1. No man is happier than the Christian, for to him is promised the kingdom of heaven. No man struggles harder than he, for he goes daily in danger of his life. No man is stronger, for he overcomes the Devil. No man is weaker, for he is overcome by the flesh. Both pairs of statements can be proved by many examples. For instance, the robber believes upon the cross and immediately hears the assuring words: "verily I say unto thee, To-day shalt thou be with me in paradise:"  while Judas falls from the pinnacle of the apostolate into the abyss of perdition. Neither the close intercourse of the banquet nor the dipping of the sop  nor the Lord's gracious kiss  can save him from betraying as man Him whom he had known as the Son of God. Could any one have been viler than the woman of Samaria? Yet not only did she herself believe, and after her six husbands find one Lord, not only did she recognize that Messiah by the well, whom the Jews failed to recognize in the temple; she brought salvation to many and, while the apostles were away buying food, refreshed the Saviour's hunger and relieved His weariness.  Was ever man wiser than Solomon? Yet love for women made even him foolish. Salt is good, and every offering must be sprinkled with it.  Wherefore also the apostle has given commandment: "let your speech be alway with grace, seasoned with salt."  But "if the salt have lost his savour," it is cast out.  And so utterly does it lose its value that it is not even fit for the dunghill,  whence believers fetch manure to enrich the barren soil of their souls.
I begin thus, Rusticus my son, to teach you the greatness of your enterprise and the loftiness of your ideal; and to shew you that only by trampling under foot youthful lusts can you hope to climb the heights of true maturity. For the path along which you walk is a slippery one and the glory of success is less than the shame of failure.
2. I need not now conduct the stream of my discourse through the meadows of virtue, nor exert myself to shew to you the beauty of its several flowers. I need not dilate on the purity of the lily, the modest blush of the rose, the royal purple of the violet, or the promise of glowing gems which their various colours hold out. For through the mercy of God you have already put your hand to the plough;  you have already gone up upon the housetop like the apostle Peter.  Who when he became hungry among the Jews had his hunger satisfied by the faith of Cornelius, and stilled the craving caused by their unbelief through the conversion of the centurion and other Gentiles. By the vessel let down from heaven to earth, the four corners of which typified the four gospels, he was taught that all men can be saved. Once more, this fair white sheet which in his vision was taken up again was a symbol of the church which carries believers from earth to heaven, an assurance that the Lord's promise should be fulfilled: "blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God." 
All this means that I take you by the hand and do my best to impress certain facts upon your mind; that, like a skilled sailor who has been through many shipwrecks, I am anxious to caution an inexperienced passenger of the risks before him. For on one side is the Charybdis of covetousness, "the root of all evil;"  and on the other lurks the Scylla of detraction girt with the railing hounds of which the apostle says: "if ye bite and devour one another, take heed that ye be not consumed one of another."  Sometimes, you must know, the quicksands of vice  suck us down as we sail at ease through the calm water; and the desert of this world is not untenanted by venomous reptiles.
3. Those who navigate the Red Sea -- where we must pray that the true Pharaoh may be drowned with all his host -- have to encounter many difficulties and dangers before they reach the city of Auxuma.  Nomad savages and ferocious wild beasts haunt the shores on either side. Thus travellers must be always armed and on the alert, and they must carry with them a whole year's provisions. Moreover, so full are the waters of hidden reefs and impassable shoals that a look-out has constantly to be kept from the masthead to direct the helmsman how to shape his course. They may count themselves fortunate if after six months they make the port of the above-mentioned city. At this point the ocean begins, to cross which a whole year hardly suffices. Then India is reached and the river Ganges -- called in holy scripture Pison -- "which compasseth the whole land of Havilah"  and is said to carry down with it -- from its source in paradise -- various dyes and pigments. Here are found rubies and emeralds, glowing pearls and gems of the first water, such as high born ladies passionately desire. There are also mountains of gold which however men cannot approach by reason of the griffins, dragons, and huge monsters which haunt them; for such are the guardians which avarice needs for its treasures.
4. What, you ask, is the drift of all this? Surely it is clear enough. For if the merchants of the world undergo such hardships to win a doubtful and passing gain, and if after seeking it through many dangers they only keep it at risk of their lives; what should Christ's merchant do who "selleth all that he hath" that he may acquire the "one pearl of great price;" who with his whole substance buys a field that he may find therein a treasure which neither thief can dig up nor robber carry away? 
