Sermons of St. Bernard on the Passing of Malachy
Sermon I

(November 2, 1148.)[1005]

1. A certain abundant blessing, dearly beloved, has been sent by the counsel of heaven to you this day; and if it were not faithfully divided, you would suffer loss, and I, to whom of a surety this office seems to have been committed, would incur danger. I fear therefore your loss, I fear my own damnation,[1006] if perchance it be said, The young children ask bread, and no man offereth it unto them.[1007] For I know how necessary for you is the consolation which comes from heaven, since it is certain that you have manfully renounced carnal delights and worldly pleasures. None can reasonably doubt that it was by the good gift of heaven, and determined by divine purpose,[1008] that Bishop Malachy should fall asleep among you to-day, and among you have his place of burial, as he desired. For if not even a leaf of a tree falls to the ground without the will of God,[1009] who is so dull as not to see plainly in the coming of this blessed man, and his passing, a truly great purpose of the divine compassion?[1010] From the uttermost parts of the earth he came[1011] to leave his earth here. He was hastening, it is true, on another errand; but we know that by reason of his special love for us he desired that most of all.[1012] He suffered many hindrances in the journey itself, and he was refused permission to cross the sea till the time of his consummation was drawing near,[1013] and the goal which could not be passed. And when, with many labours, he came to us we received him as an angel of God[1014] out of reverence for his holiness; but he, out of his very deeply rooted meekness and lowliness,[1015] far beyond our merits, received us with devoted love. Then he spent a few days with us in his usual health: for he was waiting for his companions, who had been scattered in England, when the baseless distrust of the king was hindering the man of God. And when they had all assembled to him, he was preparing to set out to the Roman Court, on his way to which he had come hither;[1016] when suddenly he was overtaken by sickness, and he immediately perceived that he was being summoned rather to the heavenly palace, God having provided some better thing for us, lest going out from us he should be made perfect elsewhere.[1017]

2. There appeared to the physicians no sign in him, I say not of death, but even of serious illness; but he, gladdened in spirit, said that in every way it was befitting that this year Malachy should depart from this life.[1018] We laboured to prevent it, both by earnest prayers to God, and by whatever other means we could; but his merits prevailed, that his heart's desire should be given him and that the request of his lips should not be withholden.[1019] For so all things happened to him in accordance with his wishes; that by the inspiration of the divine goodness he had chosen this place above all others, and that he had long desired that he should have as the day of his burial this day on which the general memory of all the faithful is celebrated.[1020] Moreover, these joys of ours were worthily increased by the circumstance that we had selected that same day, by God's will, for bringing hither from the former cemetery for their second burial the bones of our brothers.[1021] And when we were bringing them, and singing psalms in the accustomed manner, the same holy man said that he was very greatly delighted with that chanting. And not long after, he himself also followed, having sunk into a most sweet and blessed sleep. Therefore we render thanks to God for all the things that He has disposed, because He willed to honour us, unworthy as we are, by his blessed death among us, to enrich His poor with the most costly treasure of his body, and to strengthen us, who are weak, by so great a pillar[1022] of His church. For one or other of two signs proves that it was wrought for us for good,[1023] either that this place is pleasing to God, or that it is His will to make it pleasing to Him, since He led to it from the uttermost parts of the earth[1024] so holy a man to die and to be buried there.

3. But our very love for this blessed father compels us to sorrow with that people from our heart, and to shudder exceedingly at the cruelty of him, even Death, who has not spared to inflict this terrible wound on the Church, now so much to be pitied. Terrible and unpitying surely is death, which has punished so great a multitude of men by smiting one; blind and without foresight, which has tied the tongue of Malachy, arrested his steps, relaxed his hands, closed his eyes. Those devout eyes, I say, which were wont to restore divine grace to sinners, by most tender tears; those most holy hands, which had always loved to be occupied in laborious and humble deeds, which so often offered for sinners the saving sacrifice[1025] of the Lord's body, and were lifted up to heaven in prayer without wrath and doubting,[1026] which are known to have bestowed many benefits on the sick and to have been resplendent with manifold signs; those beautiful steps also of him that preached the Gospel of peace and brought glad tidings of good things; those feet,[1027] which were so often wearied with eagerness to show pity; those footprints which were always worthy to merit devout kisses;[1028] finally, those holy lips of the priest, which kept knowledge,[1029] the mouth of the righteous, which spoke wisdom, and his tongue which, talking of judgement,[1030] yea and of mercy,[1031] was wont to heal so great wounds of souls. And it is no wonder, brothers, that death is iniquitous, since iniquity brought it forth,[1032] that it is heedless, since it is known to have been born of seduction.[1033] It is nothing wonderful, I say, if it strikes without distinction, since it came from the transgression;[1034] if it is cruel and mad, since it was produced by the subtlety of the old serpent[1035] and the folly of the woman. But why do we charge against it that it dared to assail Malachy, a faithful member, it is true, of Christ,[1036] when it also rushed madly upon the very head of[1037] Malachy and of all the elect as well? It rushed, assuredly, upon One whom it could not hurt; but it did not rush away unhurt. Death hurled itself against life, and life shut up death within itself, and death was swallowed up of life.[1038] Gulping down the hook to its hurt, it began to be held by Him whom it seemed to have held.[1039]

