing a bond, the terms of which the parliament prescribed. This the protesters considered to be wrong as a matter both of policy and principle. They likewise declared the assembly, which in July, 1651, met at St. Andrews, and afterwards adjourned to Dundee, and also that which was held in Edinburgh, in July, 1652, to be "unlawful and corrupt," adding, that "although with the renewing of the national covenant, and with the casting out of prelates, and the corruptions introduced by them, the Lord was graciously pleased to give repentance to not a few who were involved in that defection; yet, since that time, there hath always remained a corrupt party of insufficient, scandalous, and ill-affected ministers in the kirk, enemies to the power of godliness, and obstructors to the work of reformation, ... that party perceiving that they were not able to endure trial in a time of reformation and purging, began the last year to lift up their heads, and speak a language of their own," &c. (Representation, ut supra, pp.11, 12). The protesters, moreover, are found complaining at this period, "how gracious and well qualified elders are removed and kept out from church judicatories, and ignorant and profane persons brought in, and more endeavoured to be brought in in their room, how gifted and gracious young men are debarred from entering into the ministry, and a door is opened to others, whereof some are loose and profane, and many are ignorant and strangers to the work of the Lord upon their own hearts." -- Letter from Protesters, subscribed in the name of many ministers, &c. met at Edinburgh, 17th of March 1653, by Mr. Andrew Cant, p.6. See what is said in reply to this, in "The Assertor's Answer," printed in the same year, p.18. -- Ed.]

273 [Acknowledge. -- Ed.]

274 [See note, page 126. -- Ed.]

275 [Recognise. -- Ed.]

276 [That is, genius or ingenuity (from ingenium, Lat.) "But gif corporall doth be commoun to all. Why will ye jeoparde to lois eternall life to eschap that which neither ryche nor pure, neither wise nor ignorant, proud of stomoke nor febill of corage, and finally, no earthlie creature by no craft or engine of man, did ever avoid?" Letter of John Knox from Dieppe. -- Ed.]

277 [That is, "He who cries up his descent boasts of that which is another's." -- Ed.]

278 [Much less. -- Ed.]

279 [This is a literal translation of a Greek proverb which is quoted by Aulus Gellius (Noct. Att. lib. xiii. cap.17) and which has been rendered into Latin thus: -- Multa cadunt inter calicem labrumque supremum. -- Ed.]

280 [Diod. Sic. Bibl. lib. i. p.68.

Venit ad occasum, mun lique extrema Sesostris,
Et Pharios currus regum cervicibus egit.
Lucan lib. x. ver.276.

The farthest west our great Sesostris saw,
Whilst captive kings did his proud chariot draw.
May's Translation.

Sesostris was so much affected and humbled, by the delicate appeal of the enslaved monarch, that he immediately commanded him, and the other unhappy kings who were harnessed to his car, to be removed from it. -- Theophylact Hist. Maurit. lib. vi. chap. ii. Joan Tzetz. Hist. Chibad. iii.69. -- Ed.]

281 [See note page 98. -- Ed.]

282 [Hear, O heavens and give ear, O earth. ver.2. -- Ed.]

283 [Regret, or accusation. -- Ed.]

284 [Agreeably to the course of discipline in former ages, (Hooker's Eccl. Pol. vol. iii. p.15,) they who had been convicted of any gross crime were required by the First Book of Discipline, (chap. ix.) and by subsequent enactments of the Church of Scotland, to confess their sin in the hearing of the whole congregation. The same thing was required of delinquents by the canons of the Church of England. Dr. Grey, in his Impartial Examination of Neale's History of the Puritans, (App. pp.62-68,) has, from original documents which were in his own possession, furnished us with various forms, according to which, towards the end of the sixteenth century, offenders were appointed to make their confession, in different parts of England, in their respective parish-churches. The dues which, in cases of scandal, were exacted by the ecclesiastical courts of Scotland, were imposed and defined by acts of parliament. Power to levy these was given to justices of the peace, who were frequently members of the kirk session, or parochial consistory of their district. In the year 1648, the General Assembly "recommended to every congregation, to make use of the 9th act of the parliament 1645, at Perth, for having magistrates and justices in every congregation." (Rec. of Kirk of Scot. p.511, Edn.1839.) It was in this way, it would seem, or from elders acting both in a civil and in an ecclesiastical capacity, that the practice of exacting fines by kirk sessions arose and was continued. "You object that our church sessions did exact fines. But if you consider, that these fines, which you mention, are particularly imposed and determined by statute, and thereby appointed to be applied to pious uses, and therefore the demanding and uplifting thereof only, as well for the more summary and effectual restraint of sin, as for the end whereto they are destined, is in use to be exercised by kirk sessions, or rather by their officers and beadles in deficiency of the magistrate, this your scruple must quickly cease." "The True Non-Conformist," p.55, printed abroad in the year 1671. -- Ed.]

285 [See Note, page 375. -- Ed.]

286 [This passage is quoted in the Life of the Author. -- Ed.]

287 [That is, the persons who prescribe or appoint it. -- Ed.]

288 ["The longer I live in the world the less fond am I of that divinity that stand upon quirks and subtilties. What should drive us upon determining whether faith or repentance goes first? What valuable ends or purposes in religion can it serve to promote? What edification can it give to an audience to dispute learnedly about a point of this nature?... I cannot but heartily approve what Mr Robert Blair, an eminent light of this church now in glory, said upon the question in hand. He told his people from the pulpit, that it was a very needless one. 'Tis just (said he,) as if you should ask me, when we are to walk, which foot should we lift first. If we should walk to purpose we must make use of both limbs; and so despatched the thorny question. I wish we may all imitate the wisdom of that great and good man. Is it not sufficient for us to declare that both are necessary, without determining the nice point of priority and posterority?" (Essay on Gospel and Legal Preaching, by a Minister of the Church of Scotland, pp.22, 23. Edin.1723.) "Mr. Robert Blair, born in Irvine, was first a Regent in the College of Glasgow, at which time he was licensed to preach the gospel, and was from the beginning zealous for truth and piety." (Livingston's Memorable Characteristics, p.73) Mr. Blair died in 1666 in the 73d year of his age. (See Memoirs of the Life of Mr. Robert Blair, the first part written by himself, p.128, Edin.1754.) Mr. James Durham, Minister of the High Church of Glasgow, a short time before his death, intrusted to him the publication of his "Dying Man's Testament to the Church of Scotland, or a Treatise concerning Scandal," to which Mr. Blair wrote a preface. Principal Baillie gives this account of Blair, "Truly, I bear that man record that in all his English voyages, in many passages of the Assembly, private and public, he contributed as much to the pacifying of our differences as any, and much more than many." Journals and Letters, vol. i. p.306. -- Ed.]

289 [Or, sin itself. -- Ed.]

290 [That is, power of persuasion. -- Ed.]

291 [This is the word in the first Edition. It would seem to have been substituted for arrive. -- Ed.]

292 [That is, unless you please. -- Ed.]

293 [A proverb, which signifies that conscience does not deceive, and that its testimony is as overwhelming as that of a thousand witnesses -- Quintil Inst Orator lib. v. chap. xi. -- Ed.]

294 [That is, not to will. -- Ed.]

295 [See Note, page 96. Si vis cadem semper vella, vera oportet velis. -- "If you are desirous to have always similar wishes, it is necessary that you should wish for things that are proper." Senec. Epist. xcv. -- Ed.]

296 [That is, laid open or explained. -- Ed.]

297 [Dispone is a Scots law expression. It signifies to convey a right or property to another. -- Ed.]

298 See:

Non bene conveniunt, nec in una sede morantur,
Majestus et amor.

Ovid. Met. lib. ii. v.846. -- Ed.]


300 [The Goel ({HEBREW LETTER LAMED}{HEBREW LETTER ALEF}{HEBREW LETTER GIMEL}), or nearest kinsman, was, by the Mosaic law, entitled not only to redeem a forfeited inheritance, but to avenge the blood of any of the family, by slaying the murderer, if he found him out of a city of refuge. He was therefore called the redeemer, or "avenger of blood," Josh. xx.3. -- Ed.]

301 [The word {GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} denotes the price of redemption, or that which is given to purchase the freedom of those who are in a state of captivity. "Even as the Son of man came not to be ministered to but to minister, and to give his life a ransom ({GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}) for many" (Matt. xx.28, Mark x.45). {GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU} is but once used in the New Testament. Its gratification is a counter-price, or the ransom that is paid when the life or person of one is given for that of another. "For there is but one God and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus, who gave himself a ransom ({GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}) for all," 1 Tim. ii.5, 6. Vide Leigh's Critica Sacra. -- Ed.]

302 [That is, proposed. -- Ed.]

303 [That is, however. -- Ed.]

304 [Verse 6. -- Ed.]

305 [That is, place it upon God or charge him with it. -- Ed.]

306 [That is, adorned itself. -- Ed.]

307 [Scottice for than. -- Ed.]

308 [There is some obscurity in this sentence. The sentiment that is expressed, however, seems to be this: -- Much love to a particular object makes the act of seeking or praying for it to be loved more. -- Ed.]

309 [That is, an earnest (arrha Lat.). -- Ed.]

310 [Yule is a name that is still applied to Christmas, in the Northern parts of England as well as in Scotland. "This name was originally given to the great annual feast celebrated among the northern nations, at the time of the winter solstice in honour of the sun. Hence Odin was denominated Julvatter, or the Father of Yule." (Jamieson's Etymological Dictionary of the Scottish language.) "He praised God that he was born in such a time, as in the time of the light of the gospel -- to such a place as to be king of such a kirk, the sincerest kirk of the world. The kirk of Geneva keep Pasch and Yule; what have they for them? They have no institution. As for our neighbour kirk in England their service is an evil sad mass in English, they want nothing of the mass but the liftings." (Speech of King James VI, to the Central Assembly of the Church of Scotland, at Edinburgh, August 1590. Calderwood's Hist. of the Ch. of Scot. p.206.) What is called the birch or "birk in Yule even'" was probably the Yule clog. On Christmas eve at no very remote period, the Yule clog, which was a large shapeless piece of wood, selected for the purpose, was dragged by a number of persons bearing in their hand large candles, and placed by them on the fire where it was to be burned in compliance with an ancient superstitious custom. Our author may refer to this practice or perhaps he had simply in view the old proverb, "He's as bare as the birk at Yule." -- Henderson's Scottish Proverbs, p.47. Edin.1832. -- Ed.]

311 [The records of the kirk session of the parish of Govan, during the incumbency of the author, after having been lost for many years, were fortunately recovered not long ago. These show the great strictness of the ecclesiastical discipline of those days. There were not fewer than twenty-two elders in the kirk session. Each of these had a ward or district assigned to him, of which it was his duty to take a particular superintendence. It was hardly possible, therefore, that any irregularity of which a parishioner was guilty could be concealed, and consequently, what is recorded in the register is to be regarded, not as a specimen, but as the gross amount of the immorality of the parish. Some may affect to ridicule the severe notice that was taken of particular instances of misconduct. But the cognizance that was taken of such things is a proof of the high tone of moral and religious feeling that prevailed at that time among the office bearers of the church. Individuals, we find, were brought before the kirk session, on account of family and domestic feuds, for quarrelling with their neighbours, for solitary instances of drunkenness, and of the use of profane language, for carrying water on the Lord's day, for sleeping in church, for resorting to taverns on the Sabbath, for calumny, and for neglecting the education of their children, &c. They who were convicted of such offences, were sometimes rebuked in private by an elder, and at other times by the minister in the presence of the eldership. It was only in the case of graver offences, the number of which was comparatively small, that a reproof was administered in the presence of the congregation. -- Ed.]

