The Last Days of the Old Eastern World

The Persians in 512 B.C. -- European Greece and the dangers which its independence presented to the safety of the empire -- The preliminaries of the Median wars: the Scythian expedition, the conquest of Thrace and Macedonia -- The Ionic revolt, the intervention of Athens and the taking of Sardes; the battle of Lade -- Mardonius in Thrace and in Macedonia.

The Median wars -- The expedition of Datis and Artaphernes: the taking of Eretria, the battle of Marathon (490) -- The revolt of Egypt under Khabbisha; the death of Darius and the accession of Xerxes I. -- The revolt of Babylon under Shamasherib -- The invasion of Greece: Artemision, Thermopylae, the taking of Athens, Salamis -- Platsae and the final retreat of the Persians: Mycale -- The war carried on by the Athenians and the league of Delos: Inaros, the campaigns in Cyprus and Egypt, the peace of Oallias -- The death of Xerxes.

Artaxerxes I. (465-424): the revolt of Megabyzos -- The palaces of Pasargadae. Persepolis, and Susa; Persian architecture and sculpture; court life, the king and his harem -- Revolutions in the palace -- Xerxes I., Sekudianos, Darius II. -- Intervention in Greek affairs and the convention of Miletus; the end of the peace of Gallias -- Artaxerxes II. (404-359) and Gyrus the Younger: the battle of Kunaxa and the retreat of the ten thousand (401).

Troubles in Asia Minor, Syria, and Egypt -- Amyrtxus and the XXVIIIth Saite dynasty -- The XXIXth Sebennytic dynasty -- Nephorites I, Hakoris, Psammutis, their alliances with Evagoras and with the states of Continental Greece -- The XXXth Mendesian dynasty -- Nectanebo I, Tachos and the invasion of Syria, the revolt of Nectanebo II. -- The death of Artaxerxes II. -- The accession of Ochus (359 B.C.), his unfortunate wars in the Delta, the conquest of Egypt (342) and the reconstitution of the empire.

The Eastern world: Elam, Urartu, the Syrian kingdoms, the ancient Semitic states decayed and decaying -- Babylon in its decline -- The Jewish state and its miseries -- Nehemiah, Ezra -- Egypt in the eyes of the Greeks: Sais, the Delta, the inhabitants of the marshes -- Memphis, its monuments, its population -- Travels in Upper Egypt: the Fayum, Khemmis, Thebes, Elephantine -- The apparent vigour and actual feebleness of Egypt.

Persia and its powerlessness to resist attack: the rise of Macedonia, Philippi -- Arses (337) and Darius Codomannos (336) -- Alexander the Great -- The invasion of Asia -- The battle of Granicus and the conquest of the Asianic peninsula -- Issus, the siege of Tyre and of Gaza, the conquest of Egypt, the foundation of Alexandria -- Arbela: the conquest of Babylon, Susa, and Ecbatana -- The death of Darius and the last days of the old Eastern world.

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