4. But perhaps some one may say, How does it appear that death has been overcome by the Head, if it still rages with so great liberty against the members? If death is dead, how did it kill Malachy? If it is conquered how has it still power over all, and there is no man that liveth and shall not see death?[1040] Death is clearly conquered -- the work of the devil[1041] and the penalty of sin: sin is conquered, the cause of death; and the wicked one himself is conquered,[1042] the author both of sin and death. And not only are these things conquered, they are, moreover, already judged and condemned. The sentence is determined, but not yet published. In fact, the fire is prepared for the devil,[1043] though he is not yet cast into the fire, though still for a short time[1044] he is allowed to work wickedness. He is become, as it were, the hammer of the Heavenly Workman, the hammer of the whole earth.[1045] He crushes the elect for their profit,[1046] he crushes to powder the reprobate for their damnation. As is the master of the house, so are they of his household,[1047] that is, sin and death. For sin, though it is not to be doubted that it was nailed with Christ to His cross,[1048] was yet allowed still for a time, not indeed to reign,[1049] but to dwell even in the Apostle himself while he lived. I lie if he does not himself say, It is no more I that do it, but sin dwelleth in me.[1050] So also death itself is by no means, indeed, yet compelled not to be present, but it is compelled not to be present to men's hurt. But there will come a time when it is said, O death, where is thy victory?[1051] For death also is the last enemy that shall be destroyed.[1052] But now, since He rules who has the power of life and death[1053] and confines the very sea within the fixed limits of its shores, death itself to the beloved of the Lord is a sleep of refreshment. The prophet bears witness who says, When he giveth his beloved sleep, behold the heritage of the Lord.[1054] The death of the wicked is indeed most evil,[1055] since their birth is evil and their life more evil; but precious is the death of the saints.[1056] Precious clearly, for it is the end of labours, the consummation of victory, the gate of life, and the entrance to perfect safety.

5. Let us rejoice therefore, brothers, let us rejoice as is meet, with our father, for if it is an act of filial piety to mourn for Malachy who is dead, yet more is it an act of piety to rejoice with Malachy who is alive. Is he not alive? He is, and in bliss. Certainly, in the eyes of the foolish he seemed to have died; but he is in peace.[1057] In fine, now a fellow-citizen with the saints, and of the household of God,[1058] he at once sings and gives thanks, saying, We went through fire and water; but thou broughtest us out into a wealthy place.[1059] He went, clearly, in manly fashion, and he went through[1060] happily. The true Hebrew celebrated the Passover in spirit, and as he went, he said to us, "With desire I have desired to eat this Passover with you."[1061] He went through fire and water,[1062] whom neither experiences of sadness could crush, nor pleasures hold back. For there is below us a place which fire wholly claims as its own, so that the wretched Dives could not have there even the least drop of water from the finger of Lazarus.[1063] There is also above the city of God which the streams of the river make glad,[1064] a torrent of pleasure,[1065] a cup which inebriates, how goodly![1066] Here, in the midst, truly is found the knowledge of good and evil,[1067] and in this place we may receive the trial of pleasure and of affliction.[1068] Unhappy Eve brought us into these alternations. Here clearly is day and night; for in the lower world there is only night, and in heaven only day.[1069] Blessed is the soul which passes through both, neither ensnared by pleasure nor fainting at tribulation.[1070]

6. I think it right to relate to you, briefly, a specimen of the many splendid deeds of this man, in which he is known to have gone, with no little vigour, through fire and water.[1071] A tyrannous race laid claim to the metropolitan see of Patrick, the great apostle of the Irish, creating archbishops in regular succession, and possessing the sanctuary of God by hereditary right.[1072] Our Malachy was therefore asked by the faithful to combat such great evils; and putting his life in his hand[1073] he advanced to the attack with vigour, he undertook the archbishopric, exposing himself to evident danger, that he might put an end to so great a crime. Surrounded by perils he ruled the church; when the perils were passed, immediately he canonically ordained another as his successor. For he had undertaken the office on this condition, that when the fury of persecution had ceased and it thus became possible that another should safely be appointed, he should be allowed to return to his own see.[1074] And there, without ecclesiastical or secular revenues he lived in the religious communities which he himself had formed, dwelling among them up to this time as one of themselves, and abjuring all personal property.[1075] So the fire of affliction tried[1076] the man of God, but did not consume[1077] him; for he was gold. So neither did pleasure hold him captive or destroy him, nor did he stand a curious spectator on the way, forgetful of his own pilgrimage.