312 [In the "Causes of the Lord's Wrath against Scotland, agreed upon by the Commission of the General Assembly," 1650, "Backsliding and defection from the covenants and our solemn vows and engagements," is specified (p.46) to be "one of the greatest and most comprehensive and provoking sins in the land." Printed in the year 1653. -- Ed.]

313 [This is the language of a man who did not use "at any time flattering words," or utter to his people "smooth things." From what he says here, however, and in some other sermons, and from corresponding evidence which might be adduced, we are forced to conclude that the well-known description which Kirkton has given of the state of religion in Scotland in those days, (Hist. of Ch. of Scot. pp.48, 54, 64) must be too highly coloured. The presence of a large military force and a state of civil warfare could not but be prejudicial, in various ways, to the religion and morality of a country. I am perfectly aware that the authority of Lord Clarendon, Bishop Burnet, Milton, and others, may be brought forward to prove that the parliamentary soldiers were kept under the strictest discipline, and were remarkable for their grave deportment. But I know likewise that the characters of not a few of those soldiers are seriously affected by the offensive details of the ecclesiastical records of the parish with which Binning was connected. -- Ed.]

314 [See Note, p.368. -- Ed.]

315 [Or together. -- Ed.]

316 [That is, explain. -- Ed.]

317 [Coldly or indifferently. -- Ed.]

318 [Languishing. -- Ed.]

319 ["Upon Sunday, the 27th of February [1642], a declaration was read out of the old town pulpit [Aberdeen] by our minister, Mr William Strahan, showing the state of the Protestants in Ireland, and how their wives and bairns were miserably banished, and forced to flee into the west parts of Scotland for refuge, and the land not able to sustain them. It was found expedient that ilk parish within the kingdom should receive a collection of ilk man's charity for their help and support, whereupon was collected of this poor parish fourscore pounds." (Spalding's "History of the Troubles in Scotland," vol. i. p.34. Aberdeen, 1792.) "As a body, the presbyterians [in Ireland] suffered less by the ravages of the rebellion than any other class. The more influential of their ministers, and the principal part of their gentry, had previously retired to Scotland to escape the tyranny of Strafford and the severities of the bishops and were thus providentially preserved." (Dr. Reid's "History of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland," vol. i, p.339.) After the execution of Charles I, an oath called the Engagement, was framed by the English parliament, requiring all persons to be "faithful to the commonwealth of England as now established, without a king or house of lords." The Irish ministers refused to take this oath. The republicans were irritated by this refusal, and by the loyalty of the ministers, who publicly preached against them. They therefore imprisoned some of the ministers, while others fled to the woods, and some to Scotland. At length, at a council of war held at Carrickfergus in March, 1651, a formal act of banishment from the kingdom was passed against them. "Those that staid in the country, though they could not exercise their ministry orderly as formerly, and though their stipends were sequestered, yet they, changing their apparel to the habit of countrymen, travelled in their own parishes frequently, and sometimes in other places, taking what opportunities they could to preach in the fields, or in barns and glens, and were seldom in their own houses. They persuaded the people to constancy in the received doctrines, in opposition to the wild heresies which were then spreading, and reminding them of their duty to their lawful magistrates, the king and parliament, in opposition to the usurption of the times, and in their public prayers always mentioning the lawful magistrate. This continued throughout the summer of 1651, at which time there was diligent search made anew for them. Some were again taken, others fled, and those who were taken were imprisoned first, for a time, in Carrickfergus, in lodgings where they quartered; and thereafter, Colonel Venables not gaining any ground upon them, they were sent to Scotland." Adair's MS. apud Dr. Reid's Hist. vol. ii. p.246-248. See also a narrative of the sufferings of the Irish Presbyterians, for their religion and loyalty, in the "Sample of Jet-Black Calumny," p.214. -- Ed.]

320 [What is perhaps meant is, it swelleth much. -- Ed.]

321 [That is, that can lay claim to the favour of his Saviour even when his Saviour turns away his face from him. -- Ed.]

322 [What is here said would seem to fix the date of this sermon. It appears to have been preached before the battle of Dunbar. -- Ed.]

323 [That is, strongly. -- Ed.]

324 [That is, his utmost. -- Ed.]

325 [It is evident from this, and similar references to recent events, that the Case of Conscience must have been written in the early part of the year 1651. The proceedings of the commission of the General Assembly, from July 1650 to July 1661, fill a large MS volume of more than 400 pages. These proceedings have never been printed, with the exception of certain detached papers, which are found engrossed in the controversial pamphlets and journals of the times. -- Peterkin's "Records of the Kirk of Scotland," p.592. -- Ed.]

326 ["The Gen. Assembly itself at Edinburgh, in July thereafter, did, upon the 19 of that moneth, publish a Declaration, in which they give warning concerning Malignants thus: -- 'We exhort all those who are in publick trust in ye comitee of Estates, or otherwise, not only to take good head of their private walking that it be suitable to the Gospel of Jesus Christ, and of their families and followers, that they bee void of offence, but also be straight in the cause and covenant, and not to seek themselves, nor befriend any who have been enemies to the Lord's work, self-seeking, and conniving at, and complying with, and pleading for Malignants, having been publick sins that have been often complained of; and we wish to God yr were no cause to complain of these things still, notwithstanding of the solemne confession of them, and ingadging against them. God forbid that any mocke the Lord. He is a severe avenger of all such things, and there is the more reason at this time not to own Malignants, because it is ordinary with men so to be taken with the sense of the dangers such is before them as not to look back to that which is behind hem. There may be inclinations in some to employ these men, and make use of them, that we may be strengthened in this and in our neighbour land, but God hath hitherto cursed all such counsels, and blasted such resolutions, and if we shall again fall into this sin, as our guilt shal be so much the greater by reasone of many promises and ingadgments to the contrair, so we may expect ane heavier judgment from the Lord upon it. Let us keep the Lord's way, and though we be few and weake, the Lord shall be with us, and make us to prosper and prevail. They are not fit for the work of God, and for the glorious dispensations of his more than ordinary works of power and providence in these times, who cannot beleive nor act any thing beyonde what sense and reasone can make clear unto them from the beginning unto ye end of their undertakings. Former experiences and present straits call upon us that we should act and follow our deutie in such a way as may magnify the Lord, and make it known to others that we may live by Faith.' -- 'The Waters of Sihor,' or the Lands Defectione, By Mr. James Guthrie, Minister of Stirling," Wodrow MSS vol. xvii. p.41, in Bib. Ad. -- Ed.]

327 ["At Stirlinge, the 12 of Septem.1650. A shorte declaration and warninge to all the congregations of the Kirk of Scotland, from the commissioners of the General Assembly.

"Albeit the Lord quhosse judgments are unsearchable, and quhosse wayes past finding out, has brought the land werey low wnder the hand of ane prewaillinge enemey, yet must we not forbeare to declair the mynd of God, nor vthers refusse to hearken thereto. It wer superfluous to give answer to the maney calumnies and reproches that are blazed abroad, for albeit in every thing we cannot justify the conducte of the armey, yet we hold it our deutie to desyre every one not to beleive groundless reports, bot rather to eye the Lord, and looke vpe to the hand that smytts them. And therfor, in the first place, we exhort and warne all the inhabitants of the land, to searche out ther iniquities, and to be deeplie humbled before the Lord, that he may turn away his wraith from us. The Lord hath wounded us and chasteissed us sore, wiche sayes that our iniquities are muche, and that our sins are increessed. It concerneth the King to mourne for all the grivous provocations of his father's housse, and for all his auen guiltiness, and to consider if he hes come to the covenant, and joined himselve to the Lord, upone politicke interests, for gaining a croune to himselve rather then to advance religione and righteousness, that it is iniquitie quhilk God will not forgett excepte it be speedilie repented offe. It concerns our nobles and judges to consider wither ther carriadge in publicke matters be straight and equall, or rather savoring of seeking themselves and the thinges of this worlde, and how they walke in ther families, and in ther privat conversations. There is in maney a grate deall of perversenes and incorrigiblenes in regard of forsaking some and performing some deuties, notwithstanding publecke confessions and engagements, and this cannot bot heighlie provock the Lord. And it concerneth the officers of the armey, especially thesse quho are cheiffe among them, to weight weell quhat the Lord hes against them, and to repent of ther diffidence and carnall way of acting and undervaluing of God's people. And ministers have also neid to searche themselves concerning ther faithfullness to be sound, for wiche God is angrie, doutles even amongest thesse is muche negligence. Albeit the Lord hes suffred that armey of perfideous and blasphemous sectaries to prevaill. Yet God forbid that the land should complay with him, quhatever may be the plauseable and faire carriage of some of that enimey, yet doubtless there is ane levin of error and hypocrassy amongest them wich all the lovers of treuth wold decern and avoyd. As the Lord hes trayed the stability and integritie of his people in the land heirtofore, by the prevailing of malignants, so doeth he now tray them by the prevailing of sectaries, and wee trust they will thinke it ther deutie and commendatione to prove staidfast against them als weill as the other.

"3. Nather wold men be lesse cairfull and active to opposse the enimey, then they have beine in opposeing malignants heirtofor, our religione, lives, liberties and estaits, are als muche in hazard now as ever, all the ordinances of Jesus Christ in the land are in danger, and the foundatione lyke to be overturnid by thesse men quho are oblidged, by the band of the covenant, to mantiene all thesse and it wer a grate guiltines to ly doune and complay, and crutche under the burden of the strange impositions that they will lay upon us, and as men without head, to suffer our land to be brought in bondage and ourselves to be robbed of all thesse things quhilk are most precious and deire to us. If wee should doe so, the Lord wold be angrie with us, and our posterity could not bot curss us.

"4. We would not think that all danger from the malignants is now gone, seeing that ther is a grate maney suche in the land, quho still retein ther former principales, therfor we wolde, with als muche watchfullnes and tendernes now as ever, avoyde ther snars, and beware of complayance and conjunctione with them, and take head, that under a pretence of doing for the king and kingdome they gett not power and strenth unto ther handes, for advanceing and promoveing ther old malignant desseinges. Doubtles our saftie is in holding fast our former principales, and keeping a straighte faithe, without declyning to the right hand ore to the lefte.

