Isaiah 45:12
Parallel Verses
English Standard Version
I made the earth and created man on it; it was my hands that stretched out the heavens, and I commanded all their host.

King James Bible
I have made the earth, and created man upon it: I, even my hands, have stretched out the heavens, and all their host have I commanded.

American Standard Version
I have made the earth, and created man upon it: I, even my hands, have stretched out the heavens; and all their host have I commanded.

Douay-Rheims Bible
I made the earth: and I created man upon it: my hand stretched forth the heavens, and I have commanded all their host.

English Revised Version
I have made the earth, and created man upon it: I, even my hands, have stretched out the heavens, and all their host have I commanded.

Webster's Bible Translation
I have made the earth, and created man upon it: I, even my hands, have stretched out the heavens, and all their host have I commanded.

Isaiah 45:12 Parallel
Commentary
Keil and Delitzsch Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament

A second and third object are introduced by a second and third למען. "For the sake of my servant Jacob, and Israel my chosen, I called thee hither by name, surnamed thee when thou knewest me not. I Jehovah, and there is none else, beside me no God: I equipped thee when thou knewest me not; that they may know from the rising of the sun, and its going down, that there is none without me: I Jehovah, and there is none else, former of the light, and creator of the darkness; founder of peace, and creator of evil: I Jehovah am He who worketh all this." The ואקרא which follows the second reason assigned like an apodosis, is construed doubly: "I called to thee, calling thee by name." The parallel אכנּך refers to such titles of honour as "my shepherd" and "my anointed," which had been given to him by Jehovah. This calling, distinguishing, and girding, i.e., this equipment of Cyrus, took place at a time when Cyrus knew nothing as yet of Jehovah, and by this very fact Jehovah made known His sole Deity. The meaning is, not that it occurred while he was still worshipping false gods, but, as the refrain-like repetition of the words "though thou hast not know me" affirms with strong emphasis, before he had been brought into existence, or could know anything of Jehovah. The passage is to be explained in the same way as Jeremiah 1:5, "Before I formed thee in the womb, I knew thee" (see Psychol. pp. 36, 37, 39); and what the God of prophecy here claims for Himself, must not be questioned by false criticism, or weakened down by false apologetics (i.e., by giving up the proper name Cyrus as a gloss in Isaiah 44:28 and Isaiah 45:1; or generalizing it into a king's name, such as Pharaoh, Abimelech, or Agag). The third and last object of this predicted and realized success of the oppressor of nations and deliverer of Israel is the acknowledgement of Jehovah, spreading over the heathen world from the rising and setting of the sun, i.e., in every direction. The ah of וּממּערבה is not a feminine termination (lxx, Targ., Jer.), but a feminine suffix with He raphato pro mappic (Kimchi); compare Isaiah 23:17-18; Isaiah 34:17 (but not נצּה in Isaiah 18:5, or מוּסדה in Isaiah 30:32). Shemesh (the sun) is a feminine here, as in Genesis 15:17, Nahum 3:17, Malachi 4:2, and always in Arabic; for the west is invariably called מערב (Arab. magrib). In Isaiah 45:7 we are led by the context to understand by darkness and evil the penal judgments, through which light and peace, or salvation, break forth for the people of God and the nations generally. But as the prophecy concerning Cyrus closes with this self-assertion of Jehovah, it is unquestionably a natural supposition that there is also a contrast implied to the dualistic system of Zarathustra, which divided the one nature of the Deity into two opposing powers (see Windischmann, Zoroastrische Studien, p. 135). The declaration is so bold, that Marcion appealed to this passage as a proof that the God of the Old Testament was a different being from the God of the New, and not the God of goodness only. The Valentinians and other gnostics also regarded the words "There is no God beside me" in Isaiah, as deceptive words of the Demiurugs. The early church met them with Tertullian's reply, "de his creator profitetur malis quae congruunt judici," and also made use of this self-attestation of the God of revelation as a weapon with which to attack Manicheesism. The meaning of the words is not exhausted by those who content themselves with the assertion, that by the evil (or darkness) we are not to understand the evil of guilt (malum culpae), but the evil of punishment (malum paenae). Undoubtedly, evil as an act is not the direct working of God, but the spontaneous work of a creature endowed with freedom. At the same time, evil, as well as good, has in this sense its origin in God - that He combines within Himself the first principles of love and wrath, the possibility of evil, the self-punishment of evil, and therefore the consciousness of guilt as well as the evil of punishment in the broadest sense. When the apostle celebrates the glory of free grace in Romans 9:11., he stands on that giddy height, to which few are able to follow him without falling headlong into the false conclusions of a decretum absolutum, and the denial of all creaturely freedom.

Isaiah 45:12 Parallel Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

made the earth

Isaiah 45:18 For thus said the LORD that created the heavens; God himself that formed the earth and made it; he has established it...

Isaiah 40:28 Have you not known? have you not heard, that the everlasting God, the LORD, the Creator of the ends of the earth, faints not...

Isaiah 42:5 Thus said God the LORD, he that created the heavens, and stretched them out; he that spread forth the earth...

Genesis 1:26,27 And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea...

Psalm 102:25 Of old have you laid the foundation of the earth: and the heavens are the work of your hands.

Hebrews 11:3 Through faith we understand that the worlds were framed by the word of God...

my hands

Isaiah 40:12,22 Who has measured the waters in the hollow of his hand, and meted out heaven with the span...

Isaiah 44:24 Thus said the LORD, your redeemer, and he that formed you from the womb, I am the LORD that makes all things...

Jeremiah 27:5 I have made the earth, the man and the beast that are on the ground, by my great power and by my outstretched arm...

Jeremiah 32:17 Ah Lord GOD! behold, you have made the heaven and the earth by your great power and stretched out arm...

Zechariah 12:1 The burden of the word of the LORD for Israel, said the LORD, which stretches forth the heavens, and lays the foundation of the earth...

all their host

Genesis 2:1 Thus the heavens and the earth were finished, and all the host of them.

Nehemiah 9:6 You, even you, are LORD alone; you have made heaven, the heaven of heavens, with all their host, the earth...

Cross References
Genesis 2:1
Thus the heavens and the earth were finished, and all the host of them.

Deuteronomy 4:32
"For ask now of the days that are past, which were before you, since the day that God created man on the earth, and ask from one end of heaven to the other, whether such a great thing as this has ever happened or was ever heard of.

Ezra 1:2
"Thus says Cyrus king of Persia: The LORD, the God of heaven, has given me all the kingdoms of the earth, and he has charged me to build him a house at Jerusalem, which is in Judah.

Nehemiah 9:6
"You are the LORD, you alone. You have made heaven, the heaven of heavens, with all their host, the earth and all that is on it, the seas and all that is in them; and you preserve all of them; and the host of heaven worships you.

Job 37:18
Can you, like him, spread out the skies, hard as a cast metal mirror?

Psalm 104:2
covering yourself with light as with a garment, stretching out the heavens like a tent.

Isaiah 37:16
"O LORD of hosts, God of Israel, enthroned above the cherubim, you are the God, you alone, of all the kingdoms of the earth; you have made heaven and earth.

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