Quotations from the Lxx. In Early Christian Writings.
"THE quotations from the LXX. in the Greek Fathers are an almost unworked field [850] ." So wrote Dr Hatch in 1889, and the remark is still true. Indeed, this field can hardly be worked with satisfactory results until the editor has gone before, or a competent collator has employed himself upon the MSS. of the author whose quotations are to be examined. The 'Apostolic Fathers' can already be used with confidence in the editions of Lightfoot and Gebhardt-Harnack; the minor Greek Apologists have been well edited in Texte und Untersuchungen, and it may be hoped that the Berlin edition of the earlier Greek Fathers [851] will eventually supply the investigator with trustworthy materials for the Ante-Nicene period as a whole. But for the present the evidence of many Ante-Nicene and of nearly all later Greek Church-writers must be employed with some reserve. In this chapter we shall limit ourselves to the more representative Christian writers before Origen.

1. The earliest of non-canonical Christian writings, the letter addressed c. A.D.96 by the Church of Rome to the Church of Corinth, abounds in quotations from the O.T.; and more than half of these are given substantially in the words of the LXX. with or without variants.

The following is a list of the exact or nearly exact quotations of the LXX. in Clem. R. ad Cor. Gen. ii.23 (vi.3), iv.3 ff. (iv.1 ff.), xii.1 ff. (x.3), xiii.14 ff. (x.4 f.), xv.5 (x.6), xviii.27 (xvii.2); Exod. ii.14 (iv.9); Deut. xxxiii.8 f. (xxix.2); Ps. ii.7 f. (xxxvi.4), xi.5 f. (xv.5), xvii.26 f. (xlvi.2), xviii.2 ff. (xxvii.7), xxi.7 ff. (xvi.15 f.), xxiii.1 (liv.3), xxx.9 (xv.5), xxxi.1 f. (l.6), 10 (xxii.8), xxxiii.12 -- 20 (xxii.1 ff.), xxxvi.35 f. (xiv.5), xlix.16 ff. (xxxv.7 ff.), l.3 ff. (xviii.2 ff.), lxi.5 (xv.3), lxxvii.36 (xv.4), lxxxviii.21 (xviii.1), cii.4 (xxxvi.3), cix.1 (xxxvi.5), cxvii.18 (lvi.3), 19 f. (xlviii.2), cxxxviii.7 f. (xxviii.3), cxl.5 (1vi.5); Prov. i.23 ff. (lvii.3 ff.), ii.21 f. (xiv.4), iii.12 (lvi.3 f.), 34 (xxx.2), xx.21 (xxi.2); Job iv.16 ff. (xxxix.3 ff.), v.17 ff. (lvi.6 ff.), xi.2 f. (xxx.4), xix.26 (xxvi.2); Sap. xii.12 + xi.22 (xxvii.3); Mal. iii.1 (xxiii.5); Isa. i.16 ff. (viii.4), vi.3 (xxxiv.6), xiii.22 (xxiii.5), xxix.13 (xv.2), liii.1 ff. (xvi.3 ff.), lx.17 (xlii.5), lxvi.2 (xiii.3); Jer. ix.23 f. (xiii.1); Ezech. xxxiii.11 (viii.2); Dan. vii.10, Th. (xxxiv.6).

The variants are often of much interest, as shewing affinities to certain types of LXX. text. The following are specially worthy of notice: Ps. xxi.7 exouthenema, 'AR; xxxi.1 f. hou, ' BA (ag. '^ c.a ho); xxxiii.14 cheile tou, '^ c.aAR; 16 om. hoti, '^ c.aAR; xxxvi.36 exezetesa (H.P.99, 183); xlix.21 anome, 'o ; 22 harp. hos leon, R; l.17 to stoma . . . ta cheile; lxxxviii.21 eleei, B ; Prov. ii.21 chrestoi esontai oiketores ges, akakoi de hupoleiphthesontai ep' autes, cf. '^ c.aA -- a doublet wanting in B, whose reading "appears to shew the hand of an Alexandrian reviser" (Toy, cf. Lagarde); iii.12 paideuei, 'A; xx.21 (27) luchnos, a reading found in A as a doublet (phos . . . e luchnos); Job iv.21 eteleutesan (for exeranthesan), A; v.17 ff. is without the additions of the A text, and nearly as in B; Isa. i.17 chera, B , ag. B^ ab'A, deute kai dielenchth. (dialechth. C^clem), 'AQ; liii.5 hamartias . . . anomias tr., 'AQ; 6 huper ton hamartion hemon; 8 hekei for echthe, Q^ mg, 62, 90 al., Syrohex.^ mg; 9 heurethe dolos '^c.aAQ (see Lightfoot's note); tes pleges, B (A, apo t. pl.; lx.17 archontas] episkopous episkopous] diakonous; Ezech. xxxiii.11 hamartolou, A (B, asebous); Dan. vii.10 eleitourgoun, Th. (LXX. etherapeuon) [852] .

(a) A few readings imply correction from the Hebrew, or rather perhaps a Greek text with affinities to the translations of the second century; e.g. Ps. cxxxviii.8 ean katastroso, A. S. ean stroso, (LXX. ean katabo); Isa. lxvi.2 praon, A. (LXX. tapeinon). Others seem to be due to the imperfect memory of the writer, who has not verified his quotations by referring to his papyrus, e.g. Ps. lxxxviii.21 en eleei aiomio: Mal. iii.1 ho hagios [853] for angelos.

(b) A large proportion of Clement's quotations are composite [854] ; sixteen passages may be thus described. Some of these consist of citations accurately given from the LXX. and strung together, with or without a formula citandi (e.g. lvi.3 -- 14 = Ps. cxvii.18 + Prov. iii.12 + Ps. cxl.5 (phesin) + Job v.17 -- 26 kai palin legei)). In other cases one of the citations is correctly given, and another quoted loosely (e.g. xiv.4 = Prov. ii.21 f. (A) + Ps. xxxvi.38, confused with 21^ b). But more commonly in Clement's conflate quotations, texts are fused together without regard to verbal accuracy; cf. e.g. xxvi.20 legei gar pou Kai exanasteseis me kai exomologesomai soi; kai ekoimethe kai hupnosa; exegerthen, hoti su met' emou ei, where fragments of Pss. xxvii.7, iii.5, xxii.4 are blended into an arabesque. Except in this class of quotations Clement is not often guilty of citing loosely; see however xx.7 (Job xxxviii.11), xxviii.3 (Ps. cxxxviii.7), xxxii.3 (Gen. xv.5), xlii.5 (Isa. lx.17).

(c) Special interest attaches to Clement's quotations of passages which are also quoted in the N.T. The following are the most instructive instances: (1) Gen. xii.1 = Acts vii.3 = Clem. x.3: Clem. reads apelthe for exelthe (LXX. and Acts), but rejects kai deuro with AD against Acts and cod. E. (2) Exod. ii.14 = Acts vii.27 = Clem. iv.11: Clem. reads kriten for archonta -- "perhaps from confusion with Lc. xii.14" (Lightfoot). (3) Jer. ix.23 f. (1 Regn. ii.10) = 1 Cor. i.31, (2 Cor. x.17) = Clem. xiii.1; here the relation of Clement to the Biblical texts is best shewn by juxtaposition:

Jer. l.c.1 Regn. l.c. [855] Clem. l.c.
me kauchastho ho sophos en te sophia autou, kai me kauchastho ho ischuros en te ischui autou, kai me kauchastho ho plousios en to plouto autou; all' e en touto kauchastho ho kauchomenos, suniein kai ginoskein hoti ego eimi Kurios ho poion eleos kai krima kai dikaiosunen epi tes ges. me kauchastho ho phronimos en te phronesei autou, kai me kauchastho ho dunatos en te dunamei autou, kai me kauchastho ho plousios en to plouto autou; all' e en touto kauchastho ho kauchomenos, suniein kai ginoskein ton kurion, kai poiein krima kai dikaiosunen en meso tes ges. me kauchastho ho sophos en te sophia autou, uede ho ischuros en te ischui autou, uede ho plousios en to plouto autou; all' e ho kauchomenos en Kurio kauchastho [856] , tou ekzetein auton kai poiein krima kai dikaiosunen.

(4) Ps. xxi.9 = Matt. xxvii.43 = Clem. xvi.15; Clem. agrees with LXX., Mt. substitutes pepoithen for elpisen, ton theon for Kurion, and ei for hoti. (5) Ps. xxxiii.12 ff. = 1 Pet. iii.10 ff. = Clem. xxii.1 ff.; Clem. agrees with LXX. against St Peter, who changes the construction (ho thelon . . . pausato ktl.). (6) Ps. cix.1 = Mt. xxii.44 (Mc., Lc.), Acts ii.34 f., Heb. i.13 = Clem. xxxvi.5: Clem. reads hupopodion with Lc., Acts, Hebr., against hupokato Mt., Mc. (BD). (7) Prov. iii.12 = Heb. xii.6 = Clem. lvi.4: see above, p.402. (8) Prov. iii.34 = Jas. iv.6, 1 Pet. v.5 = Clem. xxx.2: Theos (ho th. Jas., Pet.) against Kurios LXX.; M.T. hv', but with reference to yhvh in v.33. (9) Isa. xxix.13 [857] = Mt. xv.8, Mc. vii.6 = Clem. xv.1: again the passages must be printed in full:

Isa. l.c. Mt., Mc. ll.cc. Clem. l.c.

engizei moi ho laos houtos en to stomati autou, kai en tois cheilesin auton timosin me, he de kardia auton porro apechei ap' emou.

om en to stom. autou kai en 'AQ.

ho laos houtos (houtos ho laos Mc.) tois cheilesin me tima, he de kardia auton porro apechei ap' emou.

apechei] Mc. aphesteken D apestin L 2^ pe

Houtos ho laos tois cheilesin me tima, he de kardia auton porro apestin ap' emou.

tois cheilesin] to stomati C^ clem.

apestin] apechei C^ clem.