"5. It concernes all the inhabitants of the land to bewarre of murmuring and complaning against God's dispensations, and questioning the treuthe and goodnes of our causse or quarreling with God, or blaming or casting off the covenant, becausse of aney thing that hath befallin them, that wer a grate iniquitie not to be pardoned. Lett us beare the indignatione of the Lord patientlie, becausse wee have sinned against him, untill he plead our causse and execut judgment for us, he will bring us fourthe to the light, and we shall behold his righteousnes." -- Sir James Balfour's Annales, vol. iv. pp.98-102. -- Ed.]

328 ["Causes of a soleme publicke humiliatione upone the defait of the army, to be keepit throughout all the congregations of the Kirk of Scotland.

"Albeit soleme publicke humiliations hes beine muche slighted, and gone about in a formall way by maney in this land, so that it is not one of the least of our provocations that we have drawn neire to God with our mouthes and keepit our heartes fare from him, for wich the Lord hath turned the wisdome of the wysse unto foollishnes, and the strenthe of the strong men unto weaknes, yet seing it is a dutie that hath oftin provin comfortable to uswards, God doeth new call us in a speciall way by a singular peice of dispensatione, and knowing that all quho are acquainted with God in the land will make conscience of it, wee conceave it expedient that the quhole land be humbled for the causses following.

"1. The continued ignorance and profanitie of the bodie of the land, and the obstinacey and incorrigiblenes of maney, notwithstanding of all the caires that God hath takin upon us by his word, and by his workes of mercy and judgement, to teache us in the knowledge of his name, and to refraine us from the eivell of our wayes.

"2. The manifest provocations of the kinges housse wiche we feare are not throughlie repented off, nor forsaken by him to this day, togidder with the crooked and precipitant wayes that wer takin by sundrie of our statesmen for caring the trettey with the king.

"3. The bringing home with the king a grate maney malignants, and indevoring to keepe some of them about him, and maney of them in the kingdome, notwithstanding of publicke resolutions to the contrarey.

"4. The not purging of the kinges familie from malignant and profane men, and the constituting of the samen of weill affected and godlie persons, albeit it hathe beine oftin pressed upone the parliament and comittee of Estaits, undertaking and promessed to be performed by them.

"5. The leveing of a most malignant and profaine guard of horsse to be aboute the king, quho having beine sent for to be purgit aboute 2 dayes before the defaite, were suffred to be and feight in our armey.

"6. The exceiding grate slaknes of maney and aversnes and untowardnes of some in the cheiffe judicatories of the kingdome and in the armey, in guid motione and publick deuties, especially in thesse thinges that concerne the purging of judicatories and the armey from malignant and scandalous persons, and filling all places of powre and trust with men of knowen integritie and trust, and of a blamles and Christiane conversatione, togider with grate inclinations to keepe and bring in malignants to the judicatories and to the armey, as if the land could not be gydit and defendit without thesse, and grate repyning and craying out against all that is done to the contrarie, and studding to make the same ineffectual.

"7. The exceiding grate diffidence of some of the cheiffe leaders of our armey, and others amongest us quho thought wee could not be saved bot by ane numerous armey, who quhen wee have gottin many thousands togider, wold not hazard to acte aney thing, notwithstanding that God offred faire opportunities and advantages, and fitted the spiritts of the souldiers for ther deutie, for carnall confidence that was in maney of the armey, to the dispysing of the enimey and promising victorie to themselves without eying of God.

"8. The lousnes, insolencie and oppressione, of maney in the armey, and the litle or no caire that was taken by maney to preserve the corne, by wich it hath come to passe that verey much of the food of the poore people of the land have beine neidlesly destroyed, and quhile wee even remember this, we wishe that the prophanitie and oppressione of sundrie of oure officers and souldiers in Ingland, quhen we were fighting for the assistance of the parliament of that kingdome, may not be forgottin, because it was matter of stumbling in that land, so it is lyke it is ane of the causses of the sore indignatione now manifested against us by the hands of thesse men.

"9. Our grate unthankfullnes for former mercies and deliverances, and even for maney tokins of the Lords favor and goodness towards our present armey quhile they wer togider, and the grate impatience of spirit that was to be seine in maney thesse weekes past, quhilk made them limitt the Lord, and to compleine and weerie of his delaying of ane deliverance.

"10. The enving and eyeing of the kings intrest and quarrell by maney, without subordinatione to religione and the liberties and saveties of this kingdomes.

"11. The carnall selve seiking and crooked way of sundrie in our judicatories and armies, quho make ther employments and places rather ane matter of intrest and gain and preferment to themselves then of advancing religione and righteousness in the land.

"12. The not putting difference betwix thesse that fear God, and thesse that fear him not, for our services, our companie, our employments, bot acompting all men alike, maney times preferring thesse quho have nothing of God in them.

"13. The exceiding grate negligence that is in grate ones, and maney others, in performing the deuties in ther families notwithstanding of our former soleme acknowledgment of the samen; as also, our neglecte of the deuties of mutuall edificatione, and grate unfruitfullness and barrennes that is to be seene amongest all sorts of persons; togider with the following of deutie with a grate deall of mixture of carnall affections and fleschly wisdome wich grives the Spirit of God, and takes away muche of the beutie of the Lords image from our judicatories.

"As we wold be humbled for thesse thinges, so wold wee also intreat the Lord that he wold sanctifie this affliction to his people that they nather dispysse his chestisings, nor faint quhen they are rebukit of him, bot that they may beare his indignatione patiently, and cleive steadfestly to the treuthe, and the covenants, and the causse of God without yeilding to the power of the enimey, or receaving ther errors, or complaying ather with them on the one hand, ore malignants on the other, and that the Lord wold poure out of his Spirit upon the people, that ther spiritts may be raissed unto ther deutie, and that they may be filled and furnished of God with wisdome and resolutione to acte against their enimies for the honor of God, ther awen preservatione; and that the Lord wold not suffer them to be tempted above that whiche they are able to beare, bot that he wold break the yoke of ther oppressors from off ther neckes, and give them salvatione and deliverance; earnestly to intreat the Lord in private and in publicke that he wold preserve with us the ordinances of Jesus Christe, the kingdom, the kings maties persone, the ministrie, from the power of ther enimies, quho seekes the destruction of all." -- Id. pp.102-107. -- Ed.]

329 [See the Acts of the Parliaments of Scotland, Anno 1650, xxx Novembris, vol. vi. p.544. -- Ed.]

330 ["About this time the king's head was filled by some unhappy men about him, especially Dr. Fraser [who was the king's physician] and Henry Seymour, with many extreme fears. After the affront at Leith, they had raised suspicions in his mind, which, upon the defeat at Dunbar, were increased, but by the separate rising in the west brought near to the head of a design to break the treaty with him, and agree upon his expences with Cromwell. Upon these motions the malignants in the north stept in, and by the forenamed persons began a correspondence for the raising of the north for his present service, under the conduct of Middleton. So many noblemen were on this unhappy enterprise. Crawford was given out for its head and contriver, albeit be professed to me his opposition to it. Lauderdale knew of it; but he has said so far to me, that I believe him he opposed it to his power. However, the thing was so foolishly laid, and the king, by the counsels of those about him, was so various in giving order for that rising, sometimes commanding and then countermanding to rise, that all the party was put in a confusion; yet, by the information of these foresaid fools, the king being put in fear, that Lorn, going timely to bury a soldier, was drawing together his regiment to lay hands on him, contrary to his former resolutions, he took horse with some two or three, as if it had been to go a hawking, but crossed Tay, and stayed not till he came to Clowe in Angus. By the way he repented of the journey, and meeting with Lauderdale at Diddup, and Balcarras coming from Dundee by accident, was almost persuaded by them to return, yet by Diddup and Buchan he was kept in Clowe. But when he came to that miserably-accommodated house, and in place of the great promised forces, he saw nothing but a small company of Highlanders, he presently sent for Robert Montgomery, who was near with his regiment, and without more ado, did willingly return, exceedingly confounded and dejected for that ill-advised start. When it was first blazed abroad, it filled all good men with great grief, and to my own heart it brought one of the most sensible sorrows that in all nay life I had felt. Yet his quick return of his own accord, and his readiness to give all satisfaction for that failure, and his kind receiving by the committee of states, among whom he ever sat after his return (though never before) turned our grief suddenly into joy, his absence not lasting above two full days. Yet all men were not so soon satisfied.

"Sundry of them who had been on the plot, fearing a discovery and punishment, flew to arms; Lewis Gordon, Ogilvie, Athol, and others, under Middleton's command, putting out a number of fair pretexts for their rising. This might have destroyed all; yet, by God's mercy, all was quickly quieted. D. Leslie, with all his horse, marched towards them; the king wrote earnestly to them to lay down. The committee of estates sent a fair act of indemnity, and so without more ado they went home." -- Baillie's Letters, vol. ii. p.356.

Middleton, like the Marquis of Montrose, had been at one time a covenanter. After the Restoration, he was appointed to open the Scottish parliament, as his Majesty's commissioner. But this did not prevent him from taking part in the debate, when the Act Rescissory, by which the presbyterian form of church polity was completely destroyed, was under consideration. Mr. David Dickson, along with some others, was delegated by the presbytery of Edinburgh to present to the Earl of Middleton a petition upon this subject. Middleton told Mr. Dickson "he was mistaken if he thought to terrify him with papers, -- he was no coward." Mr. Dickson dryly replied, "They knew well he was no coward ever since the bridge of Dee." This was a skirmish which took place on the 19th of June, 1638, in which Middleton had displayed great zeal for the covenant, in opposition to Charles I. He took no notice of Mr. Dickson's sarcastic remark. -- Kirkton's "History of the Church of Scotland," p.118. -- Ed.]

331 [This was the "Acte of Pardon and Indemnitie, granted by the King and Comittee of Estaites to the Northerne Rebells, 26 October, 1650, and proclaimed at the mercat crosse of Perth, the 29th ditto, by Rosse Heraulde, A.L." See Balfour's Annales, vol. iv. p.132. -- Ed.]

332 [He refers to "The Northerne Band and Othe of Engagement sent by Mideltone to L. Generall David Lesley, 26th of October, 1650." Middleton and the other subscribers of the Bond promise and swear that they "shall manteine the trew religione, as it is established in Scotland; the covenant, league and covenant, the Kings Majesties persone, prerogative, gratnes and authoritie; the previllidges of parliament and freedome of the subjects." -- Id. p.129. -- Ed.]

333 [See the Acts of the Parliaments of Scotland, ut supra. -- Ed.]

334 [The reader will find a very interesting account of the negociations at Breda, in "A Brief Historical Relation of the Life of Mr. John Livingston, Minister at Ancrum in Scotland, and last at Rotterdam in Holland," who was one of the commissioners sent from Scotland to Breda (pp.39-52. Glasgow, 1754). Dr. Cook, who quotes from the MS., does not seem to have been aware that the Life of Livingston was ever printed. See his "History of the Church of Scotland," vol. iii. p.177, note. -- Ed.]

