But the question has been raised whether the earlier books may not have been composed some years before this. Lightfoot (following Westcott) supposes that the first nine books were completed not long after the edict of Milan and before the outbreak of the quarrel between Constantine and Licinius in 314. There is considerable to be said in favor of this theory. The language used in the dedication of the tenth book seems to imply that the nine books had been completed some time before, and that the tenth is added as a sort of postscript. The close of the ninth book strengthens that conclusion. Moreover, it would seem from the last sentences of that book that Constantine and Licinius were in perfect harmony at the time it was written, a state of affairs which did not exist after 314. On the other hand, it must be noticed that in Book IX. chap.9 Licinius' "madness" is twice referred to as having "not yet" seized him (in §1 oupo manentos tote, and in §12 oupo tote eph' hen husteron ekpeptoke manian, ten di?noian ektrapeis). It is necessary either to interpret both these clauses as later insertions (possibly by Eusebius' own hand at the time when he added the tenth book; cf. also p.30, above), or to throw the composition of the ninth book down to the year 319 or later. It is difficult to decide between these alternatives, but I am inclined on the whole to think that Westcott's theory is probably correct, and that the two clauses can best be interpreted as later insertions. The very nature of his History would at any rate lead us to think that Eusebius spent some years in the composition of it, and that the earlier books, if not published, were at least completed long before the issue of the ten books as a whole. The Chronicle is referred to as already written in I.1; the Eclogæ Proph. (? see below, p.85) in I.2 and 6; the Collection of Ancient Martyrdoms in IV.15, V. preface, 4, and 22; the Defense of Origen in VI.23, 33, and 36; the Life of Pamphilus in VI.32, VII.32, and VIII.13. In VIII.13 Eusebius speaks also of his intention of relating the sufferings of the martyrs in another work (but see above, p.30).