Through constant citation, the context has taken more than one type; Clement's is close to that of the Evangelists, but has not been borrowed from them in their present form, as apestin shews. (10) Isa. liii.1 -- 12 = Clem. xvi.3 -- 14; cf. Jo. xii.38 (Rom. x.16), Mt. viii.17, Acts viii.32 f., 1 Pet. ii.22, Mc. xv.28.

The general result of this examination is to shew (a) that Clement's text of the LXX. inclines in places to that which appears in the N.T., and yet presents sufficient evidence of independence; (b) that as between the texts of the LXX. represented by B and A, while often supporting A, it is less constantly opposed to B than is the New Testament; and (c) that it displays an occasional tendency to agree with Theodotion and even with Aquila against the LXX. It seems in fact to be a more mixed text than that which was in the hands of the Palestinian writers of the N.T. These conclusions harmonise on the whole with what we know of the circumstances under which Clement wrote. The early Roman Church was largely composed of Greek-speaking Jews, the freedmen of Roman families; and Clement himself, as Lightfoot has suggested [858] , was probably of Jewish descent and a freedman or the son of a freedman of Flavius Clemens, the cousin of Domitian. Under these circumstances it was natural that the text of Clement's copies of Old Testament books, while derived from Palestinian archetypes, should contain readings brought to the capital by Jewish-Greek visitors from other lands.

2. Whatever the history of the so-called Second Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians, whether it is of Roman or of Corinthian origin, like the genuine Epistle it makes extensive use of the Greek Old Testament. The following quotations occur: Gen. i.27 (xiv.2); Mal. iv.1 (xvi.3); Isa. xxix.13 (iii.5), xxxiv.4 (xvi.3), lii.5 (xiii.2), liv.1 (ii.1), lviii.9 (xv.3), lxvi.18 (xvii.4 f.), 24 (vii.6, xvii.24); Jer. vii.11 (xiv.1), Ezech. xiv.14, 18, 20 (vi.8). The last of these passages is cited very freely or rather summarised, although introduced by the words legei he graphe en to Ezeloel.. The writer follows Clement in the form of several of his quotations (iii.5 = Clem.1 Cor. xv.2, xiv.2 = Clem.1 Cor. xxxiii.5; in xiii.2 he quotes Isa. lii.5 as it is quoted by Polycarp (see below)).

3. Another second century document, indisputably Roman, the Shepherd of Hermas, contains no quotation from the LXX. But Ps. ciii.15 LXX. has supplied the writer with a phrase in Mand. xii.3.4, and Vis. iv.2.4 supplies evidence that he knew and read a version of Daniel which was akin to Theodotion's. The passage runs: ho kurios apesteilen ton angelon autou ton epi ton therion onta, hou to onoma estin Segri [859] , kai enephraxen to stoma autou hina me se lumane. Compare Dan. vi.22 (23) Th., ho theos mou apesteilen ton angelon autou kai enephraxen ta stomata ton leonton, (LXX.. sesoke me ho theos apo ton leonton) kai ouk elumenanto me [860] .

4. The Old Testament is quoted in the Epistle of Barnabas even more profusely than in the Epistle of Clement, but with less precision. The writer is fairly exact in well known contexts belonging to the Psalter or the Book of Isaiah [861] , but elsewhere he appears to trust to memory, and not to concern himself greatly about the words of his author. Even when preceded by a formula citandi his citations often wander far from the LXX., although they are clearly based upon it; e.g. Exod. xxxiii.1 -- 3 is quoted in Barn. vi.8 after this manner: ti legei ho allos prophetes Mouses autois; Idou tade legei Kurios ho theos Eiselthate eis ten gen ten agathen, hen omosen Kurios to Abraam kai Isaak kai Iakob, kai katakleronomesate auten, gen rheousan gala kai meli. Similar liberties are taken even when which he is quoting: x.2 Mouses . . . legei autois en to Deuteronomio Kai diathesomai pros ton laon touton ta dikaiomata mou -- a sentence which, though it has all the notes of a strict quotation, proves to be a mere summary of Deut. iv.1 -- 23.

The following analysis of the quotations in Barnabas may be found useful. (a) Exact or nearly exact: Gen. i.28 (Barn. vi.12), Exod. xx.14. (xix.4), Deut. x.16 (ix.5), Ps. i.1, 3 -- 6 (x.1, xi.6 f.), xvii.45 (ix.1), xxi.17, 19 (vi.6), cix.1 (xii.10), cxvii.12, 22 (vi.4, 6), Prov. i.17 (v.4), Isa. i.2, 10 ff. (ii.5, ix.3, xv.8), iii.9f. (vi.7), v.21 (iv.11), xxviii.16 (vi.2 f.), xxxiii.13 (ix.1), 16 (xi.4 f.), xl.12 (xvi.2), xlii.6 ff. (xiv.7), xlv.2 f. (xi.4), x1ix.6 f. (xiv.8), liii.5, 7 (v.2), lxi.1 f. (xiv.9), lxvi.1 f. (xvi.2). (b) Partly exact, partly free: Gen. xxv.21 ff. (xiii.2), xlviii.9 -- 11, 14 ff. (xiii.4 f.), Isa. xxviii.16 (vi.2), lviii.4 ff. (iii.1 f.), Jer. ii.12 f. (xi.2). (c) Free: Gen. i.26 (vi.12), 28 (vi.18), Lev. xxiii.29 (vii.3), Deut. ix.12 (iv.8), x.16 (ix.5), Ps. xxi.21, cxviii.120, xxi.17 (v.13), Zech. xiii.7 (v.12), xvi.1 f. (xi.3), xl.3 (ix.3), Isa. l.6 ff. (v.14, vi.1), lxv.2 (xii.4), Jer. iv.3 (ix.5), vii.2 (ix.2), ix.26 (ix.5), Ezech. xi.19, xxxvi.26 (vi.14). (d) Free, with fusion: Gen. xvii.23 + xiv.14 (ix.8), Exod. xx.8 + Ps. xxiii.4 (xv.1), Exod. xxxii.7 + Deut. ix.12 (iv.8), xxxiv.28 + xxxi.18 (iv.7), Ps. xli.3 + xxi.23 (vi.15), l.19 + apocryphon (ii.10), Jer. vii.22 f. + Zech. vii.10, viii.17 (ii.7 f.). (e) Free summary: Lev. xi., Deut. xiv. (x.1), Deut. iv.10 ff. (x.2), Ezech. xlvii. (xi.10). (f) Very loose citation: Gen. ii.2 (xv.3), xvii.5 (xiii.6), Exod. xvii.14 (xii.9), xxiv.18 + xxxi.18 (xiv.2), xxxiii.1 ff. (vi.8), Lev. xvi.7 ff. (vii.6), Deut. xxvii.15 (xii.6), Ps. xxxiii.13 (ix.2), Sir. iv.31 (xix.9) Isa. xlix.17 (xvi.3), Dan. vii.7 f., 24 (iv.4), ix.24 (xvi.6).

As the Epistle of Barnabas is not improbably a relic of the earliest Alexandrian Christianity, it is important to interrogate its witness to the text of the LXX. This can best be done, as we have seen, by examining its quotations from the Psalms and Isaiah.

Ps. i.1 epi kathedran, B' (ag. e. kathedra AR), 5 hoi asebeis, hamartoloi, B (ag. asebeis, hoi ham., A). xvii.45 hupekousan, ' mou, '^ c.a RU (ag. moi 1º B' A). xxi.17 perieschen, H.-P.81, 206. cix.1 Kurios, R hupopodion (ag. hupokato, Mc. xii.36, BD). Isa. iii.9 hoti, AG; v.21 heauton, AQ; xxviii.16 embalo, 'AQ; xlii.7 kai exagagein dedemenous ] pepedemenous (as Justin, Dial.26, 65, 122). x1ix.6 tetheika, 'AQ (ag. dedoka BQ^ mg), 7 lutrosamenos (for rhusamenos); liii.5 anomias, hamartias, 'AQ, 7 tou keirontos auton, '^ c.a AQ; lviii.5 legei Kurios, Q, 6 idou haute he nesteia hen; 1xi. i tapeinois, ' ; lxvi.1 he de ge, 'AQ he (for kai 2º), 'A.

The leaning in Isaiah towards the text of Q especially when found in company with A or 'A, is noteworthy, and it is worth mentioning that in Zech. xiii.7, where the text of Barnabas does not seem to have been influenced by the Gospels, it agrees with A in adding tes poimnes. Occasionally the text used by Barnabas seems to have been revised from the Heb.; e.g. in Jer. ii.12 exeste, ephrixen become ekstethi, phrixato in accordance with M.T.; in Gen. ii.2 Barnabas has with M.T. en te hemera te ebdome where the LXX. read e. t. he. te hekte [862] .

5. The Asiatic Christian writers of the second century, Ignatius of Antioch and Polycarp of Smyrna, afford a striking contrast to Clement of Rome and Barnabas of Alexandria, in the rarity of their appeals to the Old Testament. (a) The genuine Epistles of Ignatius quote it only twice with a formula citandi (Prov. iii.34 = Eph. v.3, xviii.17 = Magn. xii.1); two or three allusions (Ps. xxxii.9 = Eph. xv.1, Isa. v.26 = Smyrn, i.2, lii.5 = Trall. viii.2) complete the instances of a direct use of the LXX. by this writer. When he quotes or alludes, he is fairly close to the LXX., unless we may except the last instance, where di humas dia pantos to onoma mou blasphemeitai en tois ethnesin appears to be changed into ouai di hou epi mataioteti to onoma mou epi tinon blasphemeitai -- a form which occurs also in Pseudo-Clement (2 Cor. xiii.2) and Polycarp (Phil. x.3) [863] . (b) Polycarp is no less sparing in his references to the O. T. than Ignatius. He quotes only Isa. lii.5 [864] (x.3), Tob. iv.10 = xii.9 (x.2), Ps. iv.5 (xii.1) -- the last-named passage perhaps indirectly, from Eph. iv.26 -- and Prov. iii.4 (vi.1). In Phil. vi.1 there is an allusion to Ezech. xxxiv.4, from which it may be gathered that Polycarp read there epistrepsate, with cod. A.