335 ["Immediately after the Scots army had marched in to England to the parliament's assistance, did the King commissionate Montrose to raise a war in Scotland, by which he made account either to oblige the covenanters to recall their army out of England, or at least to make that nation smart for their boldness. And this indeed he did effectually, for landing in the West Highlands, with a party of bloody Irish papists, who had been but a little before clashed in the cruel massacre of the innocent protestants he overran the whole country and beat the covenanters forces in six bloody conflicts. His war, I believe, was the most cruel in the world." (Kirkton's History, p.43) "Montrose's History is written in good Latin (supposed to be by Bishop Wishart), but with as little truth as most in the world." Id. p.122. -- Ed.]

336 [Sir James Turner and Colonel Urrey were sent to the west of Scotland with their respective regiments, in 1648 to overawe and reduce to obedience, those who were averse to Hamilton's Engagement. (Guthry's Memoirs, p.272 second edition). This service seems to have been perfectly congenial to the habits and taste of Sir James Turner, who appears, says Sir Walter Scott, ("Tales of a Grandfather," vol. ii. p.211. Edin.1829), by the account he gives of himself in his Memoirs to have been an unscrupulous plunderer, and other authorities describe him as a fierce and dissolute character. On coming to Glasgow, the way he took, as he himself tells us with considerable gusto, "to make the hardest headed Covenanter in the toune to forsake the kirk and side with the Parliament," was to quarter on suspected persons "two or three troopers and halfe a dozen musketeers." In the same heartless strain he proceeds to say -- "Finding my Glasgow men groune prettie tame, I tenderd them a short paper, which whoever signed I promisd, sould be presentlie easd of all quartering." It was nothing but a submission to all orders of Parliament, agreeable to the Covenant. This paper was afterward, by some merrie men christend Turner's Covenant. (Memoirs of his own Life and Times by Sir James Turner, pp.53, 54 printed at Edinburgh, by the Bannatyne Club, in 1829). As he was deprived of his rank by the Act of Classes in 1649, Sir James Turner was one of those pretended penitents, of whom according to Bishop Burnet, "all churches were full" after the passing of the Public Resolutions. (Memoires of the Duke of Hamilton, p.425.) "Martii 12, 1651. The qlk day was given in ane lettre from the comission of the kirk, the tenour whereof follows, -- Reverende and loving brethrene, having received a petition how general adjutant James Turner, acknowledgeing verie humblie his sin, in ye great accession he had to that unlawful engadgement against England, and partcularlie his impious carriage in your citie by perturbing divine service, he seems to be verie sensible of his former miscarriage. We however still continue him under conference wt presbyteries hear. Bot if we shall find him in a condition to mak publik satisfaction, we desire to know of you, if he can com and staye there wt safetie, and without danger from the enemie, that he may satisfie in ye kirk of Glasgow, which we thinke the most convenient place for removing the scandal, that if he can be secur, he may be appoynted to com to you, and if not, we may tak such other course as shall be thought most convenient. We have no more to say, bot commending you in all thingis to ye Lordis direction, we remain your loving brethrene the comissioners of ye generall assemblie. Perth, 13 Feb 1651. Sic subscribitur, Mr. Robert Douglas, Moderator." (Records of the Presbytery of Glasgow.)

What Principal Baillie says of the oppressive conduct of Sir James Turner at Glasgow, during the time of the Engagement, is this -- "Some regiments of horse and foot were sent to our town, with orders to quarter on no other but the magistrates, council, session, and their lovers. These orders were executed with rigour. On the most religious people of our town, huge burdens did fall. On some 10, on some 20, on others 30 soldiers and more, did quarter, who, beside meat and drink, wine, and good cheer, and whatever they called for, did exact cruelly their daily pay, and much more. In ten days, they cost a few honest but mean people, 40,000 lb., besides plundering of those whom necessity forced to flee from their houses." Letters and Journals, vol. ii. p.294. -- Ed.]

337 ["Stirling, 27 Sept, 1650: The comittee of Estaits considering the necessarey devine lying upone them in prosecutione of the acte of parliament and according to the frequent and serious remonstrances of the commissione of the churche for purging of the kings familey of all profaine, scandalous, malignant, and disaffected persons, and that it be constituted of such as are pious, and well affected to the cause and covenant qwho have not opposed the same by ther counsells and actions. And lykewayes considering the grate offence hes beine taken that the persons after nominated have not removed from courte nor departed out of the kingdome respectively, and having taken also into consideratione the report of the sub comittee, appoynted to think on the purging of the kings familey doth heirby therfor ordaine and command, The French Marques of Villaneuffe, The Earle of Cleveland, Lord Wentworthe his son, Viscount Grandeson, Lord Volmett, Lord Withringtone, Robert Long, Secretarey, Sr Edward Walker, Garter, Mr. Progers, Groome of His Maties Bed chamber, Master Lane, Master Marche, Colonell Darcey, Mr. Antoney Jacksone, Major Jacksone, Colonell Loes, Master Oder, Under Secretary Lord St. Paule, Sr Philipe Musgrave, Sr Faithful Fortskew, Sr Timothey Featherstons, L Coll Meutis, Collonell Carbraithe, to depart the courte within 24 houres, and to remove out of the kingdome within 20 dayes after intunatione, and Doctor Fraser and Sr George Melveill to withdraw from the court within 24 houres." (Sir James Balfour's Annales of Scotland, vol. iv. pp.109, 110). Sir Edward Walker, whose name is included in the above list, says, "Money being ordered for my transportation, which I never got I was connived at for about three months, and therein had the opportunity to collect and write my observations of the Affairs as they then stood. Yet upon Friday the 4th of October, I was, by Sir James Balfour, lion king of arms, commanded from court, which I presently obeyed, and about a month after imbarqued for Holland, where I resided several years after." (Historical Discourses. Contents folio. Lond.1705.) The circumstances in which this zealous royalist was placed, together with his national prejudices, may account for his extreme credulity, in believing that the clergy of Scotland, after the battle of Dunbar, offered up such impious prayers as he has ascribed to them. (Id. p.182) It was not to be expected that Mr. Hume would neglect the opportunity which was thus afforded him of covering with ridicule the Scottish covenanters. (See Hume's Account of the Battle of Dunbar.) Rapin vindicates the conduct of the Estates, in inquiring the removal from about the person of the king, of some of his friends and attendants' men he says, "whose principles and maxims were directly opposite to the interests of Scotland and who were the kingdoms reputed enemies." Hist. of Eng. vol. ii. p.581. Lond.1833 -- Ed.]

338 ["At the nod of a prince." -- Ed.]

339 [That is, "He says, I say, he denies, I deny." It is the parasite Gnatho that is referred to. Terence makes the shameless sycophant proclaim his own infamy --

Quicquid dicunt, laudo, id rursum si negant, laudo id quoque Negat quis? Nego. Ait? Aio. -- Eunuchi Act ii. Sc. ii.

"Whatever they say, I applaud. If again they deny that, I applaud that too. Does any one deny a thing? I deny it. Does he affirm it? I affirm it." -- Ed.]

340 [That is, the characteristics. -- Ed.]

341 [For an account of the origin, progress, and unsuccessful issue of Hamilton's Engagement or the Unlawful Engagement, as it was also called, the reader may consult Stevenson's History of the Church and State of Scotland, book iv. chapter x., Cook's History of the Church of Scotland, vol. iii. p.149. -- Ed.]

342 [Old MS. -- Ed.]

343 ["Pearth Novemb.29, 1650 -- The Comrs. of the Gen. Assemb. considering the great sin and offence these men are guilty of, who have had accessione to the late Rebellione in ye north, therefore they doe appoint that all these persons that were actually in arms at the late rebellione, and all such as subscribed the Bond and Declaratione emited by them to be suspended from the communione till the nixt Gen. Assemb. to which there are hereby refered for further censure, and for all others that had any accessione by counsel or otherwise, to that rebellione, or to the King's withdrawing from his Counsell, refers to Presbytries to try diligently in their severall bounds these persons and the degree of their guiltiness and to report the same, with the evidences and proofs thereof, to the nixt meeting of this Commissione." A. Ker. -- "The Waters of Sihor." Wodrow MSS., vol. xvii. pp.44-45. -- Ed.]

344 [James, Marquis of Montrose. After his forfeiture by the Scottish parliament he was usually styled in their Act and proclamations James Graham, and sometimes James Graham, late Earl of Montrose. Bishop Guthry says (Memoirs, p.175) that it was considered a proof of malignancy to distinguish him and the Earl of Auly by their titles. In a letter to Principal Baillie, 19th March 1649, Mr. Spang mentions that he was admitted to an audience by the Prince of Orange at the Hague. Something was said by the Prince, which led Mr. Spang to suspect he alluded to Montrose. "I hoped," says Mr. Spang, "his Highness did not mean of that man, whose apostasy, perjuries, and unheard of cruelty, had made him so odious, in all our country, that they could not hear of his name." He presently gave me to understand he meant not him or any such, for by the comportment of our Scottish noblemen at court now, he perceives how odious James Graham must be at home, for they will not salute or speak to him, nay, not look where they think he is, and this I have observed with my own eyes. Baillie's Letters and Journals, vol. ii. p.323. -- Ed.]

345 [On the 14th of December 1650, an answer was returned to Parliament, "be the commissioners of the general assemblie to the quaere, given in to thame be the estattis of parliament, anent the persones to be admitted to ryse in armes, and joyne with the forces of the kingdome, and in what capacitie, for defence thereoff aganes the armie of sectaries, &c." (Acts of the Parliaments of Scotland, vol. vi. p.554.) The Answer of the Commission, after a declaration that it is the duty of parliament to use all necessary and lawful means for the defence of the land, and a description of the enfeebled state of the kingdom, contains the following exposition of their views. "In this case of so great and evident necessity, we cannot be against the raising of all fencible persons in the land, and permitting them to fight against this enemy for defence of the kingdom, excepting such as are excommunicate, forfaulted, notoriously profane or flagitious, and such as have been from the beginning, and continue still, or are at this time, obstinate and professed enemies, and opposers of the Covenant and cause of God; and for the capacity of acting, that the Estates of Parliament ought to have, as we hope they will have special care, that in this so general concurrence of all the people of the kingdom, none be put in such trust or power as may be prejudicial to the cause of God, and that such Officers as are of known integrity and affection to the cause, and particularly such as have suffered in our former armies may be taken special notice of." -- "A True Representation of the Rise, &c. of the Present Division in the Church of Scotland," pp.10, 11. London, 1657. "The Answer of the Commission of the General Assemblie to the Quaeree Propounded to them from the Parliament," pp.2, 3. Aberdeen, Printed by James Brown, 1651. -- Ed.]

