Genesis 1:1
Parallel Verses
English Standard Version
In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth.

King James Bible
In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.

American Standard Version
In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.

Douay-Rheims Bible
In the beginning God created heaven, and earth.

English Revised Version
In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.

Webster's Bible Translation
In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.

Genesis 1:1 Parallel
Commentary
Keil and Delitzsch Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament

"In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth." - Heaven and earth have not existed from all eternity, but had a beginning; nor did they arise by emanation from an absolute substance, but were created by God. This sentence, which stands at the head of the records of revelation, is not a mere heading, nor a summary of the history of the creation, but a declaration of the primeval act of God, by which the universe was called into being. That this verse is not a heading merely, is evident from the fact that the following account of the course of the creation commences with w (and), which connects the different acts of creation with the fact expressed in Genesis 1:1, as the primary foundation upon which they rest. בּרשׁיח (in the beginning) is used absolutely, like ἐν ἀρχῇ in John 1:1, and מראשׁיח in Isaiah 46:10. The following clause cannot be treated as subordinate, either by rendering it, "in the beginning when God created ..., the earth was," etc., or "in the beginning when God created...(but the earth was then a chaos, etc.), God said, Let there be light" (Ewald and Bunsen). The first is opposed to the grammar of the language, which would require Genesis 1:2 to commence with הארץ ותּהי; the second to the simplicity of style which pervades the whole chapter, and to which so involved a sentence would be intolerable, apart altogether from the fact that this construction is invented for the simple purpose of getting rid of the doctrine of a creatio ex nihilo, which is so repulsive to modern Pantheism. ראשׁיח in itself is a relative notion, indicating the commencement of a series of things or events; but here the context gives it the meaning of the very first beginning, the commencement of the world, when time itself began. The statement, that in the beginning God created the heaven and the earth, not only precludes the idea of the eternity of the world a parte ante, but shows that the creation of the heaven and the earth was the actual beginning of all things. The verb בּרא, indeed, to judge from its use in Joshua 17:15, Joshua 17:18, where it occurs in the Piel (to hew out), means literally "to cut, or new," but in Kal it always means to create, and is only applied to a divine creation, the production of that which had no existence before. It is never joined with an accusative of the material, although it does not exclude a pre-existent material unconditionally, but is used for the creation of man (Genesis 1:27; Genesis 5:1-2), and of everything new that God creates, whether in the kingdom of nature (Numbers 16:30) or of that of grace (Exodus 34:10; Psalm 51:10, etc.). In this verse, however, the existence of any primeval material is precluded by the object created: "the heaven and the earth." This expression is frequently employed to denote the world, or universe, for which there was no single word in the Hebrew language; the universe consisting of a twofold whole, and the distinction between heaven and earth being essentially connected with the notion of the world, the fundamental condition of its historical development (vid., Genesis 14:19, Genesis 14:22; Exodus 31:17). In the earthly creation this division is repeated in the distinction between spirit and nature; and in man, as the microcosm, in that between spirit and body. Through sin this distinction was changed into an actual opposition between heaven and earth, flesh and spirit; but with the complete removal of sin, this opposition will cease again, though the distinction between heaven and earth, spirit and body, will remain, in such a way, however, that the earthly and corporeal will be completely pervaded by the heavenly and spiritual, the new Jerusalem coming down from heaven to earth, and the earthly body being transfigured into a spiritual body (Revelation 21:1-2; 1 Corinthians 15:35.). Hence, if in the beginning God created the heaven and the earth, "there is nothing belonging to the composition of the universe, either in material or form, which had an existence out of God prior to this divine act in the beginning" (Delitzsch). This is also shown in the connection between our verse and the one which follows: "and the earth was without form and void," not before, but when, or after God created it. From this it is evident that the void and formless state of the earth was not uncreated, or without beginning. At the same time it is obvious from the creative acts which follow (vv. 3-18), that the heaven and earth, as God created them in the beginning, were not the well-ordered universe, but the world in its elementary form; just as Euripides applies the expression οὐρανὸς καὶ γαῖα to the undivided mass (οπφὴμία), which was afterwards formed into heaven and earth.

Genesis 1:1 Parallel Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

beginning.

Proverbs 8:22-24 The LORD possessed me in the beginning of his way, before his works of old...

Proverbs 16:4 The LORD has made all things for himself: yes, even the wicked for the day of evil.

Mark 13:19 For in those days shall be affliction, such as was not from the beginning of the creation which God created to this time...

John 1:1-3 In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God...

Hebrews 1:10 And, You, Lord, in the beginning have laid the foundation of the earth; and the heavens are the works of your hands:

1 John 1:1 That which was from the beginning, which we have heard, which we have seen with our eyes, which we have looked on...

God.

Exodus 20:11 For in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested the seventh day...

Exodus 31:18 And he gave to Moses, when he had made an end of communing with him on mount Sinai, two tables of testimony, tables of stone...

1 Chronicles 16:26 For all the gods of the people are idols: but the LORD made the heavens.

Nehemiah 9:6 You, even you, are LORD alone; you have made heaven, the heaven of heavens, with all their host, the earth...

Job 26:13 By his spirit he has garnished the heavens; his hand has formed the crooked serpent.

Job 38:4 Where were you when I laid the foundations of the earth? declare, if you have understanding.

Psalm 8:3 When I consider your heavens, the work of your fingers, the moon and the stars, which you have ordained;

Psalm 33:6,9 By the word of the LORD were the heavens made; and all the host of them by the breath of his mouth...