6. Irenaeus may be taken next, for though he belonged to the next generation and his literary activity was connected with the West, his copies of the Old Testament writings were doubtless of Asiatic provenance. His method of quotation however differs widely from that of the earlier writers. He is a theologian and a controversialist, and he quotes the Scriptures to refute an antagonist or to support the traditional faith. Accordingly his citations are, with few exceptions, either exact extracts, or but slightly abridged and adapted, and he is almost wholly free from the habit of loose paraphrase. How copiously he cites, especially in Adv. haereses iii. iv., will appear from the following list [865] .

Gen. i.3 (iv.32.1), 5 (v.23.2), 26 (iii.23.2, iv.20.1, v.1.3); ii.1 f. (v.28.3), 5 (iii.21.10), 7 (ii.34.4, iv.20.1, v.7.1, v.15.2), 8 (iv.5.1), 16 f. (v.23.1), 23 (iii.22.4); iii.1 ff. (v.23.1), 8 (v.17.1), 9 (v.15.4), 13 (iii 23.5), 14 (iii.23.3), 15 (iv.40.3, v.21.1), 19 (v.16.1); iv.7 (iv.18.3), 9 (iii.23.4), 10 (v.14.1); ix.5 f. (v.14.1); xiii.14 f., 27 (v.32.2); xiv.22 (iv.5.5); xv.18 (v.32.2); xvii.9 ff. (iv.16.1); xix.24 (iii.6.1), 31 ff. (iv.31.1); xxvii.27 ff. (v.33.3); xlix.10 ff. (iv.10.2), 18 (iii.10.3). Exod. i.13 f. (iv.30.2); iii.7 f. (iv.7.4), 8, 14 (iii.6.2), 19 (iv.29.2); xiii.2 (i.3.4); xx.3, 5 (i.29.4), 12 (iv.9.3); xxiii.20 (iv.20.5): xxv.40 (iv.14.3); xxvi.16 (ii.24.3); xxxi.13 (iv.16.1); xxxiii.2 f. (iv.15.1), 20 (i.19.1), 21 ff. (iv.20.9); xxxiv.6 f. (iv.20.8). Num. xvi.15 (iv.26.4); xviii.20 (iv.8.3); xxiv.17 (iii.9.2). Deut. iv.14 (iv.16.5), 19 (iii.6.5); v.2 f. (iv.16.2), 8 (iii.6.5), 22 (iv.15.1, 4); vi.4 ff. (iv.2.2, v.22.1); viii.3 (iv.16.3); x.12 (iv.16.4), 16 (iv.16.1); xvi.5 f. (iv.10.1), 16 (iv.18.1); xviii.1 (iv.8.3); xxviii.66 (iv.10.2, v.18.3); xxx.19 f. (iv.16.4); xxxii.1 (iv.2.1), 4 (iii.18.7), 6 (iv.10.2; 31.2), 8 f. (iii.12.9); xxxiii.9 (iv.8.3).1 Regn. xii.2 f. (iv.26.4); xv.22 (iv.17.1).2 Regn. xi.27, xii.1 ff. (iv.27.1).3 Regn. viii.27 (iv.27.1); xi.1 ff. (iv.27.1); xviii.21, 24, 36 (iii.6.3); xix.11 f. (iv.20.10). Ps. ii.8 (iv.21.3); iii.6 (iv.31.1); vii.11 (iii.10.4); viii.3 (i.14.8); xiii.3 (i.19.1); xviii.2 (i.14.8), 7 (iv.33.13); xx.5 (ii.34.3); xxii.4 f. (v.31.2); xxiii.1 (iv.36.6); xxxi.1 f. (v.17.3); xxxii.6 (i.22.1; iii.8.2), 9 (ii.2.5, iii.8.2); xxxiii.13 ff. (iv.17.3, 36.2), 17 (iv.28.1); xxxiv.9 (iv.11.3); xxxix.7 (iv.17.1); xliv.3 ff. (iv.33.11), 7 (iii.6.1); xlviii.13 (iv.4.3), 21 (iv.41.3), 23 (v.7.2); xlix.1 (iii.6.1), 3 f. (v.18.3), 9 ff. (iv.17.1); l.14 (iii.17.2), 18 ff. (iv.17.1); lvii.4f. (iii.10.1, iv.41.3); 1xviii.27 (iii.22.2); lxxv.2 (iii.9.2), 3 (iv.33.11); lxxvii.5 ff. (iii.16.3); lxxix.1 (iii.11.8); lxxxi.1, 6 f. (iii.6.1, iii.19.1); lxxxiv.12 (iii.5.1); lxxxv.13 (v.31.1); xc.13 (iii.23.7); xciv.4 ff. (iii.10.4); xcv.1 (iv.9.1), 5 (iii.6.3); xcvii.2 (iii.10.3); xcviii.1 (iv.33.13); ci.26 ff. (iv.3.1); ciii.30 (v.33.1); cix.1 (ii.28.7, iii.6.1); cx.10 (iii.23.5); cxiii.11 (iii.8.3); cxxxi.10 f. (iii.9.2); cxlv.6 (i.10.1); cxlviii.5 f. (ii.34.2, iv.41.1). Prov. i.20 f. (v.20.1); iii.19 f. (iv.20.3); v.22 (iii.9.3); viii.15 (v.24.1), 22 ff., 27 (iv.20.3); xix.17 (iv.18.6); xxi.1 (v.24.1). Sap. vi.19 (iv.38.3). Hos. iv.1 (i.19.1); xii.10 (iii.12, 13, iv.20.6). Amos i.2 (iii.20.4); viii.9f. (iv.33.12). Mic. vii.19 (iii.20.4). Joel iii.16 (iv.33.11). Jon. i.9, ii.3, iii.8 f. (iii.20.1). Hab. iii.2 (iii.16.7), 3 ff. (iii.20.4, iv.33.11). Zech. vii.9 ff. (iv.17.3, iv.36.2); viii.16 f. (iv.17.3), 17 (iv.36.2); xii.10 (iv.33.11). Mal. i.10 f. (iv.17.5), ii.10 (iv.20.2); iv.1 (iv.4, 3). Isa. i.2 (iv.2.1, iv.41.2), 3 (i.19.1), 8 f. (iv.4.2, iv.33.13), 11 (iv.17.1), 16 (iv.17.1, iv.36.2, iv.41.3), 22 (iv.12.1), 23 (iv.2.6); ii.3 f. (iv.34.4), 17 (iv.33.13); v.6 (iii.17.3), 12 (ii.22.2, iv.2.4); vi.5 (iv.20.8), 11 f. (v.34.2, v.35.1); vii.10 ff. (iii.21.4); viii.3 f. (iii.16.4, iv.33.11); ix.6 (iii.16.3, iv.33.11); xi.1 ff. (iii.9.3), 6 ff. (v.33.4); xii.2 (iii.10.3); xiii.9 (v.35.1); xxv.8 (v.12.1), 9 (iv.9.2); xxvi.10 (v.35.1), 19 (iv.33.11, v.15.1, v.34.1); xxvii.6 (iv.4.1); xxviii.16 (iii.21.7); xxix.13 (iv.12.4); xxx.1 (iv.18.3), 25 f. (v.34.2); xxxi.9 (v.34.4); xxxii.1 (v.34.4): xxxiii.20 (iii.20.4); xxxv.3 f. (iii.20.3, iv.33 11); xl.15, 17 (v.29.1); xli.4 (iv.5.1); xlii.5 (iv.2.1, v.12.2), 10 ff. (iv.9.1); xliii.5 ff. (iv.14.1), 10 (iii.6.2, iv.5.1), 18 (iv.33.14), 23 (iv.17.3), xlv.7 (iv.40.1); xlvi.9 (i 5.4), xlviii.22 (i.16.3); lix.16 (v.35.2); li.6 (iv.3.1), liii.4 (iv.33.11), 8 (ii.28.5); liv.11 ff. (v.34.4); lvii. (iv.34.4), 16 (v.12.2); lviii.6 ff. (iv.17.3), 14 (v.34.2); lx.17; lxi.1 ff. (iii.9.3); lxiii.9 (iii.20.4); lxv.1 (iii.6.1), 17 ff. (iv.26.4, v.35.2, 34.4), 21 (v.35.1), 22 (v.15.1), 25 (v.33.4), lxvi.1 (iv.2.5), 2 (iv.17.3), 3 (iv.18.3), 22 (v.36.1). Jer. i.5 (v.15.3); ii.29 (iv 37.7); iv.22 (iv.2.1); v.8 (iv.41.3, v.7.2); vi.17 ff. (iv.36.2), 20 (iv.17.2); vii.2 f. (iv.17.2), 3 (iv.36 2), 21 (iv.17.3), 25 (iv.36.5), 29 f. (iv.36.2); viii.16 (v.30.2); ix.2 (iv.25.3), 24 f. (iv.17.3); x.11 (iii.6.3); xi.15 (iv.17.3); xiv.9 (iv.33.12), xvii.9 (iii.18.3, iv.33.11); xxii.17 (iv.18.3, iii.21.9); xxiii.7 f. (v.34.1), 20 (iv.26.1), 23 (iv.19.2), 29 (v.17.4); xxxi.10 ff. (v.34.3), 26 (iv.31.1); xxxv.15 (iv.36.5); xxxvi.30f. (iii.21.9); xxxviii.11 (iii.8.21). Lam. iv.20 (iii.20.3). Bar. iv.36 -- v. fin. (v.35.1). Ezech. ii.1 (iv.20.10); xx.12 (iv.16.1), 23 f. (iv.15.1), xxviii.25 f. (v.34.1); xxxvi.26 (iv.23.4); xxxvii.1 ff. (v.15.1), 12 (v.34.1). Dan. ii.23 f., 41 ff. (v.26.1); iii.24 ff. (v.5.2); vii.8 (v.25.33), 10 (ii.7.4), 14 (iv.20.11), 20 ff. (v.25.3), 27 (v.34.2); viii.11 f., 23 ff. (v.25.4); ix.7 (v.25.4); xii.3 f., 7 (iv.26.1), 9 f. (i.19.2), xii.13 (v.34.2). Sus.52 f., 56 (iv.26.3). Bel 3 f., 24 (iv.5.2).