346 ["Act of Leavie: At Perth, the twentie third day of December, one thousand six hundred and fiftie yeiris, the Kingis Majestie and Estaits of parliament, being verie sensibill of the dangerous and distressed conditione of this kingdome, and most desyrious, according to the law of God and nature, in discharge of there public trust, to use all lawful and necessarie means for the saiftie and defence of religione, his Majesties persone and royal authoritie, laws and liberties of the kingdome, aganis an armie of sectaries, who most unjustlie and perfidiouslie, contrarie to the solemne league and covenant and treaties, have invaded, and are by all actis of hostilitie destroying the same, Thairfore hes statute and ordained that all fensible men, within the sherrefdomes of Fyiff, and Kinross, Clakmanan, Stirling, Dumbartane, Argyll, Boott, Perth, Forfar, Kincardine, Aberdeine, Bamff, Murray, Nairne, Inverness, Ross, Sutherland, Cromartie, Caitnes, and Orknay, cum to an randevouze in the severall divisions of ilk schyre respective, to be set doun and appoyntit be the comitties of war in ilk schyre, according to the number of the regimentis efter specifit. The haill hertofore noblemen, gentlemen, and utheris to burt and landwartly frenteris, woodsetteris, and all other fensible men, betwixt thriescore and sixteine, with all there horses fitt for service, and their haill armes for horsemen and footmen (except such as are excommunicate, forfeited, notoriouslie profane or flagitious, and such as have beene from the beginning, and continew still, or are at this tyme, obstinat and professed enemies and opposeris of the covenant and caus of God). Out of the quhilk haill number of fensible persones, in ilk division, all such as are vigorous and able men for war are heirby appoynted to be drawin out, and put in Regimentis, as is efter specifit, with there best horses and arms, so many as are serviceable horses, and the rest on foot, with their best armes, twa part musquettis and third part pickis, and all with swords. The horsemen to be armed with pistollis, hulsteris or syidpistollis, and launces," &c., &c. -- "Acts of the Parliaments of Scotland," vol. vi, pp.560-562. -- Ed.]

347 [This disastrous attack was made by the forces in the west, from whom had proceeded, what was called the Western Remonstrance, which had been condemned both by the Committee of Estates, and the Commission of the church. ("Causes of the Lord's Wrath in Scotland," p.60, printed in the year 1660). "Befoir this feight at Hammilton, Collonell Ker inquyred the judgement of his inferior officers the night befoir, quhat thai thocht of the caice of effaires, as they then stood, and schewed thame that he wold joyne with nane quho wes not for the Remonstrance, nor yit with those quho wold not declyne the Stait, -- I meane the committee of Estait as it then stood." (Nicol's "Diary of Transactions in Scotland," p.37) The following letter from Cromwell describing the defeat at Hamilton, is interesting in itself as well as on account of the writer. "Sir, I have now sent you the results of some treaties amongst the enemy, which came to my hand this day. The Major General, and Commissary-Generall Whaley marched a few days ago towards Glasgow, and the enemy attempted his quarters in Hamilton, and entred the town, but by the blessing of God, by a very gracious hand of Providence, without the losse of 6 men, as I hear of, he beat them out, kild about 100, took also about the same number, amongst which are some prisoners of quality, and near 100 horse (as I am informed), the Major Gen. being in the chase of them, to whom also I have since sent the addition of a fresh party. Col. Kerre (as my messenger this night tells me) is taken, his Lieutenant-Col. and one that was sometimes Major to Collonel Straughan, and Keires Captain Lieutenant. The whole party is shattered, and give me leave to say it, if God had not brought them upon us, we might have marched 3000 horse to death, and not have lighted on them, and truly it was a strange Providence brought them upon him. For I marched from Edenburgh on the north side of Cloid, appointed the Major-General to march from Peebles to Hamilton, on the south side of Cloid. I came thither by the time expected, tarried the remainder of the day, and untill neer 7 o'clock the next morning, apprehending the Major-Gen. would not come by reason of the waters. I being retreated, the enemy took encouragement, marched all that night, and came upon the Major-General's quarters about two houres before day, where it pleased the Lord to order as you have heard.

"The Major-Gen. and Commissary Gen. (as he sent me word) were still gone on in the prosecution of them, and saith, that except 150 horse in one body, he heares they are fled by 16 or 18 in a company, all the country over. Robin Montgomery was come out of Sterling, with 4 or 5 regiments of horse and dragoons, but was put to a stand when he heard of the issue of this businesse. Straughan and some other officers had quitted some 3 weeks or a month before this businesse, so that Ker commanded this whole party in chief.

"It is given out that the malignants will be all (almost) received and rise unanimously and expeditiously. I can assure you, that those that serve you here, find more satisfaction in having to deale with men of this stamp, then others, and it is our comfort that the Lord hath hitherto made it the matter of our prayers, and of our endeavours (if it might have been the will of God), to have had a Christian understanding between those that feare God in this land, and ourselves, and yet we hope it hath not been carryed on with a willing failing of our duty to those that trust us, and I am persuaded the Lord hath looked favourably upon our sincerity herein, and will still doo so, and upon you also whilst you make the interest of God's people yours. Those religious people of Scotland, that fall in this cause, we cannot but pitty and mourne for them, and we pray that all good men may do so too. Indeed there is at this time a very great distraction, and mighty workings of God upon the hearts of divers, both ministers and people, much of it tending to the justification of your cause. And although some are as bitter and as bad as ever, making it their businesse to shuffle hypocritically with their consciences and the covenant, to make it lawfull to joyne with malignants, which now they do (as well as they might long before) having taken in the head of them, yet truly others are startled at it, and some have been constrained by the work of God upon their consciences, to make sad and solemn accusations of themselves, and lamentations in the face of their supream authority, charging themselves as guilty of the blood shed in this warre, by having a hand in the treaty at Breda, and by bringing the king in amongst them. This lately did a Lord of the Session, and withdrew, and lately Mr. James Leviston, a man as highly esteemed as any for piety and learning, who was a Commissioner for the Kirk at the said treaty, charged himselfe with the guilt of the blood of this war, before their assembly, and withdrew from them, and is retired to his own house. It will be very necessary to encourage victuallers to come to us, that you take off customes and excise from all things brought hither for the use of the army. I beg your prayers, and rest your humble servant, O. Cromwell. Edinburgh, 4 Dec.1660." -- Sev. Proc. in Parl. Dec.12 to 19, apud Cromwelliana, pp.94, 95. -- Ed.]

348 [That is, "How much changed from that assembly which was formerly!" (Quantum mutatus ab illo Hectore, qui, &c. Virg. AEneid, lib. ii. ver.274.) -- Ed.]

349 ["Ult. July, 1648. Post Meridian Sep. xxi. A Declaration of the General Assembly concerning the present dangers of Religion and especially the unlawful engagement in War, against the kingdom of England. Together with many necessary exhortations and directions to all the Members of the Kirk of Scotland." Records of the Kirk of Scotland, pp.498-505. Edited by A. Peterkin. -- Ed.]

350 [At a meeting of the Committee of Estates, on the 6th of January, 1651, -- "Rege Presente. The letter from the Presbytery of Stirling to the Commission of the Generall Assembly, still disclaiming the kings intereste, and the unity of all the subjects of the land to assist their countrey against the comon enimey, redd, with the Commission of the Generall Assemblies ansuer therto, redd lykwayes approvin and ordained to be published and printed." (Balfour's Annales, vol. iv. p.235). The Commission of the Assembly complained, that the letter of the Ministers of the Presbytery of Stirling, which was printed at Edinburgh 165l, had prefixed to it "the false and odious title of A Remonstrance of the Presbtytery of Stirling against the present conjunction with the malignant partie." ("Answer of the Commission," &c. dated Perth, 6 Jan.1651 p.19. Printed at Aberdeen, 1651). What Binning now advances is in vindication of the Letter of the Presbytery of Stirling and in reply to the Answer of the Commission. Mr. James Guthrie, and Mr. David Bennet, Ministers at Stirling, were charged by the committee of Estates with training this Letter, and summoned to appear before them, at Perth, on the 19th of February, 1651, to answer for their conduct. -- "Acts of Parl., vol. vi. p.578." -- Ed.]

351 ["And first, we shall desyre every one seriously to consider the case and condition wherein the kingdome is engaged and standeth at this tyme, that now we are not upon an engagement of invasive warre but upon necessary defence against a forraign enemy, who hath not only injustly invaded us, but also (through the holy permissive providence of God) slaine many of our brethren with the sword, subdued a great part of the land, is oppressing the people of God therein, and following his injust designes and intentions against the rest of the kingdome, that in this case, in the ordinary way of providence, according to which men must act, unlesse they would be guilty of tempting God, there is need of, and ought to be employed against the enemy, such a competency of power as is required in right and warrantable prudencie, and may be had, not being of itself sinful. This certainly is mans duety, whatever God, out of his soveraignity, hath done, or may doe in the case of want, or disproportion of meanes." -- Answer of the Commission, ut supra, p.6. -- Ed.]

352 ["In such parts of the kingdome, as are yet free from the oppression of the enemy, and so out of which any men can be raised, there is not a possibility to get such a competencie of power, unlesse there be a more generall calling foorth of the body of the people than hath been before, this as it is most certain in itselfe, so it is most apparent, and evident unto all, that doe understand these parts of the kingdome. And whereas faithfull and honest men in the State, well acquainted with the severall shares of that part of the kingdome, have publickly declared that when all shall be brought together, that can be called foorth of these parts, according to publick resolution, there will scarce be a competent power against the power of the enemy, we cannot but much wonder, if any, not so acquainted therewith, shall hold the contrary, and not give credit to the declaration of honest and faithfull men, especially in authority, the matter being such, as in the immediate knowledge thereof dependeth on sense, and, as to those that have not that knowledge, pertaineth to humane faith, which giveth credit to the testimony testium idoneorum of competent witnesses such as these are whom we have designed." -- Id. pp.6, 7. -- Ed.]

353 ["We need say no more unlesse there were some show of proofe to the contrary. Yet we shall say somewhat particularly to one place that which is said in the case of Amaziah's associating with and taking to him the Israelits for help in his just defence, (2 Chron. xxv.7: 'O king let not the army of Israel goe with thee for the Lord is not with Israel even with all the house of Ephraim,') as being mainly urged and as it seems most to stick with some in the present businesse to which sundry things may be answered, which clear the present businesse from the force thereof.1. The Israelits were idolaters, and forreiners not so in our case, in either respect. But it is alledged that the reason why Amaziah is disswaded from taking their assistance is because God was not with them, and therefore the same reason having place in manie of these, whom the present resolution comprehendeth, the disswasion hath the same force against them. Therefore 2. God's not being with them may be either conceived and understood, in regard of the estate of grace and reconciliation with God but how-so ever that with many of them God was not in this regard, yet the reason cannot be alledged in this sense because then it would follow by the argument, that we might not take the help of any man out of the estate of grace, for our just and necessary defence, which none will admit, or it may be understood of God's assistance and prospering providence simply. But neither can it be taken thus, because it is certain and clear that God was often with them in this sense in their own cause and quarrells. Therefore it must needs be conceived, in regard of their profession, and religion, which was corrupt and idolatrous. Now the reason thus understood hath not place in our businesse.3. Yet doe we not find that Amaziah is commanded to exclude any of the subjects of his own kingdom, from acting in that defence, or reproved for not doing of it notwithstanding many of them no doubt were naughty and corrupt in their way, 2 Kings xiv." -- Answer of the Commission, p.12. -- Ed.]

354 [That is, "chiefly." The strict signification of ut plurimum is, as much as possible. -- Ed.]

355 ["At the bar of conscience." -- Ed.]