Psalm 89:11,12 The heavens are yours, the earth also is yours: as for the world and the fullness thereof, you have founded them...

Psalm 96:5 For all the gods of the nations are idols: but the LORD made the heavens.

Psalm 102:25 Of old have you laid the foundation of the earth: and the heavens are the work of your hands.

Psalm 104:24,30 O LORD, how manifold are your works! in wisdom have you made them all: the earth is full of your riches...

Psalm 115:15 You are blessed of the LORD which made heaven and earth.

Psalm 121:2 My help comes from the LORD, which made heaven and earth.

Psalm 124:8 Our help is in the name of the LORD, who made heaven and earth.

Psalm 134:3 The LORD that made heaven and earth bless you out of Zion.

Psalm 136:5 To him that by wisdom made the heavens: for his mercy endures for ever.

Psalm 146:6 Which made heaven, and earth, the sea, and all that therein is: which keeps truth for ever:

Psalm 148:4,5 Praise him, you heavens of heavens, and you waters that be above the heavens...

Proverbs 3:19 The LORD by wisdom has founded the earth; by understanding has he established the heavens.

Proverbs 8:22-30 The LORD possessed me in the beginning of his way, before his works of old...

Ecclesiastes 12:1 Remember now your Creator in the days of your youth, while the evil days come not, nor the years draw near, when you shall say...

Isaiah 37:16 O LORD of hosts, God of Israel, that dwell between the cherubim, you are the God, even you alone, of all the kingdoms of the earth...

Isaiah 40:26 Lift up your eyes on high, and behold who has created these things, that brings out their host by number...

Isaiah 40:28 Have you not known? have you not heard, that the everlasting God, the LORD, the Creator of the ends of the earth, faints not...

Isaiah 42:5 Thus said God the LORD, he that created the heavens, and stretched them out; he that spread forth the earth...

Isaiah 44:24 Thus said the LORD, your redeemer, and he that formed you from the womb, I am the LORD that makes all things...

Isaiah 45:18 For thus said the LORD that created the heavens; God himself that formed the earth and made it; he has established it...

Isaiah 51:13,16 And forget the LORD your maker, that has stretched forth the heavens, and laid the foundations of the earth...

Isaiah 65:17 For, behold, I create new heavens and a new earth: and the former shall not be remembered, nor come into mind.

Jeremiah 10:12 He has made the earth by his power, he has established the world by his wisdom, and has stretched out the heavens by his discretion.

Jeremiah 32:17 Ah Lord GOD! behold, you have made the heaven and the earth by your great power and stretched out arm...

Jeremiah 51:15 He has made the earth by his power, he has established the world by his wisdom, and has stretched out the heaven by his understanding.

Zechariah 12:1 The burden of the word of the LORD for Israel, said the LORD, which stretches forth the heavens, and lays the foundation of the earth...

Matthew 11:25 At that time Jesus answered and said, I thank you, O Father, Lord of heaven and earth...

Acts 4:24 And when they heard that, they lifted up their voice to God with one accord, and said, Lord, you are God, which have made heaven...

Acts 14:15 And saying, Sirs, why do you these things? We also are men of like passions with you...

Acts 17:24 God that made the world and all things therein, seeing that he is Lord of heaven and earth, dwells not in temples made with hands;

Romans 1:19,20 Because that which may be known of God is manifest in them; for God has showed it to them...

Romans 11:36 For of him, and through him, and to him, are all things: to whom be glory for ever. Amen.

1 Corinthians 8:6 But to us there is but one God, the Father, of whom are all things, and we in him; and one Lord Jesus Christ, by whom are all things...

Ephesians 3:9 And to make all men see what is the fellowship of the mystery, which from the beginning of the world has been hid in God...

Colossians 1:16,17 For by him were all things created, that are in heaven, and that are in earth, visible and invisible, whether they be thrones...

Hebrews 1:2 Has in these last days spoken to us by his Son, whom he has appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds;

Hebrews 3:4 For every house is built by some man; but he that built all things is God.

Hebrews 11:3 Through faith we understand that the worlds were framed by the word of God...

2 Peter 3:5 For this they willingly are ignorant of, that by the word of God the heavens were of old...

Revelation 3:14 And to the angel of the church of the Laodiceans write; These things said the Amen, the faithful and true witness...

Revelation 4:11 You are worthy, O Lord, to receive glory and honor and power: for you have created all things...

Revelation 10:6 And swore by him that lives for ever and ever, who created heaven, and the things that therein are, and the earth...

Revelation 14:7 Saying with a loud voice, Fear God, and give glory to him; for the hour of his judgment is come: and worship him that made heaven...

Revelation 21:6 And he said to me, It is done. I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end...

Revelation 22:13 I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end, the first and the last.

Cross References
John 1:1
In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

John 1:2
He was in the beginning with God.

Acts 17:24
The God who made the world and everything in it, being Lord of heaven and earth, does not live in temples made by man,

Hebrews 1:10
And, "You, Lord, laid the foundation of the earth in the beginning, and the heavens are the work of your hands;

Hebrews 11:3
By faith we understand that the universe was created by the word of God, so that what is seen was not made out of things that are visible.

Revelation 4:11
"Worthy are you, our Lord and God, to receive glory and honor and power, for you created all things, and by your will they existed and were created."

Nehemiah 9:6
"You are the LORD, you alone. You have made heaven, the heaven of heavens, with all their host, the earth and all that is on it, the seas and all that is in them; and you preserve all of them; and the host of heaven worships you.

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