The Latin version, in which the greater part of these quotations are clothed, appears to be exact where it can be tested (cf. e.g. Isa. xlvi.9 (i.5.4), xlviii.22 (i.16.3), Dan. xii.9 (i.19.2)). Assuming that it is so throughout, it is obvious that in Irenaeus we have an important witness to the LXX. text of the second century. The following variants taken from Books iii., iv., will shew the general tendencies of his text:

Gen. xlix.10 cui repositum est (M^ mg ho apokeitai [866] ); 18 in salutem tuam sustinui te, Domine (cf. F^ corr mg ap. Field). Exod. xxv.40 facies omnia (F poieseis panta, Luc.) secundum typum eorum quae vidisti. Num. xxiv.17 surget dux in Israel (cf. Heb. skt, S. skeptron; LXX. anthropos ex I.). Deut. v.22 (19) scripsit ea in duabus tabulis lapideis (+ lithinas B^ abA Luc.); xxxii.6 et fecit te et creavit te (+ kai ektisen se AF, + kai eplasen se Luc.).1 Regn. xv.22 auditus bonus super sacrificium (agathe Luc.). Ps. xxxix.7 aures autem perfecisti mihi (possibly a correction from the Gallican Psalter, but a few cursives read after the Heb. otia or ota); xliv.17 facti sunt tibi filii (B^ bART egenethesan, ag. B ' egenn.); xlix.10 bestiae terrae (agrou '^ c.aA, drumou B' ), o15 in die tribulationis tuae (thlipseos sou '^ c.aAR); ci.27 mutabis eos (allaxeis ' , helixeis B('^ c.a)AR(T)); cix. i suppedaneum pedum tuorum (hupopodion, not hupokato); cxiii.11 om. en tois ouranois (with '^ c.aAT). Mic. vii.19 ipse (autos AQ) . . . proiciet (aporripsei A(Q), aporiphesontai B), om. pasas. Hab. iii.3 pedes eius (hoi podes AQ, kata podas B). Isa. i.17 iustificate viduam (cheran B^ a.b'AG ag. chera B Q ); xi.4 arguet gloriosos terrae (tous endoxous 'Q^ cor, ag. t. tapeinous BAQ ); xxv.9 om. kai sosei hemas . . . hupemeinamen auto (with 'AQ , a hexaplaric addition, cf. Field, ad loc.); xxix.13 populus hic labiis me honorat (om. with 'AQ en to stomati autou kai en); x1iii.23 non servisti mihi in sacrificiis = ou[de] edouleusas moi en tais thusiais [sou] '^ c.a (AG), fecisti in (cf. A* ); lxv. i qui me non quaerunt (zetousin 'AQ, ag. eperotosin B). Jer. xliii.31 inferam super eos (autous 'AQ , ag. auton BQ^ corr), locutus sum super eos (ep' autous AQ, pros aut. B'). Bar. v.2 laetitiae (LXX. dikaiosunes).

A special interest attaches to Irenaeus' extracts from Daniel [867] . For the most part they follow the version of Theodotion quite closely, even in the Greek additions. Two exceptions are worth noting: Dan. vii.10 is quoted by Irenaeus as it is by Clement of Rome, in a form which agrees with neither LXX. nor Th.; Dan. xii.9 is cited in the form Apotreche, Daniel; houtoi gar hoi logoi empephragmenoi eisin, heos hoi sunientes suniosi kai hoi leukoi leukanthosi, where apotreche is a LXX. reading, whilst empephragmenoi is from Th. and the rest of the sentence seems to be suggested by his version (cf. heos . . . ekleukanthosin, Th.). This quotation however is professedly taken from a Valentinian source, which may account for its freedom.

7. Like Irenaeus, Justin quotes profusely, and his aim as an apologist and a controversialist compels him to cite his documents with some regard to verbal accuracy. For the criticism of the LXX. his writings afford even richer materials than those of Irenaeus, since his subject leads him, especially in the Dialogue with Trypho the Jew, to quote long extracts without break or interpolated matter; more than once an entire Psalm, or a passage exceeding in length one of our modern chapters, is copied into his pages, presumably as it stood in his text of the Greek Old Testament.

In the following list of Justin's quotations from the LXX. account has been taken only of his undoubted writings. A. = the First Apology, D. = the Dialogue; the Second Apology contains nothing to our purpose.

Gen. i.1 ff. (A.59, 64), 26 ff. (D.62); iii.15 (D.102), 22 (D.62); ix.24 -- 27 (D.139); xi.6 (D.102); xv.6 (D.92); xvii.14 (D.23); xviii.2 ff. (D.126), 13 ff. (D.56); xix.1 ff. (D.56), 23 -- 25 (D.56), 27 f. (D.56); xxvi.4 (D.120); xxviii.10 -- 19 (D.58, 120); xxxi.1O -- 13 (D.58); xxxii.22 -- 30 (D.58, 126); xxxv.6 -- 10 (D.58); xlix.8 -- 12 (A.32, 54; D.52, 120). Exod. ii.23 (D.59); iii.2 -- 4 (D.60), 3 ff (A.63); vi.2 -- 4 (D.126); xvii.16 (D.49); xx.22 (D.75); xxiii.20 f. (D.75); xxxii.6 (D.20). Lev. xxvi.40 f. (D.16). Num. xi.23 (D.126); xxi.8f. (A.60); xxiv.17 (A.32, D.106). Deut. x.16 f. (D.16); xxi.23 (D.96); xxvii.26 (D.95); xxxi.2 f. (D.126), 16 -- 18 (D.74); xxxii.7 -- 9 (D.131), 15 (D.20), 16 -- 23 (D.119), 20 (D.27, 123), 22 (A.60), 43 (D.130); xxxiii.13 -- 17 (D.91). Jos. v.2 (D.24); v.13 -- vi.2 (D.62).2 Regn. vii.14 -- 16 (D.118).3 Regn. xix.10, 18 (D.39). Ps. i. (A.40); ii. (A.40); ii.7 f. (D.122); iii.5 f. (A.38, D.97); viii.3 (D.114); xiii.2 ff. (D.27); xvii.44 f. (D.28); xviii.3 ff. (A.40, D.64); xxi.1 -- 24 (D.18), 8 f. (A.38), 17 ff. (A.351 38, D.97); xxiii. (D.36); xxiii.7 (A.51, D.85); xxxi.2 (D.141); xliv. (D.38); xliv.7 ff. (D.56, 63); xlvi.6 -- 9 (D.37); xlix. (D.22); lxvii.19 (D.39); lxxi.1 -- 19 (D.34, 64, 121); lxxi.17 -- 19 (D.64); lxxxi. (D.124); xcv.1 ff. (A.41), 5 (D.79), 10 (D.73); xcviii. (D.37); xcviii.1 -- 7 (D.64); cix. (D.32); cix.1 ff. (A.45, D.56), 3 ff. (D.63), 4 (D.118); cxxvii.3 (D.110); cxlviii.1 f. (D.85). Prov. viii.21 -- 29 (D.129), 24 -- 36 (D.61). Job i.6 (D.79). Hos. x.6 (D.103). Amos v.18 -- vi.7 (D.22). Mic. iv.1 -- 7 (D.109); v.2 (A.34). Joel ii.28 f. (D.87). Jon. iv.4 ff. (D.107). Zech. ii.6 (A.52), 11 (D.119), 10 -- iii.2 (D.115); iii.1 ff. (D.79); vi.12 (D.121); ix.9 (A.35, D.53); xii.10 -- 12 (A.52), 12 (D.121); xiii.7 (D.53). Mal. i.10 -- 12 (D.28, 41). Isa. i.3 (A.63), 7 (A.47), 9 (A.53, D.140), 11 f. (A.37), 16 ff. (A.44, 61) 23 ff. (D.27, 82); ii.3 f. (A.39), 5 ff. (D.24, 135); iii.9 (D.136), 9 -- 11 (D.17), 9 -- 15 (D.133), 16 (D.27); v.18 -- 25 (D.17, 133), 20 (A.49); vi.10 (D.12); vii.10 -- 16 (D.42, 66), 14 (A.33); viii.4 (D.77); ix.6 (A.35); xi.1 -- 3 (D.87); xiv.1 (D.123); xvi.1 (D.114); xix.24 f. (D.123); xxvi.2 ff. (D.24); xxix.13 f. (D.27, 32, 78, 123); xxx.1 -- 5 (D.79); xxxiii.13 -- 19 (D.70); xxxv.1 -- 7 (D.69), 4 ff. (A.48); xxxix.3 (D.50); xl.1 -- 17 (D.50); xlii.1 -- 4 (D.123, 135), 5 -- 13 (D.65), 6f. (D.26), 16 (D.122), 19f. (D.123); xliii.10 (D.122), 15 (D.135); xlv.23 (A.52); xlix.6 (D.121), 8 (D.122); l.4 (D.102), 6 ff. (A.38); li.4 f. (D.11); lii.10 f. (D.13), 13 -- liii.8 (A.50), lii.15 -- liii.1 (D.118); liii.1 ff. (D.42); liii.8 -- 12 (A.51), 9 (D.97); liv.1 (A.53); lv.3 f. (D.12), 3 -- 13 (D.14); lvii.1 ff. (A.48), 1 -- 4 (D.16), 1 (D.110), 2 (D.97, 118), 5 f. (D.27); lviii.1 -- 11 (D.15), 2 (A.35), 6 f. (A.37), 13 ff. (D.27); lxii.10 -- lxiii.6 (D.26); lxii.12 (D.119); lxiii.15 -- lxiv.12 (D.25); lxiii.17 (A.52); lxiv.10 ff. (A.47, 52); lxv.1 ff. (A.49, D.24), 1 (D.119), 2 (A.35, 38, D.97), 8 ff. (D.136), 9 -- 12 (D.135), 17 -- 25 (D.81); lxvi.1 (A.37, D.22), 5 -- 11 (D.85), 23 f. (D.44), 24 (A.52, D.140). Jer. ii.12 (D.114), 13 (D.19); iv.3 (D.28); vii.21 ff. (D.22); ix.25 ff. (D.28), 26 (A.53); xxxviii.15 (D.78), 27 (D.123), 31 f. (D.11). Thren. iv.20 (A.55). Ezech. iii.17 -- 19 (D.82); xiv.20 (D.44, 140); xvi.3 (D.77); xx.19 -- 26 (D.21); xxxvi.12 (D.123); xxxvii.7 ff. (A.53). Dan. vii.9 -- 28 (D.31), 13 (A.51).