356 ["Doeth our mentioning onlie the kingdome in that resolution, import a separation of the kingdome, and the cause in the quarrell against our enemie? Or what logick can draw out such a consequence out of it? Wee do think that the kingdome being in danger by this enemie, the cause also is in danger, and the defending of the kingdome will be the defending of the cause also. And we trust no instruments shall bee employed for the defence of the kingdom to the prejudice of the cause." -- Answer of the Commission, ut supra, p.19. -- Ed.]

357 ["In point of fact." -- Ed.]

358 ["On that very account." -- Ed.]

359 [Bishop Hall quaintly remarks, that "No devil is so dangerous as the religious devil." "Suppose the ends of this Engagement to be good, (which they are not,) yet the meanes and ways of prosecution are unlawful, because there is not an equall avoiding of rocks on both hands, but a joyning with malignants to suppresse sectaries, a joyning hands with a black devill to beat a white devill. They are bad physicians who would so cure one disease as to breed another as evil or worse." ("A Declaration of the Gen. Assembly concerning the present dangers of Religion." Rec. of the Kirk of Scotland, p.501.) In the year 1649 the Scottish parliament passed an "Act against Consulters with Devils and Familiar Spirits," &c. (Acts of the Parl. of Scot. vol. vi. p.359.) It was supposed that the power of some of these was employed in particular instances for the benefit of mankind. They were therefore distinguished from the others in the same way that white witches or persons who used charms and incantations for curing diseases, &c. were distinguished, but not in the eye of the law, from black witches, or those who practised their art for the purposes of mischief. (Whitelock's "Memorials," p.550. See also Sir Walter Scott's "Tales of a Grandfather," vol. ii. p.117.) If we look to the strange confessions of many of the unfortunate creatures who were condemned to suffer death for witchcraft in those days, without adverting to the cruel means that were often resorted to with a view to extort from them such confessions, the credulity of the age will not appear to have been so extraordinary as it has been represented. It is impossible not to admire the singular discretion of Dr. Grey, Rector of Houghton Conquest when speaking on this subject: "Nothing," says he, "more plainly discovers the iniquity of those times than the great numbers of people executed in England and Scotland for witches, if they were guilty, or the barbarous superstition of the times, if they were innocent, which is the more probable." -- "Impartial Examination of the Fourth Volume of Mr. Daniel Neal's History of the Puritans," p.96, Lond.1739. -- Ed.]

360 [That is, openly persisting. See "The Answer of the Commission to the Presbytery of Stirling," p.11. -- Ed.]

361 [See "The Nullity of the Pretended Assembly at Saint Andrews and Dundee," &c., p.312. Printed in the year 1652. As many had been under age when the Solemn League and Covenant was first sworn the Commission of the General Assembly ordained it to be renewed by their Act, October 6, 1648, joining to it the "Solemn Acknowledgment of Public sins and Breaches of the Covenant, and a Solemn Engagement to all the Duties contained therein." -- Ed.]

362 ["We desire it may be remembered that in the beginning of these troubles, anno 1638, when as there were then standing laws in this kingdom, which are not yet repealed to this day, discharging all subjects from rysing in armes, without the kings expresse warrant and command, yet the subjects of this kingdome perceiving themselves in danger to be destroyed by forraign invasion, did fynd these lawes no wayes to bynd up their hands from taking armes, for their just defence and selfe preservation, -- these lawes, in the intention of the lawgiver, being made for the preservation of the kingdom and not for the destruction of it. -- " Answer of the Commission, pp.13, 14. -- Ed.]

363 [See "The Waters of Sihor, or the Lands Defectione," Wodrow MSS. vol. xvii. pp.39-41, in Bib. Ad. Peterkin's "Rec. of the Kirk of Scotland," pp.619-620. -- Ed.]

364 [See Note, page 96. -- Ed.]

365 [That is, "every where and at all times like himself and the same." -- Ed.]

366 [We learn from Principal Baillie, ("Letters and Journals," vol. ii. p.363,) that Binning had identified himself with the Association of the West, which was required to dissolve itself, by an Act of the Scottish parliament, passed 28th Decem., 1650. -- Ed.]

367 [Or, general officers. -- Ed.]

368 [The first or principal proposition in the preceding syllogism. -- Ed.]

369 [(Minor probatur,) that is, the second proposition in the preceding syllogism. It will be perceived that the arguments of the author are constructed according to the rules of the Aristotelian logic. A familiar acquaintance with this mode of reasoning continued to be cultivated, at this time, by all who wished to excel in public disputations (Professor Jardine's "Outlines of Philosophical Education in the University of Glasgow," p.12. Glas.1825). In the Westminster Assembly, the different speakers often presented their opinions under the form of syllogisms, which were impugned and defended by employing the usual terms and technical formalities of the dialectic art. -- See Lightfoot's "Journal of the Proceedings of the Assembly of Divines." Works, vol. xiii. pp.123, 157, 203-205, &c. -- Ed.]

370 [Aiming at. -- Ed.]

371 [Mr. Robert Ramsay, Principal of the University, reminded the Presbytery of Glasgow at their first meeting in June, 1651, "that Mr. Hew Binnen had expresslie protested that it was not lawfull for us to pray for ye succeese of the armie, as it was constitute, and becaus of those who now have power in the same. And farther, the said Mr. Hew Binnen, when notice was taken of these words repeated them over and over agane, and avowed, he wold pray for a blessing to them, yt is, that yet might be converted, but, that he could not pray for success to them as yet are now constitute." -- "Records of the Presbytery of Glasgow." -- Ed.]

372 [Or shudder. -- Ed.]

373 [For the Instructions given by the Scottish parliament to the Commissioners who went to Breda see "Acts of the Parliament of Scotland," vol. vi. pp.513, 514. A copy of the Treaty itself agreed upon by his Majesty Charles II and the Scottish Commissioners and afterwards ratified by parliament, will be found in Thurloe's State Papers, vol. i. pp.147, 148. -- Ed.]

374 [That is, "who, because they are wise, are ignorant of that which they know." (Tu pol, si sapis quod scis, nescis. Terent Eun. iv.4, 54.) -- Ed.]

375 [That is, lively or distinct characters. -- Ed.]


377 ["Another consequence of this defeat [at Dunbar] was, that every one blamed the other, the one side for purging out too many who might have been of service against the enemy, and these again blamed their opposites for being too remiss, and not well enough purged." -- Memoirs of the Life of the Rev. Robert Blair, p.113. Edin.1755. -- Ed.]

378 [Answer of the Commission, ut supra, p.8. -- Ed.]

379 [P.178 Edin.1649. -- Ed.]

380 [Or as a general principle. -- Ed.]

381 [In opposition to what is here affirmed it is stated in the pamphlet entitled, "A True Representation of the Present Division in the Church of Scotland," (p.15.) that the Scottish Reformers did not look upon their conjunction with the Duke of Chatelherault and his followers, "as a cause of that sad stroak, as some would make the world believe, from Mr. Knoxes Sermon at Sterlin. For in the heads of that Sermon, printed in the History of the Church of Scotland, p.217 Edit. Edinburgh, 1644, in 4to, there is no mention of any such thing but only of their carnal confidence, that possibly they had not sincerely repented of their former opposition, and that they who were late come in were made to feel in their own hearts, how bitter a cup they had made others to drink before them. Nor doth he (as our Brethren's tenets now lead them) presse them to purge out such as were lately admitted, but doth only presse repentance upon all of them." -- Dr. M'Crie presents his readers with an analysis of this sermon of the "great Apostle of the Scots," as he was called by Beza. -- See "Life of Knox," pp.192, 193, sixth edit. -- Ed.]

382 [See page 495 of this edition. -- Ed.]

383 ["The safety of the people" is "the highest law." -- Ed.]

384 ["The very heathens had a notion of the unlawfulnesse of confederacies with wicked men. For as Victorinus Strigelius on 2 Chron.25, noteth out of AEschylus his tragedy, intituled Seven to Thebe, Amphiaraus a wise vertuous man was therefore swallowed up in the earth, with seven men, and seven horses, because he had associat himself with Tydeus, Capaneus and other impious commanders marching to the siege of Thebe." ("Gillespie's Miscel. Quest.," p.178.) AEschylus makes Eteocles give the following description of the character of Amphiaraus, and foretell his destiny. -- ("Septem cont Thebas," ver.597.)

"Nothing worse
In whate'er cause than impious fellowship,
Nothing of good is reap'd for when the field
Is sown with wrong the ripened fruit is death
So this seer
Of temper'd wisdom, of unsullied honour,
Just, good, and pious, and a mighty prophet,
In despite to his better judgment join'd
With men of impious daring, bent to tread
The long, irremeable way, with them
Shall, if high Jove assist us, be dragg'd down
To joint perdition." -- Potter.

Regarded simply as a poetical fiction, the account which Statius has given of the fate of Amphiaraus is particularly striking and beautiful -- (Thebald. lib. vii. ver.815-823) -- Ed.]

385 ["A Hypothetical Proposition is one which asserts not absolutely, but under an hypothesis indicated by a conjunction. An hypothetical syllogism is one on which the reasoning depends on such a proposition." -- Whately's "Elements of Logic," p.388. -- Ed.]

386 ["For he who gives life gives the things which are necessary to life." -- Cic. De Offic. lib. cap.4. -- Ed.]

387 [The MS. in my possession which will be afterwards described has no part of this third answer. In place of it I find the following passage: "And though there had been disproportion of numbers betwixt us and the enemy, yet we cannot but still say, it had been a way much better beseeming the people of God, and in which there should have been much more peace and consort, to have had to do our duty with such a disproportion, than to have taken in the malignant party for making it up." -- Ed.]

388 [Than with. -- Ed.]

389 [Dirge, or some such word is wanting here. -- Ed.]

390 [That is, put them in mind. -- Ed.]

391 [The remaining part of the Section is not contained in either of the two preceding editions of the "Case of Conscience," but is taken from a MS. in the handwriting of the period with the use of which I have been favoured by my friend David Laing, Esq., Secretary to the Bannatyne Club. This MS. terminates with Section IV. -- Ed.]

392 [Mr. George Gillespie, who was the son of Mr. John Gillespie, Minister of Kirkaldy, was at this time one of the Ministers of Edinburgh, but he had gone to Kirkaldy for the benefit of his health. He was one of the Commissioners from the Church of Scotland, to the Westminster Assembly. In his letters from London, Principal Baillie, who was also one of the Scottish Commissioners, speaks of his youthful colleague in terms of high admiration. "Of a truth," he says, respecting him, in a letter dated March 26, 1644, "there is no man whose parts in a public dispute I do so admire. He has studied so accurately all the points ever yet came to our assembly, he has gotten so ready, so assured, so solid a way of public debating, that, however there be in the assembly divers very excellent men, yet in my poor judgment, there is not one who speaks more rationally and to the point, than that brave youth has done ever." ("Letters and Journals," vol. l. p.451. See also, pp.407, 419, 431.) Gillespie's "Treatise of Miscellany Questions," which was published after his death, in 1649, contains a chapter entitled, "Another most useful Case of Conscience discussed and resolved, concerning associations and confederacies with idolaters, infidels, heretics, or any other known enemies of truth and godliness" (pp.169-193.) This, it will be observed is, with very little variation, the title of the Tractate of Binning. It is probable, that they who first undertook the publication of Binning's MS. were led to adopt this title from the similarity of the views, as well as the identity of the subjects of the two authors. When the Commission of the church met at Perth, in December, 1650, for the purpose of considering the query of the parliament as to the persons who ought, or ought not, in present circumstances to be employed, in the defence of the country, -- it was not likely that the published opinions of Gillespie upon such a subject would be overlooked. But says Baillie, when giving an account of this meeting, "The question was alleged to be altered from that which Mr. Gillespie writes of." -- "Letters and Journals," vol. ii. p.365. -- Ed.]