5. I know that I must offend large numbers who will be angry with my criticisms as aimed at their own deficiencies. Yet such anger does but shew an uneasy conscience and they will pass a far severer sentence on themselves than on me. For I shall not mention names; or copy the licence of the old comedy  which criticized individuals. Wise men and wise women will try to hide or rather to correct whatever they perceive to be amiss in them; they will be more angry with themselves than with me, and will not be disposed to heap curses upon the head of their monitor. For he, although he is liable to the same charges, is certainly superior in this that he is discontented with his own faults.
6. I am told that your mother is a religious woman, a widow of many years' standing; and that when you were a child she reared and taught you herself. Afterwards when you had spent some time in the flourishing schools of Gaul she sent you to Rome, sparing no expense and consoling herself for your absence by the thought of the future that lay before you. She hoped to see the exuberance and glitter of your Gallic eloquence toned down by Roman sobriety, for she saw that you required the rein more than the spur. So we are told of the greatest orators of Greece that they seasoned the bombast of Asia with the salt of Athens and pruned their vines when they grew too fast. For they wished to fill the wine-press of eloquence not with the tendrils of mere words but with the rich grape-juice of good sense. Your mother has done the same thing for you; you should, therefore, look up to her as a parent, love her as a tender nurse, and venerate her as a saint. You must not imitate those who leave their own relations and pay court to strange women. Their infamy is apparent to all, for what they aim at under the pretence of pure affection  is simply illicit intercourse. I know some women of riper years, indeed a good many, who, finding pleasure in their young freedmen, make them their spiritual children and thus, pretending to be mothers to them, gradually overcome their own sense of shame and allow themselves in the licence of marriage. Other women desert their maiden sisters and unite themselves to strange widows. There are some who hate their parents and have no affection for their kin. Their state of mind is indicated by a restlessness which disdains excuses; they rend the veil of chastity and put it aside like a cobweb. Such are the ways of women; not, indeed, that men are any better. For there are persons to be seen who (for all their girded loins, sombre garb, and long beards) are inseparable from women, live under one roof with them, dine in their company, have young girls to wait upon them, and, save that they do not claim to be called husbands, are as good as married. Still it is no fault of Christianity that a hypocrite falls into sin; rather, it is the confusion of the Gentiles that the churches condemn what is condemned by all good men.
7. But if for your part you desire to be a monk and not merely to seem one, be more careful of your soul than of your property; for in adopting a religious profession you have renounced this once for all. Let your garments be squalid to shew that your mind is white; and your tunic coarse to prove that you despise the world. But give not way to pride lest your dress and language be found at variance. Baths stimulate the senses and must, therefore, be avoided; for to quench natural heat is the aim of chilling fasts. Yet even these must be moderate, for, if they are carried to excess, they weaken the stomach and by making more food necessary to it promote indigestion, that fruitful parent of unclean desires. A frugal and temperate diet is good for both body and soul.
See your mother as often as you please but not with other women, for their faces may dwell in your thoughts and so
A secret wound may fester in your breast. 
The maidservants who attend upon her you must regard as so many snares laid to entrap you; for the lower their condition is the more easy is it for you to effect their ruin. John the Baptist had a religious mother and his father was a priest.  Yet neither his mother's affection nor his father's wealth could induce him to live in his parents' house at the risk of his chastity. He lived in the desert, and seeking Christ with his eyes refused to look at anything else. His rough garb, his girdle made of skins, his diet of locusts and wild honey  were all alike designed to encourage virtue and continence. The sons of the prophets, who were the monks of the Old Testament, built for themselves huts by the waters of Jordan and forsaking the crowded cities lived in these on pottage and wild herbs.  As long as you are at home make your cell your paradise,  gather there the varied fruits of scripture, let this be your favourite companion, and take its precepts to your heart. If your eye offend you or your foot or your hand, cast them from you.  To spare your soul spare nothing else. The Lord says: "whosoever looketh on a woman to lust after her hath committed adultery with her already in his heart."  "Who can say," writes the wise man, "I have made my heart clean?"  The stars are not pure in the Lord's sight; how much less men whose whole life is one long temptation.  Woe be to us who commit fornication every time that we cherish lust. "My sword," God says, "hath drunk its fill in heaven;"  much more then upon the earth with its crop of thorns and thistles.  The chosen vessel  who had Christ's name ever on his lips kept under his body and brought it into subjection.  Yet even he was hindered by carnal desire and had to do what he would not. As one suffering violence he cries: "O wretched man that I am! who shall deliver me from the body of this death?"  Is it likely then that you can pass without fall or wound, unless you keep your heart with all diligence,  and say with the Saviour: "my mother and my brethren are these which hear the word of God and do it."  This may seem cruelty, but it is really affection. What greater proof, indeed, can there be of affection than to guard for a holy mother a holy son? She too desired your eternal welfare and is content to forego seeing you for a time that she may see you for ever with Christ. She is like Hannah who brought forth Samuel not for her own solace but for the service of the tabernacle. 