From the circumstances of Justin's life we are prepared to find in his writings an eclectic text of the LXX. Of Palestinian birth but of Greek parentage, he seems to have divided his maturer life between Ephesus and Rome; and each of these associations may have supplied textual peculiarities. The general result may be gathered from a few specimens of the readings exhibited by Justin's longer extracts from the O.T.

Gen. xxvii.10 -- 19. 11 etheke, D^ silE 13 esterikto ep' auten; ho de eipen ho theos 1°] pr Kurios om ho theos 2° 14 ges, DE epi 1°] eis im epi 2°, 3°, 4° (ep') liba] noton 15 en hodo pase he an 18 hupetheken, D^ sil 19 om ekeinou Oulammaous, DE to onoma. xxxii.22 -- 30. 24 angelos met' autou, D 26 me eulogeses, D^ silE 28 om eti, E estai to onoma sou, D tou theou, E dunatos] + ese, D^ silE 29 om su, D 30 esothe] echare (but esothe, infr. D.126). Deut. xxxii.16 -- 23.16 exepikranan, AF 17 om kai ou theo, theois edeisan] oidasin prosphatoi] pr kai, A 20 om hemeron, AF 21 paroxunan] parorgisan, A 22 kauthesetai] pr kai om kato. Deut. xxxiii.13 -- 17.13 ep'] apo (cf. ap' AF) ouranon, droson abussou 14 kath' horan] katharon 15 apo] pr kai, AF aenaon] pr kai potamon 16 kath' horan] karpon te bato ep'] en, AF 17 tes ges, AF Jos. v.13 -- vi.2. 13 om kai 2° iden] hora enantion] katenanti om kai he rhomphaia . . . autou ho Iesous 14 ho de] kai 15 to hupodema ek] ta hupodemata eph' ho om nun (so A, but adding su) hagios] ge agia. vi.1 ex autes exepor. om oude eiseporeueto 2 om ego Ps. xxi.1 -- 24.4 tou Israel '^ c.aU 7 anthropon, 'RU exouthenema, 'AR 8 kai ('U) elalesan cheilesin 11 apo gastros, '^ c.a 12 boethon] + moi. '^ c.aR 14 ho arpazon] om ho, RU 15 exechuthe, '^ c.aR 16 hosei] hos, 'ARU 17 podas] + mou, '^ c.aARU Ps. xlix. 1 om kai 2°, '^ c.aRT 3 enantion] enopion, RT 4 diakrinai] pr tou, '^ c.aART 6 ho theos, 'RT 7 diamarturoumai, '^ c.aT 10 drumou] agrou, '^ c.aA 16 ekdiege, '^ c.aAT 19doliotetas, '^ c.aR^ a 21 + tas hamartias sou, B^ c'^ c.aT 22 ou me, '^ c.aRT 23 tou theou] mou, '^ c.aT. Prov. viii.21^ a -- 36. 24 tas pegas proelthein (but in D.129 pr. t. pegas) 25 ton bounon (but D.129 omits art.) 26 ho theos 28 kai hos (1°)] henika, 'A 29 kai hos] henika 35 hetoimastai 36 asebousin] + eis, '^ c.aA. Amos v.18 -- vi.7. 18 tou keriou 19 ean phuge] hotan ekphuge, A arktos ho ophis 20 haute] autois 22 ta holokautomata, A tas thusias prosdexomai] + auta, AQ^ mg soteriou, A 23 aposteson echon] plethos psalmon; organon 25 om m' ete ] + legei Kurios, AQ 26 Rhaphan om auton, AQ . vi.1 apetrugesan] pr hoi onomasmenoi epi toi archegois (a doublet for the Greek which follows, ascribed to Symmachus by SH) om kai 2° autoi] heautois, Q^ a tou Isr.] om tou 2 + eis Chalanen, 22, 36, 42; Heb. dielthate] poreuthete Hemath Rhabba] Hamath ten megalen (ten meg., Symm. "20, 36, 51 al.") allophulon] pr ton pleioni, A om. estin humeteron horion] hor. humon 3 kaken] poneran 4 katheudontes] koimomenoi eriphous] arnas 5 hestota, AQ 6 ton diulismenon (a doublet)] en phialais (Heb.) 7 dunaston] + ton apoikizomenon kai metastraphesetai oikema kakourgon (doublet of kai exarth. ktl.). Zach. ii.10 -- iii.2. 10 terpou] chaire (cf. Eus. d.e., p.252) hoti, ' o11 katapheuxontai] prostethesontai kataskenoso epignose] gnosontai Pantokrator] ton dunameon apestalke 12 te meridi] kai ten merida, '^ c.aA, and, without kai, ' QG hairetiei] eklexetai "86 in textu ex alio videlicet interprete" (Field). iii.1 om Kurios, Kuriou ton Iesoun] om ton, AQG ho diabolos] om ho 2 om epitimesai (1°) . . . diabole om hos (Heb.). Mal. i.10 -- 12.10 thelema mou tas thusias humon 11 apo, AG om kai 1°, AQ prosagetai] prospheretai dioti mega] hoti timatai (hoti mega D.41) om Pantokrator. Isa. i.16 -- 20. 17 cheran, B^ ab'AG 18 deute] + kai, 'AQG dialechthomen [868] chiona, ereon] ereon, chiona 19 (A.16 omits kai ean thelete . . . phagesthe.) Isa lii.13 -- liii.12. lii.13 idou] ide gar] A. 14 polloi epi se A.D. 15 thaumasthesontai D. om ep' auto A. 16 om opsontai A. liii.2 enantion] enopion A. en. autou os paid. A.D. 3 tous huious ton anthropon] tous anthropous A. (cf. pantas anthropous, AQ ) 5 autos anomias, hamartias A., 'AQ om hemon 3° A. 6 om Kurios A. 7 keirontos A.D., B + auton A., '^ c.aAQ 8 tou laou mou] auton A. echthe] hekei A.D., Q^ mg 9 thanatou] + autou A., B^ a.b'AQ 10 tou ponou om tou A. 11 auton] hemon A.D. 12 paredothe] pr autos A. Isa. lxii.10 -- lxiii.6. 11 tais thugatrasin soi ho soter, 'AQ om autou 1°, AQ 12 ou kataleleimmene, ('). lxiii.1 eruthema, B himation] + autou bia] pr anabainon (cf. Symm. bainon, Heb.) 3 +lenon epatesa monotatos, Symm., Heb. (a doublet of pl. katapep.) om mou, 'AQ + eis gen, B^ a.b'AQ 5 oudeis, 'AQ antelabeto, ' om autous om mou 1°

To shew Justin's relation to the two recensions of Daniel, it is necessary to place some verses side by side with the corresponding contexts of the LXX. and Theodotion [869] .