393 [The name of "M. F. Carmichael" is attached to a warrant, which is dated Sept.1, 1651, and bears to be subscribed by certain commissioners of the church, authorizing George Ogilvy of Harras, to deliver up to Lord Balcarres, the Registers of the Kirk that were in his house (Reg. of Deeds, 6 March, 1701. Dr. M'Crie's Mem. of Veitch and Brysson, Append. p.525.) There can be little doubt that these were the original records of the church, which were produced and identified at the meeting of the General Assembly at Glasgow, in the year 1638. (Id. p.497. "Rec. of the Kirk," vol. l. pp.22-24, Edited by A. Peterkin.) It is boldly asserted by Gordon, parson of Rothiemay, that the old authentic records of the Assemblies were at that time in the hands of Archbishop Spottiswood, who had carried them with him, he says, to London, though he more cautiously adds, in a nota, "It is very uncertaine if the registers presented wer the principalls, or if only copyes." ("History of Scots Affairs," vol. i. pp.146, 147. Aberdeen. Printed for the Spalding Club, 1841.) Keith tells us in what way these records afterwards came into the possession of Mr. Archibald Campbell, a Scottish non-juring clergyman residing in London, by whom they were most unjustifiably detained from the Church after the Revolution, and subsequently gifted to Sion College, the governors of which being expressly restricted from permitting them to pass out of their custody. ("Hist. of the Aff. of Church and State in Scot.," p.497.) After some delay on the part of the governors, the long concealed records, bound up in three volumes, and embracing the whole period between 1560 and 1616, were given up by them for inspection, in the year 1834, to the Select Committee of the House of Commons on Church Patronage. ("Minutes of Evidence," pp.126, 355, 374.) Dr. Lee, one of the witnesses before the Committee, declared, after examining them, he was quite certain that they were "authentic records." (Id. p.450). The loss of such invaluable archives, soon after this, which now appears to be placed beyond all doubt, in consequence of the destruction of the House of Commons by fire, is much to be deplored. -- Ed.]

394 [At the Restoration, Mr. Moncrieff was ejected from his parish, for the part he had acted in framing or sanctioning the "Remonstrance," and the "Causes of the Lord's wrath," which was engenuously confessed by him ("Acts of the Parliaments of Scotland," vol. vii. p.367.) Wodrow has collected various particulars regarding the life, character, and subsequent sufferings, for conscience' sake, of this pious and useful minister. ("Hist. of the Suff. of the Ch. of Scot.", vol. i. pp.197-200.) As he was persecuted, during the Usurpation, for persisting in praying publicly for the king, he had thus the singular misfortune of being punished both for his loyalty and his supposed disloyalty. Mr. Moncrieff has had a niche assigned to him by Howie among the Scots Worthies. (pp.411-415. Dumfries, 1835.) Mr. James Guthrie, Minister at Stirling, who was imprisoned at the same time with his friend, Mr. Moncrieff, and afterwards executed, was accused at his trial of compiling "the Remonstrance." This he denied, affirming he could prove, by hundreds of witnesses, that he was at Stirling at the time, many miles distant. -- See his Defences, "Acts of the Parl. of Scot.," vol. vii. Append. p.37. -- Ed.]

395 [The parliament of Scotland passed the Act of Classes on the 23d of January, 1649. It was entitled an Act "for purging the Judicatories, and other places of Public trust." Those whom it declared to be incapable of sitting in parliament, or of holding any civil or military appointment, were divided into four classes. The disqualification of such as, on account of their supposed greater criminality, were placed in the first class, was to continue for life, that of the second class for ten years; that of the third class for five years; and that of the fourth class for one year only, provided they gave previously sufficient evidence of their penitence. -- "Acts of the Parl. of Scots," vol. vi. p.352. -- Ed.]

396 ["After the woful rout at Dunbar, in the first meeting at Stirling, it was openly and vehemently pressed to have David Lesly laid aside, as long before was designed, but covertly by the chief purgers of the times. The man himself did as much press as any to have liberty to demit his charge, being covered with shame and discouragement for his late unhappiness, and irritated with Mr. James Guthrie's publick invectives against him from the pulpit. The most of the committee of estates, and commission of the kirk, would have been content to let him go; but finding no man tolerably able to supply his place, and the greatest part of the remaining officers of horse and foot peremptory to lay down, if he continued not; and after all trials finding no maladministration on him to count of, but the removal of the army from the hill the night before the rout, which yet was a consequence of the committee's order, contrary to his mind, to stop the enemy's retreat, and for that end to storm Broxmouth house as soon as possible. On these considerations the state, unanimously did with all earnestness entreat him to keep still his charge against this order, my Lord Wariston, and, as I suppose Sir John Cheesly, did enter their dissent. I am sure Mr. James Guthrie did his, at which, as a great impertinency, many were offended. Col. Strachan offered to lay down his charge, being unwilling more to be commanded by D. Lesly. Some more inclined to do so, but all were quieted by this expedient." -- Baillie's Letters, vol. ii. p.350. -- Ed.]

397 [The religious zeal of Binning, his patriotism, and his dread of arbitrary power were, it is clear, stronger than his loyalty. Sir Edward Walker, however, vouches for the loyalty, at this period, of the Scottish nation in general. "For the disposition of the people," he says, (Hist. Disc. p.194) "they are generally for the king and his government, being most under the notion of Malignants and Engagers, about 100 of 120 noblemen being in that condition. Most of the Gentry are very loyal, and in a manner all the common people." Binning's language respecting Charles II. at the time of passing the Public Resolutions, appears to have startled his co-presbyter, Principal Baillie, who writes thus in a letter which was first designed for his friend Mr. Dickson, but afterwards sent to Mr. Spang at Campvere. -- "Mr. Patrick [Gillespie] and Mr. James Guthrie, wherever they came, uttered their passion. I heard one who had married Mr. Patrick's sister's daughter report to Mr. Douglas, that Mr. Hugh Binning, with Mr. Patrick, in Kirkaldy, had spoke like a distracted man, saying to Mr. Douglas's own wife, and the young man himself, and his mother-in-law, Mr. Patrick's sister, 'that the commission of the kirk would approve nothing that was right; that a hypocrite ought not to reign over us; that we ought to treat with Cromwell and give him security not to trouble England with a king; and whoever marred this treaty, the blood of the slain in this quarrel should be on their heads.' Strange words if true." -- Letters, vol. ii. p.363. The ungrateful, impolitic, and barbarous treatment which his Scottish subjects received from Charles II. after the Restoration, must be held to be a proof of the sagacity at least of Binning, and a justification of the suspicion with which he and some of the other Protesters regarded him. It is not unlikely that, in their case, the strong appeal to the fears of the English and Scottish presbyterians, as the supposed friends of monarchy, contained in Milton's "Tenure of Kings and Magistrates," which was published but two years before this, had not failed altogether of its effect. -- Ed.]

398 [I have not been able to discover to what "old translation" the author alludes. But Wilcox puts the same interpretation, that he does, upon the ninth verse of this chapter. "Sinne, (viz. which the wicked and ungodly men commit, and they know one of them by another,) maketh fools to agree, (viz. one of them with another: q.d. their partaking in wickednesse joineth the wicked's minds, one of them towards another;) but among the righteous, (i.e. good and holy people,) that which is acceptable (viz. before God and good men) maketh agreement (viz. among themselves: q.d. good things onlie tie good men's minds together)." A Short yet Sound Commentarie Written on that Worthie Work called the Proverbs of Salomon. London, 1624. -- Ed.]

399 [The Estates, or parliament. -- Ed.]

400 [That is, notorious or manifest. -- Ed.]

401 [In the margin of the authorized version the verse is translated thus "A great man grieveth all and he hireth the fool, he hireth also transgressors." -- Ed.]

402 [That is, violent blowing. Cairding however, is not unlikely the proper word, a caird being in Scotland the name of a tinker. -- Ed.]

403 ["Although you expel nature by violence, she will still return." -- Per. Epist. lib. i. ep.10. ver.24. -- Ed.]

404 [Having burst, as it were, its floodgates. -- Ed.]

405 [That is, more. -- Ed.]

406 [That is, a deficiency. -- Ed.]

407 [Gen. xxx.11. -- Ed.]

408 [Vide Cic. de Offic. lib. iii. cap.33. -- Ed.]

409 [Or mines. -- Ed.]

410 [Or, unsuitable. -- Ed.]

411 ["Charity does not inflict punishment because an offence has been committed, but lest an offence should be committed." -- Ed.]

412 ["He that is not inclined to-day will be more inclined to-morrow." This is reversing the saying of the poet --

Qui non est hodie, cras minus aptus erit

Ovid, Remed. Amor. ver.94. -- Ed.]

413 ["She does not see what is in the bag behind her."

Sed non videmus manticae quod in tergo est.

Catul. Carm. xxii. ver.21.

There is an allusion here to one of the fables of AEsop. Jupiter, says Aesop, placed two bags upon men. The one, which contained their own faults, he put upon their back, and the other, which was filled with the faults of others, he suspended from their neck, upon their breast. In this way, we cannot see our own misdeeds, but, perceiving those of others, we censure them freely. Phaed. Fab. AEsop, lib. iv. fab.10. -- Ed.]

414 [These are terms (locus inventionis the place or topic of invention, and medium, the argument or middle term of a syllogism) which, belonging to the dialectic art, were employed by the school-men. All the arts and sciences have certain general subjects connected with them which presuppose particular facts, axioms, and rules. These general subjects, being used in the invention of arguments, were called topics or common places. "They were so called by Aristotle, as if they were the seats from which arguments were to be brought forth." (Sic appellatae ab Aristotele sunt hae quasi sedes e quibus argumenta promuntur). Cic. Top. cap. ii. -- Ed.]

415 [We grant and solicit in our turn this indulgence. Hor. De Art. poet. ver.11. -- Ed.]

416 [Or, condescendence. -- Ed.]

417 [Or, without its begetting love. -- Ed.]

418 [Overlook it. -- Ed.]

419 [Most. -- Ed.]

