Nahum 1:1
Parallel Verses
English Standard Version
An oracle concerning Nineveh. The book of the vision of Nahum of Elkosh.

King James Bible
The burden of Nineveh. The book of the vision of Nahum the Elkoshite.

American Standard Version
The burden of Nineveh. The book of the vision of Nahum the Elkoshite.

Douay-Rheims Bible
The burden of Ninive. The book of the vision of Nahum the Elcesite.

English Revised Version
The burden of Nineveh. The book of the vision of Nahum the Elkoshite.

Webster's Bible Translation
The burden of Nineveh. The book of the vision of Nahum the Elkoshite,

Nahum 1:1 Parallel
Commentary
Keil and Delitzsch Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament

Jonah's foolish hope of being able to escape from the Lord was disappointed. "Jehovah threw a great wind (i.e., a violent wind) upon the sea." A mighty tempest (סער, rendered appropriately κλύδων by the lxx) arose, so that "the ship thought to be dashed to pieces," i.e., to be wrecked (השּׁב used of inanimate things, equivalent to "was very nearly" wrecked). In this danger the seamen (mallâch, a denom. of melach, the salt flood) cried for help, "every one to his god." They were heathen, and probably for the most part Phoenicians, but from different places, and therefore worshippers of different gods. But as the storm did not abate, they also resorted to such means of safety as they had at command. They "threw the waves in the ship into the sea, to procure relief to themselves" (להקל מעליהם as in Exodus 18:22 and 1 Kings 12:10). The suffix refers to the persons, not to the things. By throwing the goods overboard, they hoped to preserve the ship from sinking beneath the swelling waves, and thereby to lighten, i.e., diminish for themselves the danger of destruction which was so burdensome to them. "But Jonah had gone down into the lower room of the ship, and had there fallen fast asleep;" not, however, just at the time of the greatest danger, but before the wind had risen into a dangerous storm. The sentence is to be rendered as a circumstantial one in the pluperfect. Yarkethē hassephı̄nâh (analogous to harkethē habbayith in Amos 6:10) is the innermost part of the vessel, i.e., the lower room of the ship. Sephı̄nâh, which only occurs here, and is used in the place of אניּה, is the usual word for a ship in Arabic and Aramaean. Nirdam: used for deep sleep, as in Judges 4:21. This act of Jonah's is regarded by most commentators as a sign of an evil conscience. Marck supposes that he had lain down to sleep, hoping the better to escape either the dangers of sea and air, or the hand of God; others, that he had thrown himself down in despair, and being utterly exhausted and giving himself up for lost, had fallen asleep; or as Theodoret expresses it, being troubled with the gnawings of conscience and overpowered with mourning, he had sought comfort in sleep and fallen into a deep sleep. Jerome, on the other hand, expresses the idea that the words indicate "security of mind" on the part of the prophet: "he is not disturbed by the storm and the surrounding dangers, but has the same composed mind in the calm, or with shipwreck at hand;" and whilst the rest are calling upon their gods, and casting their things overboard, "he is so calm, and feels so safe with his tranquil mind, that he goes down to the interior of the ship and enjoys a most placid sleep." The truth probably lies between these two views. It was not an evil conscience, or despair occasioned by the threatening danger, which induced him to lie down to sleep; nor was it his fearless composure in the midst of the dangers of the storm, but the careless self-security with which he had embarked on the ship to flee from God, without considering that the hand of God could reach him even on the sea, and punish him for his disobedience. This security is apparent in his subsequent conduct.

Nahum 1:1 Parallel Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

burden.

Isaiah 13:1 The burden of Babylon, which Isaiah the son of Amoz did see.

Isaiah 14:28 In the year that king Ahaz died was this burden.

Isaiah 15:1 The burden of Moab. Because in the night Ar of Moab is laid waste, and brought to silence...

Isaiah 21:1 The burden of the desert of the sea. As whirlwinds in the south pass through; so it comes from the desert, from a terrible land.

Isaiah 22:1 The burden of the valley of vision. What ails you now, that you are wholly gone up to the housetops?

Isaiah 23:1 The burden of Tyre. Howl, you ships of Tarshish; for it is laid waste, so that there is no house, no entering in...

Jeremiah 23:33-37 And when this people, or the prophet, or a priest, shall ask you, saying, What is the burden of the LORD? you shall then say to them...

Zechariah 9:1 The burden of the word of the LORD in the land of Hadrach, and Damascus shall be the rest thereof: when the eyes of man...

Nineveh.

Genesis 10:11 Out of that land went forth Asshur, and built Nineveh, and the city Rehoboth, and Calah,

Jonah 3:3,4 So Jonah arose, and went to Nineveh, according to the word of the LORD. Now Nineveh was an exceeding great city of three days' journey...

Zephaniah 2:13 And he will stretch out his hand against the north, and destroy Assyria; and will make Nineveh a desolation, and dry like a wilderness.

Cross References
2 Kings 19:36
Then Sennacherib king of Assyria departed and went home and lived at Nineveh.

Isaiah 13:1
The oracle concerning Babylon which Isaiah the son of Amoz saw.

Isaiah 19:1
An oracle concerning Egypt. Behold, the LORD is riding on a swift cloud and comes to Egypt; and the idols of Egypt will tremble at his presence, and the heart of the Egyptians will melt within them.

Jeremiah 23:33
"When one of this people, or a prophet or a priest asks you, 'What is the burden of the LORD?' you shall say to them, 'You are the burden, and I will cast you off, declares the LORD.'

Jeremiah 23:34
And as for the prophet, priest, or one of the people who says, 'The burden of the LORD,' I will punish that man and his household.

Jonah 1:2
"Arise, go to Nineveh, that great city, and call out against it, for their evil has come up before me."

Nahum 2:8
Nineveh is like a pool whose waters run away. "Halt! Halt!" they cry, but none turns back.

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