Justin, Dial.31 Dan. vii.9 -- 14. LXX. Ibid., Th.

etheoroun heos hotou thronoi etethesan, kai palaios hemeron ekatheto hosei chiona leukon, kai tes kephales autou hosei erion katharon, ho thronos autou hosei phlox puros, hoi trochoi autou pur phlegon. potamos puros heilken menos ek pou ; chiliai chiliades eleitourgoun auto kai muriai muriades pareistekeisan auto; bibloi aneochthesan kai kriterion ekathisen. etheoroun tote

etheoroun heos hote thronoi etethesan, kai palaios hemeron ekatheto hosei chiona, kai tes kephales autou hosei erion leukon katharon; ho thronos hosei phlox puros, trochoi autou pur kaiomenon. potamos puros helkon, kai prosopon autou potamos puros; chiliai chiliades etherapeuon auton kai muriai muriades pareistekeisan auto; kai kriterion ekathise kai bibloi eneochthesan. etheoroun

etheoroun heos hotou thronoi etethesan, kai palaios hemeron ekatheto, kai to enduma autou hosei chion leukon, kai he thrix tes kephales autou hosei erion katharon; ho thronos autou phlox puros, hoi trochoi autou pur phlegon. potamos puros heilken emprosthen autou; chiliai chiliades eleitourgoun auto, kai muriai muriades paristekeisan auto; kriterion ekathisen, kai bibloi eneochthesan. etheoroun tote apo phones ton logon ton megalon hon to

ton megalon logon hon to keras lalei, kai to therion, kai apoleto to soma autou kai edothe eis kausin puros; kai ta loipa theria metestathe tes arches auton, kai zoes tois theriois edothe heos . etheoroun en horamati tes nuktos, kai idou meta ton nephelon tou ouranou hos huios anthropou erchomenos, kai elthen heos tou palaiou ton hemeron, kai enopion autou; kai prosegagon auton. kai

tote ton logon ton megalon hon to keras elalei; theoron emen, kai to therion, kai apoleto to soma autou kai edothe eis kausin puros. kai tous kuklo autou apestese tes exousias auton, kai zoes edothe autois heos kai kairou. etheoroun en horamati tes nuktos, kai idou epi ton nephelon tou ouranou hos huios anthropou ercheto, kai hos palaios hemeron paren; kai paresan auto. kai edothe auto exousia kai time basilike, kai panta ta ethne tes ges kata gene kai pasa doxa auto latreuousa; kai he exousia autou exousia aionios hetis ou me arthe, kai he basileia autou hetis ou me phthare.

keras ekeino elalei, heos anerethe to therion kai apoleto, kai to soma autou edothe eis kausin puros. kai ton loipon theriaon he arche metestathe, kai makrotes zoes edothe autois heos kairou kai kairou. etheoroun en horamati tes nuktos, kai idou meta ton nephelon tou ouranou hos huios anthropou erchomenos, kai heos tou palaiou ton hemeron ephthasen; kai prosechthe auto. kai auto edothe he arche kai he time kai he basileia, kai pantes hoi laoi, phulai, kai glossai douleusousin auto; he exousia autou exousia aionios hetis ou pareleusetai, kai he basileia autou ou diaphtharesetai.

The student will notice that Justin's O.T. text is a mixed one. (a) In Genesis it contains many readings of D or DE where those later uncials depart from A; (b) in Deuteronomy it occasionally supports A or AF against B, and (c) in the Psalms the group ART, with the concurrence sometimes of ' , sometimes of '^ c.a; (d) in the Prophets it not seldom agrees with Q (AQ, 'AQ). In the Minor Prophets it is startling to find in Justin more than one rendering which is attributed to Symmachus; and as it is in the highest degree improbable that his text has been altered from the text of Symmachus, or at a later time from a Hexaplaric copy of the LXX., we are led to the conclusion that these readings belong to an older version or recension from which both Justin and Symmachus drew. It is at least possible that many of the readings in which Justin appears to stand alone may be attributable to the same origin.

Justin's Daniel text requires separate notice. It will be seen to be in fundamental agreement with the LXX., but not without a fair number of Theodotion's readings. Eleitourgoun meets us here, as in Clement of Rome, and the phrases ta loipa theria metestathe tes arches, meta ton nephelon erchomenos, heos tou palaiou, prosegagon auton, are undoubtedly due to Theodotion, or rather to the version on which he worked. On the other hand echon peribolen, to trichoma, pur phlegon, apetumpanisthe, chronos zoes, hoi parestekotes, and the whole of v.14 as clearly belong to the Chigi text. That this mixture is not due to an eclectic taste or a fickle memory is clear from the fact that the same text meets us in the Latin version of the passage as given by Tertullian [870] .

In a few instances Justin shews a disposition to criticise the LXX. reading. E.g. in Ps. lxxxi. (lxxxii.) 7, he probably proposed to read hos anthropos (k?'dm) for hos anthropoi [871] . Similarly in Deut. xxxii.8 he realises that the LXX. has substituted angelon theou for bnyysr'l? [872] . He maintains that in Gen. xlix.10 the reading of the LXX. is heos an elthe ho apokeitai, though according to the Jewish interpreters of his time the words should rather be rendered heos an e. ta apokeimena auto. His text of the LXX. contained some remarkable interpolations; thus he quotes Ps. xcv. (xcvi.) 10^ a in the form ho kurios ebasileusen apo tou xulou [873] , and ascribes to Jeremiah the words emnesthe de kurios ho theos apo Israel ton nekron autou ton kakoimemenon eis gen chomatos, kai katebe pros autous euangelisasthai autois to soterion autou [874] . He cites also some words which appear to have found a place in his copy after 2 Esdr. vi.21: kai eipen Esdras to lao Touto to pascha ho soter hemon kai he kataphuge hemon; kai ean dianoethete kai anabe humon epi ten kardian hoti Mellomen auton tapeinoun en semeio, kai meta tauta elpisomen (? elpisete) ep' auton, ou me eremothe ho popos houtos eis hapanta chronon, legei ho theos ton dunameon; ean de me pisteusete auto mede eisakousete tou kerugmatos autou, esesthe epicharma tois ethnesi [875] . These passages appear to be of Christian origin, yet Justin is so sure of their genuineness that he accuses the Jews of having removed them from their copies.

8. Hippolytus of Portus, as we learn from the inscription on the chair of his statue and from other ancient sources, was the author of a large number of Biblical commentaries [876] . These included works on the Hexaemeron and its sequel (ta meta ten hexaemeron); on Exodus, and portions of Numbers and Samuel; on the Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Song of Songs; on Zechariah, Isaiah, Jeremiah, parts of Ezekiel, and the Book of Daniel. Of these exegetical works there remains only the commentary on Daniel [877] , with fragments of most of the rest. The great treatise Adversus omnes haereses yields but little in the way of Scriptural quotations [878] , but the minor theological works collected by Lagarde [879] supply a considerable number of fairly long extracts from the Pentateuch, the Psalms, and the Prophets. The text of the LXX. which is exhibited in these passages is often of much interest, as a few specimens will shew.

Gen. i.7 epano] huperano 28 katakurieusate] katakleronomesate. xlix.8 ff. (Lag.5 (1), 102 (2)) 8 ainesatosan (1) ainesaisan (2) 9 ek blastou mou huie (2) 10 o apokeitai (1), ta apokeimena auto (2) autos] estai (1) 12 charopoi (cf. Field, ad loc.) hos apo oinou: cf. apo oinou, ADF. Exod. xx.13 ff. ou moicheuseis, ou phoneuseis, ou klepseis. Deut. xxxii.34 f. 34 par emou 35 hotan] pr en kairo, AF. 22 ekpedesetai, B. Ruth ii.9 hudreuontai, A 14 en to oxei, B^a.bA. Ps. lxviii.1 ff. 4 engizein] elpizein (B^ a.b'R) me (R) 5 herpazon 6 egnos] oidas apekrubesan, '^ c.a 8 ekalupsan entrope 10 katephage. Prov. vi.27 apodesei] apodesmeuei. xxiii.29 f. 29 aediai, 'A pelidnoi, B^ b 30 en oino ichneuonton] kataskopounton. Job ii.9^ d planetis, '^ c.aA. Am. v.12 katapatountes, AQ . Mic. ii.7 f. poreuontai 8 katenanti] kata prosopon doran] doxan (sic). iii.5 egeiran] hegiasan, Q^ mg. v.5 estai haute he par emou eirene hotan ho Assurios (cf. AQ) epelthe. Ma1. iv.4 apostello] pempso prin] + e hemeran] pr ten, G 5 pateron epi tekna elthon pataxo, '^ c.b. Isa. x.12 ff. 13 om. en bis, 'AQG 14 te cheiri] + mou, AQ 16 Kurios sabaoth] adonai Kurios 17 puri kaiomeno] phlogi (cf. Symm.). xiv.4 ff. 11 eis hadou] eis gen katakalumma] kataleimma 12 pros] eis, ' o14 nephelon, 'AQG 16 thaumasousin, 'AQG 19 tethnekoton] peptokoton 20 katharos] kompsos chronon] chronios 21 sphagenai] eis sphagen. xlv.11 + kai ton thugateron mou (cf. 'AQ) 13 om basilea, '^ c.bAQ 14 en soi proskunesousin. lxvi.24 teleutesei, B'Q (ag. A, teleuta). Ezech. xxviii.5 emporia] empeiria. Dan. ii.1 ff. 1 basileia] + Nabouchodonosor, A 5 ean] + oun, AQ sunkrisin] + autou,

The text of Hippolytus, it will be seen, like most of the patristic texts, leans slightly to AF in the Pentateuch, ' or '^ c.a in the poetical books, and AQ in the Prophets. At the same time it is full of surprises, and often stands quite alone among existing witnesses.

9. Our last witness is Clement of Alexandria. Clement had learnt the Christian faith during his early travels in Asia Minor and Magna Graecia, and he may have received copies of O.T. writings from his first Christian masters. Hence it must not be too hastily assumed that the text of his O.T. quotations is purely Alexandrian. On the other hand it is reasonable to suppose that during the period of his literary activity he was familiar with the Alexandrian text and used it when he quoted from his MS. On the whole therefore we may expect his quotations to be fairly representative of the Biblical text current at Alexandria during the generation preceding the compilation of the Hexapla.

Clement quotes both the Jewish and the Christian scriptures profusely, but his extracts seldom extend beyond two or three verses, and are often broken by comments or copied with considerable freedom. His purpose was didactic and not polemical; even in the logos protreptikos he aims to persuade rather than to compel assent, whilst the Paedagogus and the Stromateis are addressed exclusively to persons under instruction, to whom the Scriptures were a familiar text-book. Hence he is exact only when verbal precision is necessary; often it is sufficient for his purpose to work into his argument a few words from a Scriptural context, giving the sense of the rest in his own words. Still it is possible even in these broken references to catch glimpses of the text which lay before him, and in the dearth of early Christian literature emanating from Alexandria, these are of no little value to the student of the Greek Bible [880] . A generally full and accurate index of Clement's Biblical quotations will be found in the edition of Potter; here it must suffice to give some specimens of the text which they exhibit in the Pentateuch, the poetical books, and the Prophets.

