Nature and Grace

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VOLUME XI

GENERAL EDITORS

GENERAL EDITORS' PREFACE

CONTENTS PART I. QUESTIONS 1-4; 20-23 GENERAL INTRODUCTION, 21 Q. I: WHAT SACRED DOCTRINE IS, AND WHAT IT CONCERNS

General Introduction

Part I. Questions 1-4; 20-23 cQuestion One WHAT SACRED DOCTRINE IS, AND WHAT IT CONCERNS

Article One Whether Another Doctrine is Necessary, besides the Philosophical Sciences

Article Two Whether Sacred Doctrine is a Science

Article Three Whether Sacred Doctrine is a Single Science

Article Four Whether Sacred Doctrine is a Practical Science

Article Five Whether Sacred Doctrine is Nobler than other Sciences

Article Six Whether Sacred Doctrine is Wisdom

Article Seven Whether God is the Subject of This Science

Article Eight Whether Sacred Doctrine Proceeds by Argument

Article Nine Whether Sacred Doctrine should Use Metaphors

Article Ten Whether One Passage of Sacred Scripture may have Several Interpretations

Question Two THE EXISTENCE OF GOD

Article One Whether it is Self-Evident that God Exists

Article Two Whether God's Existence can be Demonstrated

Article Three Whether God Exists

Question Three OF THE SIMPLE NATURE OF GOD

Article One Whether God is a Body

Article Two Whether there is Composition of Form and Matter in God

Article Three Whether God is the Same as his Essence, or Nature

Article Four Whether Essence and Existence are the Same in God

Article Five Whether God Belongs to a Genus

Article Six Whether there is any Accident in God

Article Seven Whether God is Altogether Simple

Article Eight Whether God Enters into the Composition of Other Things

Question Four THE PERFECTION OF GOD

Article One Whether God is Perfect

Article Two Whether the Perfections of all Things are in God

Article Three Whether any Creature can be Like God

Appendix to Q. 4, Art. 3 Q. 12, Art. 12. (Whether, in this life, God can be known through natural reason.)

Question Twenty THE LOVE OF GOD

Article One Whether there is Love in God

Article Two Whether God Loves all Things

Article Three Whether God Loves All Things Equally

Article Four Whether God Always Loves Better Things the More

Question Twenty-One THE JUSTICE AND MERCY OF GOD

Article One Whether There Is Justice in God

Article Two Whether God's Justice is Truth

Article Three Whether there is Mercy in God

Article Four Whether Justice and Mercy are Present in all God's Works

Question Twenty-Two OF DIVINE PROVIDENCE

Article One Whether Providence is Appropriately Ascribed to God

Article Two Whether All Things are under Divine Providence

Article Three Whether God Provides for All Things Directly

Article Four Whether Providence Imposes a Necessity on what it Provides

Question Twenty-Three OF PREDESTINATION

Article One Whether Men are Predestined by God

Article Two Whether Predestination Implies Anything in the Predestined

Article Three Whether God Rejects Any Man

Article Four Whether the Predestined are Chosen by God

Article Five Whether the Foreknowledge of Merits is the Cause of Predestination

Article Six Whether Predestination is Certain

Article Seven Whether the Number of the Predestined is Certain

Article Eight Whether Predestination can be Furthered by the Prayers of the Devout

Of Sin. Prima Secundae, Questions 82, 83. Question Eighty-Two THE ESSENCE OF ORIGINAL SIN

Article One Whether Original Sin is a Habit

Article Two Whether there are Many Original Sins in One Man

Article Three Whether Original Sin is Desire

Article Four Whether Original Sin is in All Men Equally

Question Eighty-Five THE EFFECTS OF SIN

Article One Whether Sin Diminishes Natural Good

Article Two Whether the Whole Good of Human Nature can be Destroyed by Sin

Article Three Whether Weakness, Ignorance, Malice, and Desire are Rightly Named as the Wounds of Nature Due to Sin

Article Four Whether Privation of Mode, Species, and Order is the Effect of Sin

Article Five Whether Death and Other Defects of the Body are the Effects of Sin

Article Six Whether Death and Other Defects are Natural to Man

Treatise on Grace. Prima Secundae Questions 109--114. Question One Hundred and Nine CONCERNING THE EXTERNAL PRINCIPLE OF HUMAN ACTIONS, THAT IS, THE GRACE OF GOD

Article One Whether a Man can Know any Truth without Grace

Article Two Whether a Man can Will or do Good without Grace

Article Three Whether a Man can Love God above All Things by His Natural Powers alone, without Grace

Article Four Whether a Man can fulfil the Commandments of the Law by His Natural Powers, without Grace

Article Five Whether a Man can Merit Eternal Life, without Grace

Article Six Whether without Grace a Man can Prepare Himself for Grace

Article Seven Whether a Man can rise from Sin without the Help of Grace

Article Eight Whether a Man can avoid Sin, without Grace

Article Nine Whether, after receiving Grace, a Man can do Good and avoid Sin, without further help of Grace