7. Which of you, brothers, would not earnestly desire to imitate his holiness, if he dared even to hope for such an attainment? I believe, therefore, you will gladly hear, if I perchance can tell it, what made Malachy holy. But lest our testimony should seem not easy to be received, hear what the Scripture says: He made him holy in his faith and meekness.[1078] By faith he trampled on the world, as John bears witness when he says, This is the victory that overcometh the world, even our faith.[1079] For in the spirit of meekness[1080] he endured all things whatsoever that were hard and contrary with good cheer.[1081] On the one hand, indeed, after the example of Christ, by faith he trampled on the seas,[1082] lest he should be entangled in pleasures; on the other, in his patience he possessed his soul,[1083] lest he should be crushed by troubles. For concerning these two things you have the saying in the Psalm, A thousand shall fall at thy side, and ten thousand at thy right hand;[1084] for many more are cast down by the deceitfulness of prosperity than by the lashes of adversity. Therefore, dearly beloved, let none of us, allured by the level surface of the easier way, suppose that road of the sea to be more convenient for himself. This plain[1085] has great mountains, invisible indeed, but for that very reason more dangerous. That way perhaps seems more laborious which passes through the steeps of the hills and the ruggedness of rocks; but to them that have tried it, it is found far safer and more to be desired. But on both sides there is labour, on both sides danger, as he knew who said, By the armour of righteousness on the right hand and on the left;[1086] so that we may rightly rejoice with those that went through fire and water and have been brought into a wealthy place.[1087] Do you wish to hear something about the wealthy place? Would that another might speak to you of it. For as for me, that which I have not tasted I cannot indite.

8. But I seem to hear Malachy saying to me to-day about this wealthy place, Return unto thy rest, O my soul; for the Lord hath dealt bountifully with thee: for he hath delivered my soul from death, [mine eyes from tears, and my feet from falling].[1088] And what I understand to be expressed in those words hear in a few sentences; for the day is far spent,[1089] and I have spoken at greater length than I intended, because I am unwilling to tear myself away from the sweetness of the father's name, and my tongue, dreading to be silent about Malachy, fears to cease. The death of the soul,[1090] my brothers, is sin; unless you have overlooked that which you have read in the prophet: The soul that sinneth, it shall die.[1091] Threefold, then, is the rejoicing of the man, since he is delivered from all sin, and from labour, and from danger. For from this time neither is sin said to dwell in him,[1092] nor is the sorrow of penitence enjoined, nor from henceforth is he warned to guard himself from any falling.[1093] Elijah[1094] has laid aside his mantle;[1095] it was not that he feared, it was not that he was afraid that it should be touched, still less retained, by an adulteress.[1096] He went up into the chariot;[1097] he is not now in terror of falling; he mounts delightfully; he labours not to fly by his own power, but sits in a swift vehicle. To this wealthy place, dearly beloved, let us run with all eagerness of spirit, in the fragrance of the ointments of this our blessed father, who this day has been seen to have stirred up our torpor to most fervent desire. Let us run after him, I say, crying to him again and again, "Draw us after thee";[1098] and, with earnest heart and advancing holiness of life, returning devout thanks to the Almighty Pity, that He has willed that His unworthy servants, who are without merits of their own, should at least not be without the prayers of another.

Sermon II

(November 2, 1149)[1099]

1. It is clear, dearly beloved, that whilst we are detained in the body we are absent from the Lord.[1100] And throughout this wretched time of detention banishment and conscience of faults enjoins upon us sorrow rather than joy. But because by the mouth of the apostle we are exhorted to rejoice with them that do rejoice,[1101] the time and the occasion require that we should be stirred up to all gladness. For if it is true, as the prophet perceived, that the righteous rejoice before God,[1102] without doubt Malachy rejoices, who in his days[1103] pleased God[1104] and was found righteous.[1105] Malachy ministered in holiness and righteousness before Him:[1106]the ministry pleased Him; the minister also pleased Him. Why should he not please Him? He made the Gospel without charge,[1107] he filled the country with the Gospel, he tamed the deathly barbarism of his Irishmen, with the sword of the spirit[1108] he subdued foreign nations to the light yoke of Christ,[1109] restoring His inheritance to Him[1110] even unto the ends of the earth.[1111] O, fruitful ministry! O, faithful minister! Is not the promise of the Father to the Son fulfilled through him? Did not the Father behold him long ago when He said to the Son, I shall give thee the heathen for thine inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the earth for thy possession.[1112] How willingly the Saviour received what He had bought,[1113] and had bought with the price[1114] of His own blood,[1115] with the shame of the Cross, with the horror of the Passion. How willingly from the hands of Malachy, because he ministered freely.[1116] So in the minister the freely executed office was acceptable,[1117] and in the ministry the conversion of sinners was pleasing. Acceptable and pleasing, I say, in the minister was the singleness of eye,[1118] but in the ministry the salvation of the people.[1119]