The sons of Jonadab, we are told, drank neither wine nor strong drink and dwelt in tents pitched wherever night overtook them.  According to the psalter they were the first to undergo captivity; for, when the Chaldæans began to ravage Judah they were compelled to take refuge in cities. 
8. Others may think what they like and follow each his own bent. But to me a town is a prison and solitude paradise. Why do we long for the bustle of cities, we whose very name speaks of loneliness?  To fit him for the leadership of the Jewish people Moses was trained for forty years in the wilderness;  and it was not till after these that the shepherd of sheep became a shepherd of men. The apostles were fishers on lake Gennesaret before they became "fishers of men."  But at the Lord's call they forsook all that they had, father, net, and ship, and bore their cross daily without so much as a rod in their hands.
I say these things that, in case you desire to enter the ranks of the clergy, you may learn what you must afterwards teach, that you may offer a reasonable sacrifice  to Christ, that you may not think yourself a finished soldier while still a raw recruit, or suppose yourself a master while you are as yet only a learner. It does not become one of my humble abilities to pass judgment upon the clergy or to speak to the discredit of those who are ministers in the churches. They have their own rank and station and must keep it. If ever you become one of them my published letter to Nepotian  will teach you the mode of life suitable to you in that vocation. At present I am dealing with the forming and training of a monk; of one too who has put the yoke of Christ upon his neck after receiving a liberal education in his younger days.
9. The first point to be considered is whether you ought to live by yourself or in a monastery with others.  For my part I should like you to have the society of holy men so as not to be thrown altogether on your resources. For if you set out upon a road that is new to you without a guide, you are sure to turn aside immediately either to the right or to the left, to lay yourself open to the assaults of error, to go too far or else not far enough, to weary yourself with running too fast or to loiter by the way and to fall asleep. In loneliness pride quickly creeps upon a man: if he has fasted for a little while and has seen no one, he fancies himself a person of some note; forgetting who he is, whence he comes, and whither he goes, he lets his thoughts riot within and outwardly indulges in rash speech. Contrary to the apostle's wish he judges another man's servants,  puts forth his hand to grasp whatever his appetite desires, sleeps as long he pleases, fears nobody, does what he likes, fancies everyone inferior to himself, spends more of his time in cities than in his cell, and, while with the brothers he affects to be retiring, rubs shoulders with the crowd in the streets. What then, you will say? Do I condemn a solitary life? By no means: in fact I have often commended it. But I wish to see the monastic schools turn out soldiers who have no fear of the rough training of the desert, who have exhibited the spectacle of a holy life for a considerable time, who have made themselves last that they might be first, who have not been overcome by hunger or satiety, whose joy is in poverty, who teach virtue by their garb and mien, and who are too conscientious to invent -- as some silly men do -- monstrous stories of struggles with demons, designed to magnify their heroes in the eyes of the crowd and before all to extort money from it.
10. Quite recently we have seen to our sorrow a fortune worthy of Croesus brought to light by a monk's death, and a city's alms, collected for the poor, left by will to his sons and successors. After sinking to the bottom the iron has once more floated upon the surface,  and men have again seen among the palm-trees the bitter waters of Marah.  In this there is, however, nothing strange, for the man had for his companion and teacher one who turned the hunger of the needy into a source of wealth for himself and kept back sums left to the miserable to his own subsequent misery. Yet their cry came up to heaven and entering God's ears overcame His patience. Wherefore, He sent an angel of woe to say to this new Carmelite, this second Nabal,  "Thou fool, this night thy soul shall be required of thee: then whose shall those things be which thou hast provided?" 