(a) Gen. i.26 (strom. v.29) kat' eikona kai homoiosin hemeteran (elsewhere Cl. reads hom. hemon, or omits the pronoun). xxxvii.24 (strom. v.54) ho de lakkos kenos, DE. Exod. xx.13 ff. (protrept.108, strom. ii.33) ou phoneuseis ou moicheuseis . . . ou klepseis ou pseudomartureseis, AF. Lev. xviii. i ff. (strom. ii.46). 3 en aute (ep' aute B , ep' autes B^ abAF) ou poiesete (poiethesetai B ) 4 poreuesthe A 5 ho poiesas auta. Deut. xxxii.23 ff. (paed. i.68) 24 epapostelo, A tes ges, A (F) 41 ff. antapodoso, AF 42 + kai he machaira mou phagetai krea apo haimatos traumation, AF (b) Ps. xxxiii.12 ff. (strom. iv.111). 13 hemeras idein, 'AR 14 cheile sou, '^ c.aAR. xcv.5 (protrept.62) daimonion eisin eidola (cf. Iren.). cii.14 (paed. i.62) mnestheti, B' Th. cxl.5 (paed. i.79) elencheto me dikaios kai paideusato. cl.4 organo, B'RT. Prov. i.25 (paed. i.85) hupekouete, 'A ou proseichete, 'AC (epeithesate, B). iii.5 ff. (strom. ii.4). 6 en pasais, A tas hodous sou] + ho de pous sou ou me proskopte (cf. '^c.a: SH pr ÷) 12 paideuei, 'A (elenchei, B). xxiii.13 me aposchou (aposche LXX.) nepion paideuon (A; paideuein, B). Sir. i.18 (paed. i.68) + phobos gar Kuriou apotheitai hamartemata (so far 248), aphebos d' ou dunesetai dikaiothenai, O.L. ix.9 (paed. ii.54) me sumbolokopeses] me summataklithes ep' ankona, O.L. xxxiv.25 (paed. ii.31) apolesen] hechreiose. xxxvi.6 (paed. i.42) hos philos mokos] ho philedonos kai moichos (cf. hos philomoichos, 55, 254). xxxviii.1 (paed. ii.68) om. timais, 106, 296, O.L. xxxix.13 (paed. ii.76) agrou (hugrou 'AC)] hudaton. 18 (paed. ii.44) hos elattosei] elattosis eis, Heb. (c) Am. iv.13 (protrept.79) idou ego, B^ a.bAQ (om B ). Nah. iii.4 (paed. i.81) epicharis, B^ a.bQ. Mal. i.10 ff. (strom. v.137). 11 om. kai 1°, AQ thumiama] thusia prosagetai] prospheretai (cf. Justin). Isa. ix.6 (paed. i.24) huios kai edothe, 'AQG om egenethe, G eklethe (kaleitai, B'QG, kalesei, A) + thaumastos sumboulos ('^ c.aA) theos dunastes pater aionios archon eirenes ('^ c.aA). 7 megale he arche autou] + to plethunein ten paideian, Th. horion] peras, Th., Symm. xi.1 ff. (paed. i.61). xi.4 elenxei tous hamartolous tes ges (cf. Iren.). xxix.13 (paed. i.76) ho laos houtos tois cheilesin auton timosi me, he de kardia auton porro estin ap' emou; maten de sebontai me didaskontes entalmata anthropon (cf. Mt. xv., Mc. vii.). lxvi.13 (paed. i.21) humas parakaleso, '. Jer. ix.23 f. (paed. i.37): v.24 abbreviated as in 1 Cor. i.31. xiii.24 ff. (strom. iv.165 f.). 24 diespeira, B'Q (diephtheira A) hupo, 'AQ (apo, B) pheromena] petomena 25 apeithein humas emoi 27 moicheia anarthr., Q chremetismos anarthr., B. xxiii.23 f. (protrept.78). 24 ei poiesei ti anthropos (ei krubesetai tis, B, ei kr. anthropos, AQ). Bar. iii.13 (paed. i.92) om chronon, B. Thren. i.1 (paed. i.80) archonta choron egenethe eis phorous. Dan. ix.24 ff. (strom. i.125) as in Th. (B ), with the addition kao hemisu tes hebdomados katapausei thumiama thusias kai pterugiou aphanismou heos sunteleias kai spoudes taxin aphanismou (cf. B^ abAQ).

10. This examination has been but partial, even within the narrow field to which it was limited. It has dealt only with direct quotations, and in the case of Hippolytus and Clement of Alexandria, only with a few of these. Moreover, the student who wishes to examine the whole of the evidence must not limit himself to the few great writers who have been named. Even if he adds the writings of Aristides, Tatian, Athenagoras, Theophilus, and the anonymous Teaching and Epistle to Diognetus, there will still remain the fragments collected in the Relliquiae Sacrae and by the researches of Pitra, and the Pseudo-Clementine, apocryphal, and Gnostic literature of the second century. Still more important help may be obtained from Latin Christian writers who quote the O.T. in the Old Latin version, e.g. Cyprian, Lucifer, Vigilius of Thapsus, the Donatist Tyconius, and the author of the Speculum [881] . This part of the evidence was collected for Holmes and Parsons, and will be presented in a more permanent form, if not at so much length, in the apparatus of the larger Septuagint.

Much useful and interesting work might be done by following the lines of Dr Hatch's attempt to collect and compare the early evidence in reference to particular texts and constantly recurring extracts from the LXX. [882] Perhaps however it would be expedient to limit such an investigation to post-apostolic Christian writers, and to carry it beyond Justin. Moreover, Dr Hatch's proposal to estimate the value of MSS., "according as they do or do not agree with such early quotations," seems to be at least precarious. It is conceivable and even probable that the peculiarities of early patristic quotations may be partly due to corruption incident upon the process of citing, whether from memory or from a MS.; and for various other reasons the text of a fourth century MS. may on the whole present a purer text than that which appears in a second century writing. This point, however, must be reserved for fuller consideration in a later chapter [883] .

11. With Origen the science of Christian Biblical criticism and hermeneutics may be said to have begun. In the Old Testament his interest was peculiarly strong; it supplied him with the amplest opportunities of exercising his skill in allegorical interpretation; and his knowledge both of the original and of the Greek versions prepared him to deal with the difficulties of his text. Unhappily there is no class of his writings which has suffered so severely. Of his great commentaries on the Old Testament, only fragments have survived; and the Homilies, with the exception of one on the Witch of Endor, and nineteen on the book of Jeremiah, have reached us only in the Latin translations of Rufinus and Jerome. But even fragments and versions of Origen are precious, and the following list of his O.T. remains [884] may be of service to the student of the LXX.

Genesis. Fragments of Commentary (t. i., iii.), and notes from catenae. Homilies (17) in Latin, tr. by Rufinus. Exodus. Fragments of Commentary, and notes. Homilies (13) in Latin, tr. by Rufinus. Leviticus. Fragments and notes from catenae. Homilies (16) in Latin, tr. by Rufinus. Numbers. Notes from catenae. Homilies (28) in Latin, tr. by Rufinus. Deuteronomy. Notes from catenae, &c. Joshua. Fragments and notes from catenae, &c. Homilies (26) in Latin, tr. by Rufinus. Judges. Notes from catenae. Homilies (9) in Latin, tr. by Rufinus. Ruth. A note on Ruth i.4.1 -- 4 Kingdoms. Homily huper tes engastrimuthou. Fragments. Homily in Latin on 1 Regn. i. ff. Psalms. Fragments of the Commentaries and Homilies; notes from catenae. Homilies (9) in Latin, tr. by Rufinus [on Pss. xxxvi. -- xxxviii.). Proverbs. Fragments and notes, Greek and Latin. Ecclesiastes. Notes from catenae. Canticles. Fragments and notes. Homilies (2) in Latin, tr. by Jerome. Commentary (prol., tt. i. -- iv.) in Latin, tr. by Rufinus. Job. Notes from catenae. Fragment of a Homily, in Latin. The xii. Prophets. Fragment on Hosea xii. (in Philocal.8). Isaiah. Fragments (2) of the Commentaries, in Latin. Homilies (9) in Latin, tr. by Jerome. Jeremiah. Homilies (19) in Greek, and notes from catenae. Homilies (2) in Latin, tr. by Jerome. Lamentations. Notes from catenae. Ezekiel. Fragments, and notes from catenae. Homilies (14) in Latin, tr. by Jerome.

12. It is impossible within the limits of an Introduction to enumerate all the ecclesiastical writers who during the golden age of patristic literature quoted or commented upon the Greek Old Testament. But the student who is not a specialist in this field may be glad to have before him the names and dates of the principal Greek Fathers, with some notice of such of their extant works as are concerned with O.T. exegesis. The Roman numerals in brackets direct him to the volumes of Migne's Patrologia Graeca, in which the authors are to be found; in the case of a few writings which are not included in the Patrologia and some others, references are given to other editions.

Acacius of Caesarea, 366. Fragments in catenae.

Ammonius of Alexandria, c.460. Fragments on Genesis and Daniel. (lxxxv.)

Anastasius of Antioch, 598. (lxxxix.)

Anastasius of Sinai, cent. vi. -- vii. (lxxxix.)

Apollinarius of Laodicea (the younger), c.393. (xxxiii., cf. Dräseke's edition in Texte u. Unters. vii.)

Apostolical Constitutions, cent. iii. -- iv. (ed. Lagarde).

Asterius of Amasea, c.400. (xl.)