2. However, even though a less effective result of the ministry followed, He would nevertheless justly have had regard to Malachy and his works, He to whom purity is a friend and single-mindedness one of his household, to whose righteousness it belongs to weigh the work in accordance with its purpose, from the character of the eye to measure the state of the whole body.[1120] But now the works of the Lord are great, sought out according to all the desires[1121] and efforts of Malachy; they are great and many and very good,[1122] though better in proportion to the good origin of the pure purpose. What work of piety escaped the attention of Malachy? He was poor as regards himself, but rich to the poor. He was a father of the fatherless, a husband of the widows,[1123] a protector of the oppressed. A cheerful giver,[1124] seldom making petitions, modest in receiving gifts. He was specially solicitous, and had much success, in restoring peace between those who were at variance. Who was as tender as he in sharing the sufferings of others? who as ready to help? who as free in rebuke? For he was zealous, and yet not wanting in knowledge, the restrainer of zeal. And, indeed, to the weak he was weak,[1125] but none the less strong to the strong: he resisted the proud,[1126] he lashed the tyrants, a teacher of kings and princes. It was he who by prayer deprived a king of sight when he worked wickedness, and restored it when he was humbled.[1127] It was he, when certain men broke a peace which he had made, who gave them up to the spirit of error,[1128] and foiled them in the evil which they devised to do; and who compelled them to accept peace a second time, confounded and stunned by that which had happened to them. It was he[1129] to whom a river most opportunely lent its aid against the others, who were equally transgressors of a covenant.[1130] In wonderful fashion, by throwing itself before them, it made void the efforts of the ungodly. There had been no rains, no floods of waters, no gathering of clouds, no melting of snows, when suddenly the mere rivulet was converted into a great river; and it rushed along[1131] and swelling up overflowed the banks, and utterly denied passage to those who wished to do wickedly.[1132]

3. What things we have heard and known of the wrath of the man and his vengeance on his enemies, while yet he was sweet and gentle and plenteous in mercy unto all[1133] that suffered need! For he lived for all as though he were the one parent of all.[1134] As a hen her chickens,[1135] so he cherished all and protected them under the covert of his wings.[1136] He made no distinction of sex or age, of condition or person;[1137] he failed none, his loving heart embraced all. In whatsoever affliction men cried to him he counted it his own: even more than that, for in regard to his own afflictions he was patient, in regard to those of others he was compassionate, very often even passionate. For indeed sometimes, filled with wrath, he was stirred to take the part of one against another, that by delivering the poor and restraining the strong[1138] he might take thought in equal measure for the salvation of all. Therefore he was angry; but it was in order that he might not sin by not being angry, according to the words of the Psalm, Be ye angry and sin not.[1139] Anger did not rule him, but he himself ruled his spirit.[1140] He had power over himself. Assuredly he who had the victory over himself could not be mastered by anger.[1141] His anger was kept in hand. When it was summoned it came, going forth, not bursting forth; it was brought into action by his will, not by impulse. He was not set on fire by it, but used it.[1142] As well in this as in ruling and restraining all the motions both of his inner and his outer man[1143] his judgement was careful, his caution great. For he did not give so much attention to all, as to leave himself alone out of account, as, in his universal solicitude, to disregard only himself. He was careful of himself also. He guarded himself.[1144] In fact, he was so wholly his own, so wholly also belonged to all, that his love seemed in no degree to hinder or delay him from his guardianship of himself, nor his concern for his own person from the common good.[1145] If you saw the man busied in the midst of crowds, involved in cares, you would say he was born for his country, not for himself.[1146] If you saw the man alone and dwelling by himself, you would suppose that he lived for God alone and for himself.

4. Without tumult he went about among tumults; without ease he spent the time which he gave to ease. How could he be taking his ease[1147] when he was occupied in the statutes of the Lord?[1148] For though he had time free from the necessities of the peoples, yet had he none unoccupied by holy meditations, by the work of prayer, by the ease itself of contemplation. In the time of ease he spoke gravely or not at all. His mien was either courteous, or humble and self-restrained. Assuredly -- a trait which is counted worthy of much praise among the wise -- his eye was in his head,[1149] never flying forth except when it was obedient to power. His laughter displayed love, or provoked it: but even so it was rare. Sometimes indeed, it came forth, but it was never forced, intimating the gladness of his heart in such a way that his mouth did not lose but gained in grace.[1150] So modest was it that it could not be suspected of levity; so gentle,[1151] however, that it sufficed to free his joyous countenance from every trace and shadow of sadness.[1152] O perfect gift! O rich burnt sacrifice![1153] O pleasing service in mind and hand! How sweet unto God is the savour[1154] of him who employs his leisure in prayers, how sweet unto men of him who is occupied in fatiguing labours.