11. If I wish you then not to live with your mother, it is for the reasons given above, and above all for the two following. If she offers you delicacies to eat, you will grieve her by refusing them; and if you take them, you will add fuel to the flame that already burns within you. Again in a house where there are so many girls you will see in the daytime sights that will tempt you at night. Never take your hand or your eyes off your book; learn the psalms word for word, pray without ceasing,  be always on the alert, and let no vain thoughts lay hold upon you. Direct both body and mind to the Lord, overcome wrath by patience, love the knowledge of scripture, and you will no longer love the sins of the flesh. Do not let your mind become a prey to excitement, for if this effects a lodgment in your breast it will have dominion over you and will lead you into the great transgression.  Always have some work on hand, that the devil may find you busy. If apostles who had the right to live of the Gospel  laboured with their own hands that they might be chargeable to no man,  and bestowed relief upon others whose carnal things they had a claim to reap as having sown unto them spiritual things;  why do you not provide a supply to meet your needs? Make creels of reeds or weave baskets out of pliant osiers. Hoe your ground; mark out your garden into even plots; and when you have sown your cabbages or set your plants convey water to them in conduits; that you may see with your own eyes the lovely vision of the poet:
Art draws fresh water from the hilltop near
Till the stream plashing down among the rocks
Cools the parched meadows and allays their thirst. 
Graft unfruitful stocks with buds and slips that you may shortly be rewarded for your toil by plucking sweet apples from them. Construct also hives for bees, for to these the proverbs of Solomon send you,  and you may learn from the tiny creatures how to order a monastery and to discipline a kingdom. Twist lines too for catching fish, and copy books; that your hand may earn your food and your mind may be satisfied with reading. For "every one that is idle is a prey to vain desires."  In Egypt the monasteries make it a rule to receive none who are not willing to work; for they regard labour as necessary not only for the support of the body but also for the salvation of the soul. Do not let your mind stray into harmful thoughts, or, like Jerusalem in her whoredoms, open its feet to every chance comer. 
12. In my youth when the desert walled me in with its solitude I was still unable to endure the promptings of sin and the natural heat of my blood; and, although I tried by frequent fasts to break the force of both, my mind still surged with [evil] thoughts.  To subdue its turbulence I betook myself to a brother  who before his conversion had been a Jew and asked him to teach me Hebrew. Thus, after having familiarised myself with the pointedness of Quintilian, the fluency of Cicero, the seriousness of Fronto and the gentleness of Pliny, I began to learn my letters anew and to study to pronounce words both harsh and guttural. What labour I spent upon this task, what difficulties I went through, how often I despaired, how often I gave over and then in my eagerness to learn commenced again, can be attested both by myself the subject of this misery and by those who then lived with me. But I thank the Lord that from this seed of learning sown in bitterness I now cull sweet fruits.
13. I will recount also another thing that I saw in Egypt. There was in a community a young Greek the flame of whose desire neither continual fasting nor the severest labour could avail to quench. He was in great danger of falling, when the father of the monastery saved him by the following device. He gave orders to one of the older brothers to pursue him with objurgations and reproaches, and then after having thus wronged him to be beforehand with him in laying a complaint against him. When witnesses were called they spoke always on behalf of the aggressor. On hearing such falsehoods he used to weep that no one gave credit to the truth; the father alone used cleverly to put in a word for him that he might not be "swallowed up with overmuch sorrow."  To make the story short, a year passed in this way and at the expiration of it the young man was asked concerning his former evil thoughts and whether they still troubled him. "Good gracious," he replied, "how can I find pleasure in fornication when I am not allowed so much as to live?" Had he been a solitary hermit, by whose aid could he have overcome the temptations that assailed him?
14. The world's philosophers drive out an old passion by instilling a new one; they hammer out one nail by hammering in another.  It was on this principle that the seven princes of Persia acted towards king Ahasuerus, for they subdued his regret for queen Vashti by inducing him to love other maidens.  But whereas they cured one fault by another fault and one sin by another sin, we must overcome our faults by learning to love the opposite virtues. "Depart from evil," says the psalmist, "and do good; seek peace and pursue it."  For if we do not hate evil we cannot love good. Nay more, we must do good if we are to depart from evil. We must seek peace if we are to avoid war. And it is not enough merely to seek it; when we have found it and when it flees before us we must pursue it with all our energies. For "it passeth all understanding;"  it is the habitation of God. As the psalmist says, "in peace also is his habitation."  The pursuing of peace is a fine metaphor and may be compared with the apostle's words, "pursuing hospitality."  It is not enough, he means, for us to invite guests with our lips; we should be as eager to detain them as though they were robbers carrying off our savings.