420 [The word homo (man) has been supposed to be derived from humus (the ground) because man sprang from the earth. Quintillian's objection to this derivation of the word is that all other animals have the same origin. (quasi vero non omnibus animal bus eadem origo. Instit. Orator lib. i, cap.6) Such an objection however has but little force. For though, according to the account which Moses gives of the creation, the earth at the command of God, not only brought forth man, but other creatures, (Gen. i.24) man alone was called Adam {HEBREW LETTER MEM}{HEBREW LETTER DALET}{HEBREW LETTER ALEF} because he was formed of the dust of the ground, ({HEBREW LETTER HE}{HEBREW LETTER MEM}{HEBREW LETTER DALET}{HEBREW LETTER ALEF}) Gen. ii.7. -- Joseph, Antiq. lib. i, cap.1. -- Ed.]

421 [That is, "humble beings." -- Ed.]

422 [See note page 168. -- Ed.]

423 [Humility is "the seasoning of the virtues," as well as "the garb." Cicero represents suavity of speech and manners to be the seasoning of friendship (condimentum amicitiae). De Amicitia, cap.18. -- Ed.]

424 [That is, "an ornament and covering." -- Ed.]

425 [Crede mihi, bene qui latuit, bene vixit; et intra Fortunam debet quisque manere suam.

"Believe me, he who has not attracted the notice of the world has lived well, and every one ought to keep within his own proper sphere." Ovid Trist. lib. iii. eleg. iv, ver.25. -- Ed.]

426 ["He who falls on a smooth surface, (yet this rarely happens,) falls in such a way that he can rise again from the ground he has touched." Ovid, ut supra, ver.17. -- Ed.]

427 [A relation of the principal circumstances in Binning's life follows. -- Ed.]

428 [That is, he will not refuse. -- Ed.]

429 [Parcel. -- Ed.]

430 [Such a disburdening of former offences. -- Ed.]

431 [Inclination. -- Ed.]

432 [De Agricola filios suos docente. AEsop. Fab. p.98. Oxon.1653. -- Ed.]

433 [Subdue. -- Ed.]

434 [Such a wonder. -- Ed.]

435 [Violent inclination. -- Ed.]

436 [That is, truths of little value. -- Ed.]

437 [In the Scottish universities, they were said to have laureated, who had a decree conferred upon them, as they were "crowned with laurel leaves." Ev. Un. Com. vol. i. p.153. Lond.1837. -- Ed.]

438 [These are the generous sentiments of an enlightened Christian. They would lead us to infer that the author's views, as a Protester, had been modified somewhat before he died or that he had never taken such high ground, as some others on this score. -- Ed.]

439 [Or, while we, on the other hand. -- Ed.]

440 [See note, page 168. -- Ed.]

441 [Perhaps it should be at least, less. -- Ed.]

442 [The word mystery seems to be used here in the sense of energy. It is sometimes spelt by Scottish writers mister and myster, and signifies an art or calling, being derived from the old French word mestier, a trade. When employed to denote something above human intelligence, it has a different origin (being formed from {GREEK SMALL LETTER MU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER NU}, a secret). -- Ed.]

443 [Exonerate, or unburthen. -- Ed.]

444 [Or harness. -- Ed.]

445 [Senec. Ep.107. See note, page 76. -- Ed.]

446 [We are not, "of our own authority." -- Ed.]

447 [That is, weight or force. -- Ed.]

448 [That is, the honour not a load or a load of honour. -- Ed.]

449 [Confined. -- Ed.]

450 [See note, page 115. -- Ed.]

451 [The friendly salutation which the steward of Joseph addressed to his master's brethren, when they went a second time to Egypt to purchase corn, was ({HEBREW LETTER MEM}{HEBREW LETTER KAF}{HEBREW LETTER LAMED} {HEBREW LETTER MEM}{HEBREW LETTER VAV}{HEBREW LETTER LAMED}{HEBREW LETTER SHIN} Shalom leikoum) "Peace be to you." After the lapse of so many ages, it is interesting to know that this still continues to be, with little variation, the common salutation of friends in the East. Salam aleikoum, "Peace be with you," is immediately acknowledged by a similar greeting, Aliekoum salam, "To you be peace." -- Ed.]

452 [To sit an offer is, not to accept it. -- Ed.]

453 [Reception. -- Ed.]

454 [The heathen mythologists represented the Sirens to be three in number, and described them as effecting the destruction of mariners, by luring them from their course with their singing.

-- They the hearts
Enchant of all, who on their coast arrive
The wretch, who unforewarn'd approaching, hears
The Sirens' voice, his wife and little ones
Ne'er fly to gratulate his glad return;
But him the Sirens sitting in the meads
Charm with mellifluous song, although he see
Bones heap'd around them, and the mouldering skins
Of hapless men, whose bodies have decay'd.

Hom. Od. lib. xii. v.39. Cowper's Translation.]

455 [That is, one tune from another. -- Ed.]

456 [Or gifts of nature. -- Ed.]

457 [See note, page 595. -- Ed.]

458 [In the ancient Scottish dialect as in this instance, always is frequently synonymous with although, however,
notwithstanding. -- Ed.]

459 [That is, coldly. -- Ed.]

460 [Natural. -- Ed.]

461 [Fallen out or quarrelled. -- Ed.]

462 [Some words are omitted here, which may be supplied thus: -- though they said this, they perverted God's meaning of the law, &c. -- Ed.]

463 [Serves the purpose. -- Ed.]

464 [Imperfect attempts. -- Ed.]

465 [A Scottish forensic word corresponding to Surety. -- Ed.]

466 [Acknowledge this. -- Ed.]

467 [A name formerly given to bankrupts in Scotland. -- See Act. James VI. par.23, cap.18. -- Ed.]

468 [Attending the church. -- Ed.]

469 [Aim at. -- Ed.]

470 [Near the command. -- Ed.]

471 [A belief in the prevalence of witchcraft at this time seems to have pervaded all ranks and classes. An Act of Parliament was passed against it on the 1st of February, 1649. -- Ed.]

472 [Portal, or gate. -- Ed.]

473 [Exempted. -- Ed.]

474 [The illustration of the second proposition found in the text, "There is a faith feigned, and a faith unfeigned, a true and a false faith," (p.602) is omitted. We may conclude that this was the subject of a separate sermon, which has been lost. -- Ed.]

475 [Deposes or testifies. -- Ed.]

476 [That is, foresee or anticipate. -- Ed.]

477 [Charges, or accusations. -- Ed.]

478 [Than. -- Ed.]

479 [Gates. -- Ed.]

480 [Remove. -- Ed.]

481 [Always. -- Ed.]

482 [A proverbial expression signifying food and raiment. -- Ed.]

483 [Much less. -- Ed.]

484 [The sect of Seekers hold that there are not at this time, neither have been for many ages past any true ministers or ambassadors of Christ. (Gillespie's Miscellany Questions, p.1. Edinburgh, 1649.) A few years before this, Laurence Clarkson, a Seeker, published a pamphlet entitled "The Pilgrimage of Saints." Edwards, in his Gangraena (Part I, p.24, Part II, p.6. London, 1646) refers to it for an account of the opinion of the Seekers. Clarkson declared that in these days there ought to be no churches built, no sacraments administered, that the saints as pilgrims, wander here as in a temple filled with smoke, not being able to find religion, and that, on this account, waiting for a church and for the coming of the Spirit as the apostles did, they ought to seek knowledge of any passenger, of any opinion or tenet whatsoever. -- Ed.]

485 [See note page 607. -- Ed.]

486 [Kindred alliance. -- Ed.]

487 [Or, in the third place. -- Ed.]

488 [Notwithstanding. -- Ed.]

489 [A cold desire. -- Ed.]

490 [That is a glimmering or slight degree of desire. -- Ed.]

491 [This was the exclamation of Archimedes the celebrated geometrician of Syracuse, ({GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}, {GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON}{GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA}{GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA}), after discovering, when in the bath, a method of detecting the quantity of alloy, which a fraudulent artisan had mixed with the gold of Hiero's crown. (Plut. Mor. et Phil. Op. p.1094.) An exclamation somewhat similar was uttered by Cicero, when, searching for the tomb of Archimedes in the neighbourhood of Syracuse he at length perceived it covered with thorns and brambles (Cic. Tusc. Quest lib. v. cap 23.) But if they had cause to be delighted, much more surely had Philip the apostle reason to be so when addressing Nathanael, he cried out in ecstasy -- We have found him of whom Moses in the law and the prophets did write, Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph! John i.45. -- Ed.]

492 [In the present world. -- Ed.]

493 [Specify or enumerate. -- Ed.]

494 [Acknowledging. -- Ed.]

495 [Path or way. -- Ed.]

496 [Than. -- Ed.]

497 [Fix upon. -- Ed.]

498 [That is, no thought of eternity. -- Ed.]

499 [Quid non mortalia pectora cogis
Auri sacra fames?

Virg. AEneid, lib. iii. ver.56.

"O sacred hunger of pernicious gold!
What bands of faith can impious lucre hold?"

Dryden's Translation.

Nihil enim est fam angusti animi, tamque parvi, quam amare divitias nihil honestius, magnifi entrusque, quam pecuniam contemnere, si non habeas si habeas, ad beneficentiam liberalitem que conferre. "There is no surer characteristic of a narrow and little mind than to love riches, nothing more amiable and noble than to despise money if you possess it not -- if you possess it, to be beneficent and liberal in the use of it." Cic. De Offic. lib. i. cap.20. -- Ed.]

500 [That is, "It is difficult things that are admired." -- Ed.]

501 [Excites. -- Ed.]

502 [From these, as from mount Pisgah. -- Ed.]

503 [That is, not "by a leap." -- Ed.]

504 [Intrusted. -- Ed.]

505 [Too little. -- Ed.]

506 [That is, bedecks. -- Ed.]

507 [That is, has no interest in the world. -- Ed.]

508 [That is, the way in which you will take or receive. -- Ed.]

509 [That is, the duty of sobriety. -- Ed.]

510 [Much more. -- Ed.]

511 [It must be perceived that the reading ought to be "overcome like the Archangel." -- Ed.]

512 [It is no less obvious that for "the prince Gabriel" we ought to read, the prince Michael. See Dan. x.13, 21; Jude 9; Rev. xii.7. -- Ed.]

513 [That is, the prospective glass. -- Ed.]

514 [Or tutelage. -- Ed.]

515 [Declining. -- Ed.]

516 [That is, disposed. The word, though now obsolete, is found in Hooker. -- Ed.]

517 [That is, that hang low, and take a sweep of every thing by the way. -- Ed.]

518 [A single word appears to have dropped out here, the absence of which materially changes the meaning of the author, and makes him contradict himself. The sentence, it is conceived, ought to run thus: -- faith and a good conscience scarce sail but in one bottom, that is, in one ship. -- Ed.]

519 [That is, insipid. -- Ed.]

520 [Upon the earth. -- Ed.]

521 ["It is hard to find many who are not tipplers or common drunkards, or will drink drunk on occasions and with company." Causes of the Lord's Wrath, p.17. printed in the year 1653. -- Ed.]

522 [That is, a convenient time or place. -- Ed.]

523 [Or, till the evening. -- Ed.]

524 [That is, insane worldlings. -- Ed.]

525 [Property. -- Ed.]

sermon xxii be ye therefore
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