5. Because he was such an one, then, beloved of God[1155] and men, not undeservedly was Malachy received this day into the company of angels, having attained in fact what his name denoted.[1156] And indeed, already he was an angel not less in purity than in name. But now more happily is the significance of his glorious name fulfilled in him, since he is glad with a glory and happiness equal to that of the angels.[1157] Let us also, dearly beloved, be glad because our angel ascended[1158] to his fellow-citizens, acting as an ambassador for the children of the captivity,[1159] winning for us the favour of the blessed ones, declaring to them the desires of the wretched. Let us be glad, I say, and rejoice,[1160] because in that heavenly court[1161] there is one who went forth from us to take care of us,[1162] to protect us by his merits,[1163] whom he instructed[1164] by his example and strengthened[1165] by his miracles.

6. The holy pontiff, who in a humble spirit[1166] often brought peace-offerings to the heavens, to-day in his own person has gone unto the altar of God,[1167] himself the victim and the priest. With the departure of the priest the rite of sacrifice is changed into a better thing. The fountain of tears[1168] is dried up, every burnt sacrifice is made with gladness and rejoicing.[1169] Blessed be the Lord God of Malachy, who by the ministry of so great a pontiff hath visited his people,[1170] and now, taking him up into the holy city,[1171] ceaseth not, by the remembrance of so great sweetness to comfort our captivity.[1172] Let the spirit of Malachy rejoice in the Lord,[1173] because he is freed from the heavy load of the body, and is no longer hindered, by the weight of impure and earthly matter, from passing with all eagerness and fullness of life, through the whole creation, corporeal and incorporeal, that he may enter entirely into God, and joined to Him may with Him be one spirit[1174] for ever.[1175]

7. Holiness becometh that house[1176] in which the remembrance of so great holiness[1177] is celebrated. Holy Malachy, preserve it in holiness and righteousness[1178] pitying us who in the midst of so many and great miseries utter the memory of thine abundant goodness.[1179] Great is the dispensation of the mercy of God upon thee, who made thee little in thine own sight,[1180] great in His; who did great things by thee, in saving thy country, great things to thee,[1181] in bringing thee into His glory. May thy festival, which is deservedly devoted to thy virtues, have a saving efficacy for us by thy merits and prayers. May the glory of thy holiness,[1182] which is celebrated by us, be continued by angels: so shall it meetly be pleasant for us, if it be also fruitful. While thou departest be it allowed to us, who are met together to-day in thy so delicious feast, to preserve some remnants of the fruits of the Spirit, loaded with which thou ascendest.

8. Be to us, we beseech thee, holy Malachy, another Moses, or another Elijah, like them imparting of thy spirit[1183] to us, for thou hast come in their spirit and power.[1184] Thy life was a law of life and knowledge,[1185] thy death the port of death and the portal of life,[1186] thy memory the delight of sweetness and grace, thy presence a crown of glory in the hand of the Lord[1187] thy God. O fruitful olive tree in the house of God![1188] O oil of gladness,[1189] giving both anointing and light, cherishing with favours, resplendent with miracles,[1190] make us partakers of that light and graciousness which thou enjoyest.[1191] O sweet-smelling lily, blossoming and budding evermore before the Lord, and spreading everywhere a sweet and life-giving savour,[1192] whose memorial is blessed[1193] with us, whose presence is in honour with those who are above, grant to those who sing of thee that they may not be deprived of their share in so great an assembly.[1194] O great luminary[1195] and light that shinest in darkness,[1196] illuminating the prison, making glad the city[1197] by the rays of thy signs and merits, by the lustre of virtues put to flight from our hearts the darkness of vices. O morning star,[1198] more brilliant than the rest because thou art nearer the day, more like to the sun, deign to go before us, that we also may walk in the light as children of light, and not children of darkness.[1199] O thou who art the dawn breaking into day upon the earth, but the noon light[1200] illumining the higher regions of heaven, receive us in the fellowship of light, by which illuminated thou sheddest light far without, and sweetly burnest within, by the gift of our Lord Jesus Christ, who with the Father and the Holy Spirit reigneth One God, world without end. -- Amen.