15. No art is ever learned without a master. Even dumb animals and wild herds follow leaders of their own. Bees have princes, and cranes fly after one of their number in the shape of a Y.  There is but one emperor and each province has but one judge. Rome was founded by two brothers,  but, as it could not have two kings at once, was inaugurated by an act of fratricide. So too Esau and Jacob strove in Rebekah's womb.  Each church has a single bishop, a single archpresbyter, a single archdeacon;  and every ecclesiastical order is subjected to its own rulers. A ship has but one pilot, a house but one master, and the largest army moves at the command of one man. That I may not tire you by heaping up instances, my drift is simply this. Do not rely on your own discretion, but live in a monastery. For there, while you will be under the control of one father, you will have many companions; and these will teach you, one humility, another patience, a third silence, and a fourth meekness. You will do as others wish; you will eat what you are told to eat; you will wear what clothes are given you; you will perform the task allotted to you; you will obey one whom you do not like, you will come to bed tired out; you will go to sleep on your feet and you will be forced to rise before you have had sufficient rest. When your turn comes, you will recite the psalms, a task which requires not a well modulated voice but genuine emotion. The apostle says: "I will pray with the spirit and I will pray with the understanding also,"  and to the Ephesians, "make melody in your hearts to the Lord."  For he had read the precept of the psalmist: "Sing ye praises with understanding."  You will serve the brothers, you will wash the guests' feet; if you suffer wrong you will bear it in silence; the superior of the community you will fear as a master and love as a father. Whatever he may order you to do you will believe to be wholesome for you. You will not pass judgment upon those who are placed over you, for your duty will be to obey them and to do what you are told, according to the words spoken by Moses: "keep silence and hearken, O Israel."  You will have so many tasks to occupy you that you will have no time for [evil] thoughts; and while you pass from one thing to another and fresh work follows work done, you will only be able to think of what you have it in charge at the moment to do.
16. But I myself have seen monks of quite a different stamp from this, men whose renunciation of the world has consisted in a change of clothes and a verbal profession, while their real life and their former habits have remained unchanged. Their property has increased rather than diminished. They still have the same servants and keep the same table. Out of cheap glasses and common earthenware they swallow gold. With servants about them in swarms they claim for themselves the name of hermits. Others who though poor think themselves discerning, walk as solemnly as pageants  through the streets and do nothing but snarl  at every one whom they meet. Others shrug their shoulders and croak out what is best known to themselves. While they keep their eyes fixed upon the earth, they balance swelling words upon their tongues.  Only a crier is wanted to persuade you that it is his excellency the prefect who is coming along. Some too there are who from the dampness of their cells and from the severity of their fasts, from their weariness of solitude and from excessive study have a singing in their ears day and night and turn melancholy mad so as to need the poultices of Hippocrates  more than exhortations from me. Great numbers are unable to break free from the crafts and trades they have previously practised. They no longer call themselves dealers but they carry on the same traffic as before; seeking for themselves not "food and raiment"  as the apostle directs, but money-profits and these greater than are looked for by men of the world. In former days the greed of sellers was kept within bounds by the action of the Ædiles or as the Greeks call them market-inspectors,  and men could not then cheat with impunity. But now persons who profess religion are not ashamed to seek unjust profits and the good name of Christianity is more often a cloak for fraud than a victim to it. I am ashamed to say it, yet it must be said -- we are at least bound to blush for our infamy -- while in public we hold out our hands for alms we conceal gold beneath our rags; and to the amazement of every one after living as poor men we die rich and with our purses well-filled.
But you, since you will not be alone but one of a community, will have no temptation to act thus. Things at first compulsory will become habitual. You will set to work unbidden and will find pleasure in your toil. You will forget things which are behind and will reach forth to those which are before.  You will think less of the evil that others do than of the good you ought to do.
17. Be not led by the multitude of those who sin, neither let the host of those who perish tempt you to say secretly: "What? must all be lost who live in cities? Behold, they continue to enjoy their property, they serve churches, they frequent baths, they do not disdain cosmetics, and yet they are universally well-spoken of." To this kind of remark I have before replied and now shortly reply again that the object of this little work is not to discuss the clergy but to lay down rules for a monk. The clergy are holy men and their lives are always worthy of praise. Rouse yourself then and so live in your monastery that you may deserve to be a clergyman, that you may preserve your youth from defilement, that you may go to Christ's altar as a virgin out of her chamber. See that you are well-reported of without and that women are familiar with your reputation but not with your appearance. When you come to mature years, if, that is, you live so long, and when you have been chosen into the ranks of the clergy either by the people of the city or by its bishop, act in a way that befits a clergyman, and choose for your models the best of your brothers. For in every rank and condition of life the bad are mingled with the good.