Article Ten Whether a Man in Grace needs the help of Grace in order to Persevere

Question One Hundred and Ten THE ESSENCE OF GOD'S GRACE

Article One Whether Grace denotes Something in the Soul

Article Two Whether Grace is a Quality of the Soul

Article Three Whether Grace is the same as Virtue

Article Four Whether Grace is in the Soul's Essence as its Subject, or in One of its Powers

Question One Hundred and Eleven THE DIVISIONS OF GRACE

Article One Whether Grace is appropriately divided into Sanctifying Grace and Free Grace

Article Two Whether Grace is appropriately divided into Operative and Co-operative Grace

Article Three Whether Grace is Appropriately Divided into Prevenient and Subsequent Grace

Article Four Whether Free Grace is Appropriately Divided by the Apostle

Article Five Whether Free Grace is Nobler than Sanctifying Grace

Question One Hundred and Twelve THE CAUSE OF GRACE

Article One Whether God is the Sole Cause of Grace

Article Two Whether a Preparation or Disposition for Grace is required on the part of man

Article Three Whether Grace is Bound to be given to One Who Prepares Himself for Grace, or Who does what He can

Article Four Whether Grace is greater in One Man than in Another

Article Five Whether a Man can know that He has Grace

Question One Hundred and Thirteen THE EFFECTS OF GRACE

Article One Whether the Justification of the Ungodly is the Remission of Sins

Article Two Whether an Infusion of Grace is required for the Remission of Guilt, which is the Justification of the Ungodly

Article Three Whether a Movement of the Free Will is required for the Justification of the Ungodly

Article Four Whether a Movement of Faith is reojuired for the Justification of the Ungodly

Article Five Whether a Movement of the Free Will against Sin is required for the justification of the ungodly

Article Six Whether the Remission of Sins should be Numbered with the things reequired for the Justification of the Ungodly

Article Seven Whether the Justification of the Ungodly is achieved Instantaneously or Gradually

Article Eight Whether the Infusion of Grace is the First of the Things required for the Justification of the Ungodly, According to the Order of Nature

Article Nine Whether the Justification of the Ungodly is the Greatest Work of God

Article Ten Whether the Justification of the Ungodly is a Miracle

Question One Hundred and Fourteen CONCERNING MERIT, WHICH IS THE EFFECT OF CO-OPERATIVE GRACE

Article One Whether a Man can Merit Anything from God

Article Two Whether One can Merit Eternal Life without Grace

Article Three Whether a Man in Grace can Merit Eternal Life Condignly

Article Four Whether Grace is the Principle of Merit through Charity more Principally than through Other Virtues

Article Five Whether a Man can Merit the First Grace for Himself

Article Six Whether a Man can Merit the First Grace for Another

Article Seven Whether a Man can Merit His Restoration after a Lapse

Article Eight Whether a Man can Merit an Increase of Grace or Charity

Article Nine Whether a Man can Merit Perseverance

Article Ten Whether Temporal Goods can be Merited

Treatise on the Theological Virtues cI. On Faith. Secunda Secundae, Questions 1-7. Question One THE OBJECT OF FAITH

Article One Whether the Object of Faith is the First Truth

Article Two Whether the Object of Faith is Something Complex, in the Form of a Proposition

Article Three Whether what is False can be Held in Faith

Article Four Whether the Object of Faith can be Something Seen

Article Five Whether the Things of Faith can be Known Scientifically

Article Six Whether Matters of Faith ought to be Divided into Certain Articles

Article Seven Whether the Articles of Faith have Increased with the Passing of Time

Article Eight Whether the Articles of Faith are appropriately Enumerated

Article Nine Whether the Articles of Faith are appropriately Set Forth in a Symbol

Article Ten Whether it is for the Chief Pontiff to Draw Up the Symbol of the Faith

Question Two THE ACT OF FAITH

Article One Whether to Believe is to Think with Assent

Article Two Whether to Believe God, to Believe that there is a God, and to Believe in God are rightly Distinguished as Acts of Faith

Article Three Whether, for Salvation, it is Necessary to Believe Anything which is Beyond Natural Reason

Article Four Whether it is Necessary to Believe such Things as can be Proved by Natural Reason

Article Five Whether a Man is required to Believe Anything Explicitly

Article Six Whether all Men Equally are required to have Explicit Faith

Article Seven Whether Explicit Belief in the Mystery of the Incarnation of Christ is Necessary for the Salvation of Everybody

Article Eight Whether Explicit Belief in the Trinity is Necessary for Salvation

Article Nine Whether to Believe is Meritorious

Article Ten Whether a Reason in Support of the Things of Faith Diminishes the Merit of Faith