[1005] The evidence that this discourse was delivered on the day of Malachy's death is cumulative. (1) The opening words of Sec.1, and the closing sentences of Sec.8 (note "this day"). (2) The statement in Sec.5, "He said to us, 'With desire I have desired,'" etc., implies that those who tended Malachy in his sickness were present (see Life, Sec.73). The first person plural in Sec.2 suggests the same conclusion. (3) In Sec.6, "dwelling among them up to this time" implies that his death was not long past. (4) The striking parallels with Letter iv.; for which see the notes on it. (5) The tone of the sermon -- in marked contrast to that of Sermon ii. -- indicates that the community was crushed with sorrow for a recent bereavement. See R.I.A. xxxv.255 ff.

[1006] damnum uestrum ... damnationem meam.

[1007] Lam. iv.4 (inexact quotation).

[1008] Acts ii.23.

[1009] Cp. Matt. x.29.

[1010] Cp. St. Bernard, De Laud. Virg. i.1 (P.L. clxxxiii.56): "For if neither a leaf from a tree falls on the earth without cause, nor one of the sparrows without the heavenly Father, am I to suppose that a superfluous word flows from the mouth of the holy evangelist?"

[1011] Matt. xii.42.

[1012] See Life, Sec.67.

[1013] See Life, Sec.69.

[1014] Gal. iv.14 (inexact quotation).

[1015] Cp. Eph. iv.2.

[1016] He was evidently in haste to resume his journey. And no wonder, for the winter was drawing near, and the sooner the passage of the Alps was made the better for his comfort and safety. Cp. R.I.A. xxxv.248. "Alpine passes ... become impassable usually about the commencement or middle of October, and remain closed until May" (Sennett, Great St. Bernard, p.369).

[1017] Heb. xi.40.

[1018] See Life, Sec.71.

[1019] Ps. xxi.2.

[1020] See Life, Secs.67, 71.

[1021] The translation is supposed by Henriquez, Fasciculus Sanctorum Ordinis Cisterciensis, ii.41.6 (P.L. lxxxv.1559) to have been made on All Saints' Day, the bones being reburied on All Souls' Day. But Vacandard (R.Q.H. lii.41 f.) thinks that the date of the translation was Saturday, October 30. This event probably marked the end of the construction of the new monastery of Clairvaux, which began before Malachy's first visit. See p.71, n.4.

[1022] Gal. ii.9.

[1023] Ps. lxxxvi.17 (vg.).

[1024] Matt. xii.42.

[1025] 2 Macc. iii.32 (vg.).

[1026] 1 Tim. ii.8.

[1027] Rom. x.15.

[1028] Cp. Luke vii.38. -- Perhaps a reference to St. Bernard's own action just before this sermon was preached. See p.129, n.6.

[1029] Mal. ii.7.

[1030] Ps. xxxvii.30.

[1031] Ps. ci.1.

[1032] Jas. i.15.

[1033] Cp.2 Cor. xi.3; 1 Tim. ii.14. -- See J. H. Bernard on 2 Cor. xi.3 (Expositor's Greek Testament).

[1034] 1 Tim. ii.14.

[1035] Rev. xii.9; xx.2.

[1036] 1 Cor. vi.15, etc.

[1037] Eph. iv.15, etc.

[1038] 1 Cor. xv.54, combined with 2 Cor. v.4.

[1039] Cp. Cant. xxvi.11: "Thou art dead, O death, and pierced by the hook thou hast imprudently swallowed, which saith in the words of the prophet, 'O death, I will be thy death! O hell, I will be thy bite.' Pierced, I say, by that hook, to the faithful who go through the midst of thee thou offerest a broad and pleasant path-way into life" (Morison's translation). A very old metaphor. It is thus explained by Rufinus (A.D.400) in his Commentary on the Apostles' Creed (Sec.16, Heurtley's translation): "The object of that mystery of the Incarnation ... was that the divine virtue of the Son of God, as though it were a hook concealed beneath the form and fashion of human flesh, ... might lure on the prince of this world to a conflict, to whom offering His flesh as a bait, His divinity underneath might secure him, caught with a hook by the shedding of His immaculate blood.... As, if a fish seizes a baited hook, it not only does not take the bait off the hook, but is drawn out of the water to be itself food for others, so he who had the power of death seized the body of Jesus in death, not being aware of the hook of divinity enclosed within it, but, having swallowed it, he was caught forthwith, and the bars of hell being burst asunder, he was drawn forth as it were from the abyss to become food for others."

[1040] Ps. lxxxix.48 (vg.).

[1041] 1 John iii.8.

[1042] 1 John ii.13, 14.

[1043] Matt. xxv.41.

[1044] Rev. xii.12.

[1045] Jer. l.23.

[1046] 1 Cor. xii.7 (vg.).

[1047] Matt. x.25.

[1048] Col. ii.14.

[1049] Rom. vi.12.

[1050] Rom. vii.17.