18. Do not be carried away by some mad caprice and rush into authorship. Learn long and carefully what you propose to teach. Do not credit all that flatterers say to you, or, I should rather say, do not lend too ready an ear to those who mean to mock you. They will fawn upon you with fulsome praise and do their best to blind your judgment; yet if you suddenly look behind you, you will find that they are making gestures of derision with their hands, either a stork's neck or the flapping ears of a donkey or a thirsty dog's protruding tongue. 
Never speak evil of anyone or suppose that you make yourself better by assailing the reputations of others. The charges we bring against them often come home to ourselves; we inveigh against faults which are as much ours as theirs; and so our eloquence ends by telling against ourselves. It is as though dumb persons were to criticize orators. When the grunter  wished to speak he used to come forward at a snail's pace  and to utter a word now and again with such long pauses between that he seemed less making a speech than gasping for breath. Then, when he had placed his table and arranged on it his pile of books, he used to knit his brow, to draw in his nostrils, to wrinkle his forehead and to snap his fingers, signs meant to engage the attention of his pupils. Then he would pour forth a torrent of nonsense and declaim so vehemently against every one that you would take him for a critic like Longinus  or fancy him a second Cato the Censor  passing judgment on Roman eloquence and excluding whom he pleased from the senate of the learned. As he had plenty of money he made himself still more popular by giving entertainments. Numbers of persons shared in his hospitality; and thus it was not surprising that when he went out he was surrounded always by a buzzing throng. At home he was a monster like Nero, abroad a paragon like Cato. Made up of different and opposing natures, as a whole he baffled description. You would say that he was formed of jarring elements like that unnatural and unheard of monster of which the poet tells us that it was in front a lion, behind a dragon, in the middle the goat whose name it bears.' 
19. Men such as these you must never look at or associate with. Nor must you turn aside your heart unto words of evil  lest the psalmist say to you: "Thou sittest and speakest against thy brother; thou slanderest thine own mother's son,"  and lest you become as "the sons of men whose teeth are spears and arrows,"  and as the man whose "words were softer than oil yet were they drawn swords."  The Preacher expresses this more clearly still when he says: "Surely the serpent will bite where there is no enchantment, and the slanderer is no better."  But you will say, I am not given to detraction, but how can I check others who are?' If we put forward such a plea as this it can only be that we may "practise wicked works with men that work iniquity."  Yet Christ is not deceived by this device. It is not I but an apostle who says: "Be not deceived; God is not mocked."  "Man looketh upon the outward appearance but the Lord looketh upon the heart."  And in the proverbs Solomon tells us that as "the north wind driveth away rain, so doth an angry countenance a backbiting tongue."  It sometimes happens that an arrow when it is aimed at a hard object rebounds upon the bowman, wounding the would-be wounder, and thus, the words are fulfilled, "they were turned aside like a deceitful bow,"  and in another passage: "whoso casteth a stone on high casteth it on his own head."  So when a slanderer sees anger in the countenance of his hearer who will not hear him but stops his ears that he may not hear of blood,  he becomes silent on the moment, his face turns pale, his lips stick fast, his mouth becomes parched. Wherefore the same wise man says: "meddle not with them that are given to detraction: for their calamity shall rise suddenly; and who knoweth the ruin of them both?"  of him who speaks, that is, and of him who hears. Truth does not love corners or seek whisperers. To Timothy it is said, "Against an elder receive not an accusation suddenly; but him that sinneth rebuke before all, that others also may fear."  When a man is advanced in years you must not be too ready to believe evil of him; his past life is itself a defence, and so also is his rank as an elder. Still, since we are but human and sometimes in spite of the ripeness of our years fall into the sins of youth, if I do wrong and you wish to correct me, accuse me openly of my fault: do not backbite me secretly. "Let the righteous smite me, it shall be a kindness, and let him reprove me; but let not the oil of the sinner enrich my head."  For what says the apostle? "Whom the Lord loveth, he chasteneth, and scourgeth every son whom he receiveth."  By the mouth of Isaiah the Lord speaks thus: "O my people, they who call you happy cause you to err and destroy the way of your paths."  How do you help me by telling my misdeeds to others? You may, without my knowing of it, wound some one else by the narration of my sins or rather of those which you slanderously attribute to me; and while you are eager to spread the news in all quarters, you may pretend to confide in each individual as though you had spoken to no one else. Such a course has for its object not my correction but the indulgence of your own failing. The Lord gives commandment that those who sin against us are to be arraigned privately or else in the presence of a witness, and that if they refuse to hear reason, the matter is to be laid before the church, and those who persist in their wickedness are to be regarded as heathen men and publicans. 