Athanasius of Alexandria, 373. On the Psalms; Titles of the Psalms [885] , fragments in the catenae. (xxv. -- xxviii.)

Basil of Caesarea, 379. Homilies on the Hexaemeron, the Psalms and Isaiah i. -- xvi. (xxix. -- xxxii.)

Basil of Seleucia, c.450. Homilies on the O.T. (lxxxv.)

Cosmas Indicopleustes, c.550. (lxxxviii.)

Cyril of Alexandria, 444. Works on the Pentateuch (peri tes en pneumati kai aletheia proskuneseos, and glaphura), comm. on Isaiah, comm. on the xii. Prophets; fragments on Kingdoms, Psalms, Proverbs, Canticles, and the minor Prophets. (lxviii. -- lxxvii.)

Cyril of Jerusalem, 386. (xxxiii.)

Didymus of Alexandria, 395. Fragments on the Psalms and in the catenae. (xxxix.)

Diodorus of Tarsus, c.390. Fragments from the catenae. (xxxiii.)

Dionysius the Pseudo-Areopagite, cent. v. (iii. -- iv.)

Dorotheus the Archimandrite, cent. vi. -- vii. (lxxxviii.)

Ephraem the Syrian, 373. Fragments of Commentaries on the Pentateuch, the historical and the poetical books. (Rome, 1732 ff.)

Epiphanius of Salamis, 403. (xli. -- xliii.)

Eusebius of Caesarea, 339. Commentary on the Psalms; notes on Isaiah; fragments of other O.T. commentaries; books peri ton topikon onomaton ton en te theia graphe and peri tes tou bibliou ton propheton onomasias.

Eusebius of Emesa, 359. Fragments in the catenae of a comm. on Genesis. (lxxxvi.)

Eustathius of Antioch, 337. On the Witch of Endor, ag. Origen. (xviii.)

Evagrius of Pontus, 398. Fragments in catenae.

Gennadius of Constantinople, 471. Fragments on Genesis, Exodus, the Psalms &c. (lxxxv.)

Gregory of Nazianzus, 389. (xxxv. -- xxxviii.)

Gregory of Neocaesarea, c.270. (x.)

Gregory of Nyssa, 395. (xliv. -- xlvi.)

Hesychius of Jerusalem, c.438. (xciii.)

Isidore of Pelusium, c.450. (lxxviii.)

John Chrysostom, 407. Homilies on 1 Regn., Psalms (iii. -- xii., xlviii. -- xlix., cviii. -- cxl.); a commentary on Isa. i. -- viii.11; various hands. (xlvii. -- lxiv.)

John of Damascus, c.760. (xciv. -- xcvi.)

Julianus of Halicarnassus, 536. Fragments in catenae.

Macarius Magnes, cent. iv. (ed. Blondel).

Maximus Confessor, 662. (xc. -- xci.)

Methodius of Olympus, cent. iii. -- iv. (xviii.)

Nilus of Sinai, c.430. (lxxix.)

Olympiodorus of Alexandria, cent. vi. (xciii.)

Peter of Alexandria, 311. (xviii.)

Philo of Carpasia, c.380. Commentary on Canticles. (xl.)

Photius of Constantinople, c.891. (ci. -- civ.)

Polychronius of Apamea, 430. Fragments on the Pentateuch, Job, Proverbs, Canticles, and Daniel; comm. on Ezekiel.

Procopius of Gaza, cent. vi. Commentaries on Genesis -- Judges, 1 Regn. -- 2 Chr., Prov., Cant., Isaiah. (lxxxvii.)

Severianus of Gabala, c.420. Fragments of commentaries in the catenae. (lxv.)

Severus of Antioch, c.539. Fragments in the catenae.

Theodore of Heraclea, c.355. Fragments of comm. on Isaiah. (xviii.)

Theodore of Mopsuestia, 428. Fragments of commentaries on Genesis (Syriac and Latin), the rest of the Pentateuch and the historical books: comm. on the Psalms in Syriac and large fragments in Greek: a commentary on the xii. Prophets. (lxvi.)

Theodoret of Cyrrhus, c.458. Eis ta apora tes theias graphes, questions on the Pentateuch and historical books. Commentaries on the Psalms, Canticles, the xii. Prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah (including Baruch and Lam.), Ezekiel, Daniel. (lxxx. -- lxxxiv.)

Titus of Bostra, c.370. (xviii.)

Victor of Antioch, cent. v. -- vi. (?).

LITERATURE. T. Ittig, De bibliothecis et catenis patrum (Leipzig, 1707). J. G. Walch, Bibliotheca patristica, ed. J. T. L. Danz (Jena, 1834). J. G. Dowling, Notitia Scriptorum ss. Patrum (Oxford, 1839). Oeconomus, vol. iv. (Athens, 1849). J. Nirschl, Lehrbuch der Patrologia u. Patristik (Mainz, 1881). O. Bardenhewer, Patrologie (Freiburg i. B., 1894). Fessler-Jungmann, Institutiones Patrologiae (1890). H. Hody, De textibus Bibliorum, p.277 ff. Schleusner, Opuscula critica ad versionem Graecam V. T. pertinentia (Leipzig, 1812). Credner, Beiträge zur Einleitung in die biblischen Schriften, vol. ii. (Halle, 1834). R. Gregory, Prolegomena (de scriptoribus ecclesiasticis, p.1131 ff.). Scrivener-Miller, ii. p.167 ff. Hatch, Biblical Essays, p.131 ff.


[850] Biblical Essays, p. 133.

[851] Die Griechischen Christlichen Schriftsteller der ersten drei Jahrhunderte (Hinrichs, Leipzig). The volumes already published contain part of Hippolytus. and an instalment of Origen.

[852] On Clement's quotations from the Psalms and Isaiah, see Hatch, Essays, pp. 175--9.

[853] The Latin version supports the MSS. of the Greek text of Clement in both cases, so that with our present knowledge we are not at liberty to assume a transcriptional error.

[854] On 'composite' quotations from the LXX. see Hatch, op. cit. p. 203 ff.

[855] Cf. p. 245.

[856] 1 Corinthians 1:31, 2 Corinthians 10:17: see Lightfoot's note ad loc.

[857] See Hatch, op. cit., p. 177f.

[858] Clement of Rome, p. 61. Dr Nestle (Z. f. die NTliche Wissenschaft, i. 2) points out the Semitic style which reveals itself in Clement, e.g. v. 6 eptakis, xii. 5 ginoskousa ginosko..

[859] The acute conjecture of Dr J. Rendel Harris, who saw that the name, which appears in the MS. as Thegri or the like, must be an attempt to reproduce the verb sgr (Dan. 50. c.).

[860] See above, p. 47, n. 4.

[861] See Hatch, Essays, p. 180 ff.

[862] For further details see Hatch, op. cit. p. 180 ff.

[863] On this quotation, however, see Nestle in Exp. Times, ix., p. 14 f.

[864] On this quotation, however, see Nestle in Exp. Times, ix., p. 14 f.

[865] The chapters and sections are those of Stieren.

[866] Cf. Justin, Dial. 120.

[867] See above, p. 47.

[868] See above, p. 407.

[869] Words common to Justin and LXX. but not in Th. are printed in small uncials; those common to Justin and Th. but not to LXX., in thick cursives. Most of the remaining words are to be found in the three texts.

[870] Burkitt, Old Latin and Itala, p. 23 ff.

[871] Dial. 124. In the editions anthropoi occurs twice, but the context appears to shew that the singular should stand in the quotation.

[872] Dial. 13 f.

[873] Revelation 1:41, Dial. 73. Cf. Tert. c. Marc. iii. 19, adv. Jud. 10. No existing Greek MS. of the Psalter is known to contain the words except cod. 156 (see p. 160), which gives them in the suspicious form apo to xulo. A ligno is found in the Sahidic and in the Latin of R and in some other O.L. texts. Cf. the hymn Vexilla regis: "impleta sunt quae concinit David fideli carmine dicendo nationibus Regnavit a ligno Deus" (for the literature see Julian, Dict. of Hymnology, p. 1220).

[874] Dial. 72. The same Apocryphon is quoted by Irenaeus (iii. 20. 4, iv. 22. 1, 33. 1, 12, v. 31. 1) and attributed by him to Jeremiah (iv. 31. 1) or to Isaiah (iii. 20. 4). Cf. Lightfoot, Clement, ii. p. 40, and the writer's Apostles' Creed³, p. 58 f.

[875] Dial. ib.

[876] On his works see Lightfoot, Clement of Rome, ii. pp. 388 ff., 419 ff.

[877] Edited by G. W. Bonwetsch and H. Achelis in the new Berlin Corpus (Hippolytus' Werke, i., Leipzig, 1897).

[878] The references in the Index locorum of Duncker and Schneidewin's edition (Göttingen, 1859) direct the reader for the most part to mere allusions, or citations of only a few consecutive words.

[879] In Hippolyti Romani quae feruntur omnia Graece (Leipzig, 1858).

[880] Clement's text of the Gospels has been examined by Mr P. M. Barnard (Biblical texts of Clement of Alexandria in the Four Gospels and the Acts, Cambridge, 1899) with some interesting and important results. His text of the LXX. is not likely to be equally instructive, but it ought to reward a patient investigator. [Since this note was written an examination of Clement's LXX. text has been made by Dr O. Stäh1in (Clemens Alex. u. die Septuaginta, Nürnberg, 1901).]

[881] See above, p. 97, and the art. Old Latin Versions in Hastings' D. B. iii.((already mentioned, p. 88).

[882] Essays, i. p. 129 ff. ("On Early Quotations from the Septuagint.")

[883] See Part III. c. vi.

[884] They are collected in Migne, P. G. xi.--xvii.

[885] See, however, H. M. Gwatkin, Arianism, p. 69 n.

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