Question Three THE OUTWARD ACT OF FAITH

Article One Whether Confession is an Act of Faith

Article Two Whether Confession of Faith is Necessary for Salvation

Question Four THE VIRTUE ITSELF OF FAITH

Article One Whether this is a Satisfactory Definition of Faith: Faith is the Substance of Things Hoped for, the Evidence of Things not Seen

Article Two Whether Faith is in the Intellect as its Subject

Article Three Whether Charity is the Form of Faith

Article Four Whether Unformed Faith can become Formed, or Vice Versa

Article Five Whether Faith is a Virtue

Article Six Whether Faith is a Single Virtue

Article Seven Whether Faith is the First of the Virtues

Article Eight Whether Faith is more Certain than Science and the Other Intellectual Virtues

Question Five OF THOSE WHO HAVE FAITH

Article One Whether Angels and Man had Faith in their First State

Article Two Whether Devils Have Faith

Article Three Whether One Who Disbelieves One Article of Faith can Have Unformed Faith in the Other Articles

Article Four Whether Faith can be Greater in One Than in Another

Question Six THE CAUSE OF FAITH

Article One Whether Faith is Infused into Man by God

Article Two Whether Unformed Faith is a Gift of God

Question Seven THE EFFECT OF FAITH

Article One Whether Fear is an Effect of Faith

Article Two Whether Purification of the Heart is an Effect of Faith

cII. On Hope. Secunda Secundae, Questions 17--21. Question Seventeen OF HOPE, CONSIDERED IN ITSELF

Article One Whether Hope is a Virtue

Article Two Whether Eternal Blessedness is the Proper Object of Hope

Article Three Whether One can Hope for the Eternal Blessedness of Another

Article Four Whether One may Lawfully Hope in Man

Article Five Whether Hope is a Theological Virtue

Article Six Whether Hope is Distinct from the other Theological Virtues

Article Seven Whether Hope precedes Faith

Article Eight Whether Charity is Prior to Hope

Question Eighteen THE SUBJECT OF HOPE

Article One Whether Hope is in the Will as its Subject

Article Two Whether there is Hope in the Blessed

Article Three Whether there is Hope in the Damned

Question Nineteen THE GIFT OF FEAR

Article One Whether God can be Feared

Article Two Whether Fear is appropriately Divided into Filial, Initial, Servile, and Worldly Fear

Article Three Whether Worldly Fear is always Evil

Article Four Whether Servile Fear is Good

Article Five Whether Servile Fear is substantially the Same as Filial Fear

Article Six Whether Servile Fear Remains when Charity is Present

Article Seven Whether Fear is the Beginning of Wisdom

Article Eight Whether Initial Fear Differs Substantially from Filial Fear

Article Nine Whether Fear is a Gift of the Holy Spirit

Article Ten Whether Fear Diminishes as Charity Increases

Article Eleven Whether Fear Remains in Heaven

Article Twelve Whether Poverty of Spirit is the Beatitude which Corresponds to the Gift of Fear

Question Twenty OF DESPAIR

Article One Whether Despair is a Sin

Article Two Whether there can be Despair without Unbelief

Article Three Whether Despair is the Greatest of Sins

Article Four Whether Despair Arises from Listlessness

Question Twenty-One OF PRESUMPTION

Article One Whether Presumption Relies on God, or on One's Own Power

Article Two Whether Presumption is a Sin

Article Three Whether Presumption is Opposed to Fear rather than to Hope

Article Four Whether Presumption is Caused by Vainglory

III. On Charity. Secunda Secundae. Questions 23, 27. Question Twenty-Three OF CHARITY, CONSIDERED IN ITSELF

Article One Whether Charity is Friendship

Article Two Whether Charity is Something Created in the Soul

Article Three Whether Charity is a Virtue

Article Four Whether Charity is a Specific Virtue

Article Five Whether Charity is a Single Virtue

Article Six Whether Charity is the Most Excellent of the Virtues

Article Seven Whether there can be any True Virtue without Charity

Article Eight Whether Charity is the Form of the Virtues

Question Twenty-Seven OF THE PRINCIPAL ACT OF CHARITY, WHICH IS TO LOVE

Article One Whether to be Loved is More Proper to Charity than to Love

Article Two Whether the Love which is an Act of Charity is the Same as Benevolence

Article Three Whether by Charity God is to be Loved on Account of Himself

Article Four Whether God can be Loved Immediately in this Life

Article Five Whether God can be Loved Wholly

Article Six Whether Love to God ought to have a Mode

Article Seven Whether it is more Meritorious to Love an Enemy than to Love a Friend

Article Eight Whether it is more Meritorious to Love One's Neighbour than to Love God

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Index of References to Other Authors and Sources

This document is from the Christian Classics Ethereal Library at Calvin College, http://www.ccel.org, generated on demand from ThML source.

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