20. I lay great emphasis on these points that I may deliver a young man who is dear to me from the itching both of the tongue and of the ears: that, since he has been born again in Christ, I may present him without spot or wrinkle  as a chaste virgin,  chaste in mind as well as in body; that the virginity of which he boasts may be more than nominal and that he may not be shut out by the bridegroom because being unprovided with the oil of good works his lamp has gone out.  In Proculus you have a reverend and most learned prelate,  able by the sound of his voice to do more for you than I with my written sheets and sure to direct you on your path by daily homilies. He will not suffer you to turn to the right hand or to the left or to leave the king's highway; for to this Israel pledges itself to keep in its hasty passage to the land of promise.  May God hear the voice of the church's supplication. "Lord, ordain peace for us, for thou hast also wrought all our works for us."  May our renunciation of the world be made freely and not under compulsion! May we seek poverty gladly to win its glory and not suffer anguish because others lay it upon us! For the rest amid our present miseries with the sword making havoc around us, he is rich enough who has bread sufficient for his need, and he is abundantly powerful who is not reduced to be a slave. Exuperius  the reverend bishop of Toulouse, imitating the widow of Zarephath,  feeds others though hungry himself. His face is pale with fasting, yet it is the cravings of others that torment him most. In fact he has bestowed his whole substance to meet the needs of Christ's poor. Yet none is richer than he, for his wicker basket contains the body of the Lord, and his plain glass-cup the precious blood. Like his Master he has banished greed out of the temple; and without either scourge of cords or words of chiding he has overthrown the chairs of them that sell doves, that is, the gifts of the Holy Spirit. He has upset the tables of Mammon and has scattered the money of the money-changers; zealous that the house of God may be called a house of prayer and not a den of robbers.  In his steps follow closely and in those of others like him in virtue, whom the priesthood makes poor men and more than ever humble. Or if you will be perfect, go out with Abraham from your country and from your kindred, and go whither you know not.  If you have substance, sell it and give to the poor. If you have none, then are you free from a great burthen. Destitute yourself, follow a destitute Christ. The task is a hard one, it is great and difficult; but the reward is also great.
 Luke 23:43.  John 13:26.  Matthew 26:49.  Colossians 4:6.  Matthew 5:13.  Luke 14:35.  Luke 9:62.  Acts 10:3-16.  Matthew 5:8.  1 Timothy 6:10.  Galatians 5:15.  Lybicæ Syrtes.  An important city of Abyssinia in Jerome's day, 120 miles from the Red Sea. It is now in ruins.  Genesis 2:11.  Matthew 13:45-46; vi. 19, 20.  The Old Comedy at Athens ridiculed citizens by name. Most of the extant plays of Aristophanes belong to it.  Pietas.  Virgil, Æn. iv. 67.  Pontifex.  Mark 1:6.  2 Kings 4:38, 39; vi. 1, 2.  i.e. garden.'  Matthew 18:8, 9.  Matthew 5:28.  Proverbs 20:9.  Job 25:5, 6.  Isaiah 34:5, R.V.  Genesis 3:18.  Acts 9:15.  1 Corinthians 9:27.  Romans 7:24.  Proverbs 4:23.  Luke 8:21.  1 Samuel 1:27, 28.  Jeremiah 35:6, 7.  See Letter LVIII. 5 and note there.  An allusion to the word monachus,' solitary' or monk.'  Acts 7:29, 30.  Matthew 4:19.  Romans 12:1.  Letter LII.  Cf. Letter CXXX. 17.  Romans 14:4.  2 Kings 6:5, 6.  Exodus 15:23, 27.  