[1051] 1 Cor. xv.55 (vg.).

[1052] 1 Cor. xv.26.

[1053] Heb. ii.14; Tobit ii.8.

[1054] Ps. cxxvii.2, 3 (vg.).

[1055] Ps. xxxiv.21 (vg.).

[1056] Ps. cxvi.15.

[1057] Communio for All Saints (Wisd. iii.2, 3).

[1058] Eph. ii.19 (with variant).

[1059] Ps. lxvi.12.

[1060] Hos. x.15 (vg.: xi.1).

[1061] Luke xxii.15. -- See Life, Sec.73, where for "he said to us" we have "lifting up his eyes on those who stood round him, he said."

[1062] Ps. lxvi.12.

[1063] Luke xvi.24, 25.

[1064] Ps. xlvi.4.

[1065] Ps. xxxvi.8 (vg.).

[1066] Ps. xxiii.5 (vg.).

[1067] Gen. ii.9.

[1068] 2 Cor. viii.2.

[1069] Rev. xxi.25; xxii.5.

[1070] Eph. iii.13.

[1071] Ps. lxvi.12.

[1072] Ps. lxxxiii 12 (vg.).

[1073] 1 Sam. xix.5.

[1074] See Life, Secs.19-31.

[1075] See p.82, n.5.

[1076] Ps. lxvi.10, 11.

[1077] Examinauit, non exinaniuit.

[1078] Ecclus. xlv.4 (vg.).

[1079] 1 John v.4.

[1080] Gal. vi.1.

[1081] 1 Kings xxi.7 (vg.).

[1082] Cp. Matt. xiv.25; John vi.19.

[1083] Luke xxi.19.

[1084] Ps. xci.7.

[1085] That is, the sea. The details of the imagery are not clear. But evidently the sea represents the pleasures, and the hills and rocks the adversities, of life.

[1086] 2 Cor. vi.7.

[1087] Ps. lxvi.12.

[1088] Ps. cxvi.7, 8 (vg.). -- The printed text has, in place of the bracketed words, "and so forth." The threefold deliverance obviously corresponds to the threefold rejoicing mentioned below, sin being substituted for death in the description of it, because "the death of the soul is sin."

[1089] Luke xxiv.29.

[1090] Cp. Ps. cxvi.8.

[1091] Ezek. xviii.4.

[1092] Rom. vii.17, 20.

[1093] Ps. cxvi.8.

[1094] For other comparisons of Malachy with Elijah, see Life, Sec.23; Serm. ii. Sec.8.

[1095] 2 Kings ii.13.

[1096] Gen. xxxix.12, 15 (vg.).

[1097] 2 Kings ii.11.

[1098] Cant. i.3, 4.

[1099] It is plain from Sec.7 that this sermon was preached on an anniversary of Malachy's death, i.e. on November 2, in a year later than 1148. I put it in 1149 because of its striking coincidences with the Life, which was written early in that year (see p. lxv). There is also a possible echo (Sec.3) of De Cons. i. which belongs to the same year (P.L. clxxxii.723). These, together with two coincidences of phrase with other writings of St. Bernard, are pointed out in the notes. See R.I.A. xxxv.260 ff.

[1100] 2 Cor. v.6.

[1101] Rom. xii.15.

[1102] Ps. lxviii.3.

[1103] Ecclus. xliv.7.

[1104] Ecclus. xliv.16 (vg.).

[1105] Ecclus. xliv.17.

[1106] Luke i.75.

[1107] 1 Cor. ix.18. -- Cp. Life, Sec.43 (p.84).

[1108] Eph. vi.17.

[1109] Matt. xi.30.

[1110] Ps. xvi.5 (vg.).

[1111] Isa. xlviii.20; Jer. xxv.31.

[1112] Ps. ii.8.

[1113] 2 Pet. ii.1.

[1114] 1 Cor. vi.20.

[1115] Acts xx.28.

[1116] 2 Cor. xi.7.

[1117] Gratum erat munus gratuitum.

[1118] Matt. vi.22; Luke xi.34.

[1119] Hab. iii.13.

[1120] Matt. vi.22, 23; Luke xi.34, 35.

[1121] Ps. cxi.2 (vg.).

[1122] Gen. i.31.

[1123] Ps. lxviii.5.

[1124] 2 Cor. ix.7.

[1125] 1 Cor. ix.22.

[1126] Jas. iv.6; 1 Pet. v.5.

[1127] See Life, Sec.60.

[1128] 1 John iv.6.

[1129] Printed text, Ipse enim est. With A I omit enim.

[1130] Josh. vii.15, etc.

[1131] So A: cicius (= citius) ibat for riuus ibat of the printed text.

[1132] The story is told much more fully in Life, Secs.58, 59; where there are many similarities in phraseology to the present passage. In both places it is connected with the miraculous blinding of the king, immediately preceding it here, immediately following it there.

[1133] Ps. lxxxvi.5 (vg.).

[1134] Cp. the description of Malchus, Life, Sec.8: "He was reverenced by all, as the one father of all"; and of Malachy, Sec.33: "the loving father of all."

[1135] Matt. xxiii.37.

[1136] Ps. lxi.4 (vg.).

[1137] Cp. Life, Sec.42: "Neither sex nor age, nor condition nor profession, is held in account."

[1138] Ps. xxxv.10

[1139] Ps. iv.4 (vg.).

[1140] Prov. xvi.32.

[1141] Job xxxvi.18 (vg.).

[1142] Non urebatur illa, sed utebatur.

[1143] Utriusque hominis sui.

[1144] 1 Tim. v.22.

[1145] Cp. De Cons. i.6: "If you desire wholly to belong to all ... I praise your humility, but only if it is complete. But how can it be complete if you exclude yourself? And you are a man. Then, that your humanity also may be complete, let the bosom which receives all gather you also within itself ... wherefore, where all possess you let you yourself also be one of those who possess."

[1146] Lucan, Phars. ii.383.

[1147] Cp. De Cons. iv.12, "In ease not taking ease;" Life, Sec.43, "Quiet often, but by no means at any time taking ease."

[1148] Ps. cxix.23.

[1149] Eccles. ii.14 (inexact quotation).

[1150] Cp. Luke iv.22.

[1151] Tantillus. The text seems to be corrupt. Read tam laetus?

[1152] Cp. Life, Sec.43: "Yea, what was there that was not edifying," etc.

[1153] Ps. xx.3 (vg.).

[1154] 2 Cor. ii.15.

[1155] 1 Thess. i.4 (vg.); 2 Thess. ii.13.

[1156] That is, Malachias, the Hebrew for my angel, with a Latin termination. For its origin see Life, Sec.12.

[1157] At this point, with A, I omit a passage which is identical with the first half of Serm. i. Sec.5, and interrupts the argument. With A, also, in the following sentence I read Laetemur et nos dilectissimi quod for Laetemur quod of the printed text. See R.I.A. xxxv.260-262.

[1158] Judg. xiii.20.

[1159] Dan. vi.13; Ezra iv.1.

[1160] Ps. ix.2.

[1161] Curia.

[1162] Cui sit cura nostri.

[1163] Cp. Lett. iv. Sec.2.

[1164] Informauit.

[1165] Confirmauit.

[1166] Song of Three Children, 16.

[1167] Ps. xliii.4.

[1168] Jer. ix.1.

[1169] Ps. xlv.15.

[1170] Luke i.68.

[1171] Matt. iv.5.

[1172] Ps. cxxvi.1, 4 (vg.).

[1173] Luke i.47.

[1174] 1 Cor. vi.17.

[1175] See De Cons. v.2, quoted p.127, n.13, and the sermon on the Marriage of the Soul with the Word (Cant. lxxxiii.6), in which St. Bernard, quoting 1 Cor. vi.17, says, "Love ... joins the two in one spirit, makes them no longer two but one." Cp. also Cant. xxvi.5: "He that is joined to God is one spirit, and is wholly changed into a certain divine feeling, and cannot think of or mind anything but God, and that which God thinks and minds, being full of God." For the last phrase see Ignatius, Magn. 14.

[1176] Ps. xciii.5.

[1177] Ps. xxx.4.

[1178] Luke i.75.

[1179] Ps. cxlv.7 (vg.).

[1180] 1 Sam. xv.17 (inexact quotation).

[1181] Luke i.49.

[1182] Ps. cxlv.5 (vg.).

[1183] Num. xi.25; 2 Kings ii.9, 15.

[1184] Luke i.17. -- See p.151, n.3.

[1185] Ecclus. xlv.5.

[1186] The same phrase occurs in Life, Sec.75, similarly applied.

[1187] Isa. lxii.3.

[1188] Ps. lii.8 (vg.).

[1189] Ps. xlv.7 (vg.).

[1190] Epiphany Collect.

[1191] Cp. Life, Sec.47 (p.88).

[1192] Isa. xxvii.6, combined with Hos. xiv.5, and Ecclus. xxxix.14.

[1193] Ecclus. xlv.1.

[1194] Ecclus. xxiv.2, 12 (vg.). The clauses containing the word assembly (plenitudo) are omitted in R.V.

[1195] Ps. cxxxvi.7.

[1196] John i.4.

[1197] Ps. xlvi.4.

[1198] Ecclus. l.6.

[1199] 1 John i.7, combined with 1 Thess. v.5.

[1200] Isa. xviii.4 (vg.).

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