1 Samuel 25:38.  Luke 12:20.  1 Thess. v. 17.  Psalm 19:13.  1 Corinthians 9:14.  1 Thess. ii. 9; 1 Corinthians 4:12.  1 Corinthians 9:11.  Virg., G. i. 108-10.  Proverbs 6:8, LXX.  Proverbs 13:4, LXX.  Ezekiel 16:25.  Cf. Letter XXII. 7.  In Letter XVIII. 10 Jerome speaks of his teacher as one so learned in the Hebrew language that the very scribes regarded him as a Chaldæan (i.e., as a graduate of the Babylonian school of Rabbinic learning).  2 Corinthians 2:7.  Cic., T. Q. iv. 35.  Esther 2:1-4.  Psalm 34:14.  Philippians 4:7.  Psalm 76:2, LXX.  Romans 12:13, R.V. marg.  Pliny, N. H. x. 32.  Romulus and Remus, the first of whom slew the second.  Genesis 25:22.  When Jerome wrote, these terms had but recently come into use in the West; no doubt, however, the offices described by them were of older date. Archpresbyters seem to have been the forerunners of those who are now called "rural deans."  1 Corinthians 14:15.  Ephesians 5:19.  Psalm 47:7.  Deuteronomy 27:9, R.V.  Cic., Off. 1. 36.  Caninam exercent facundiam. The phrase recurs in Letter CXXXIV. 1.  See also Lactantius, vi. 18.  The most celebrated physician of antiquity.  1 Timothy 6:8.  'agoranmoi .  Philippians 3:13.  Imitated from Persius (I. 58-60).  i.e., Rufinus who was now dead. The nickname is taken from a burlesque very popular in Jerome's day entitled "The Porker's Last Will and Testament." In this the testator's full name is set down as Marcus Grunnius Corocotta, i.e., Mark Grunter Hog. In the beginning of the twelfth book of his commentary on Isaiah Jerome mentions the "Testament" as being then a popular school book.  Plautus, Aulularia, I. 1. 10.  A Platonist of the third century after Christ, much celebrated for his learning and critical skill. "To judge like Longinus" became a synonym for accurate discrimination.  A martinet of the old school, who did his utmost to oppose what he considered the luxury of his age. He was censor in 184 b.c.  Lucr. V. 905, Munro. The words come first from Homer, Il. vi. 181.  Psalm 141:4, Vulg.  Psalm 50:20.  Psalm 57:4.  Psalm 55:21.  Ecclesiastes 10:11, R.V. marg.  Psalm 141:4.  Galatians 6:7.  1 Samuel 16:7.  Proverbs 25:23.  Psalm 78:57.  Ecclus. xxvii. 25.  Isaiah 33:15.  Proverbs 24:21, 22 Vulg.  1 Timothy 5:19, 20 (inexact).  Psalm 141:5. LXX.  Hebrews 12:6.  Isaiah 3:12. LXX.  Matthew 18:15-17.  Ephesians 5:27.  2 Corinthians 11:2.  Matthew 25:1-10.  He was bishop of Massilia (Marseilles).  Numbers 20:17.  Isaiah 26:12. LXX.  Bishop of Toulouse. See Letter LIV. 11, and Pref. to Comm. on Zech.  1 Kings 17:8-16.
 John 13:26.
 Matthew 26:49.
 Colossians 4:6.
 Matthew 5:13.
 Luke 14:35.
 Luke 9:62.
 Acts 10:3-16.
 Matthew 5:8.
 1 Timothy 6:10.
 Galatians 5:15.
 Lybicæ Syrtes.
 An important city of Abyssinia in Jerome's day, 120 miles from the Red Sea. It is now in ruins.
 Genesis 2:11.
 Matthew 13:45-46; vi. 19, 20.
 The Old Comedy at Athens ridiculed citizens by name. Most of the extant plays of Aristophanes belong to it.
 Virgil, Æn. iv. 67.
 Mark 1:6.
 2 Kings 4:38, 39; vi. 1, 2.
 i.e. garden.'
 Matthew 18:8, 9.
 Matthew 5:28.
 Proverbs 20:9.
 Job 25:5, 6.
 Isaiah 34:5, R.V.
 Genesis 3:18.
 Acts 9:15.
 1 Corinthians 9:27.
 Romans 7:24.
 Proverbs 4:23.
 Luke 8:21.
 1 Samuel 1:27, 28.
 Jeremiah 35:6, 7.
 See Letter LVIII. 5 and note there.
 An allusion to the word monachus,' solitary' or monk.'
 Acts 7:29, 30.
 Matthew 4:19.
 Romans 12:1.
 Letter LII.
 Cf. Letter CXXX. 17.
 Romans 14:4.
 2 Kings 6:5, 6.
 Exodus 15:23, 27.
 1 Samuel 25:38.
 Luke 12:20.
 1 Thess. v. 17.
 Psalm 19:13.
 1 Corinthians 9:14.
 1 Thess. ii. 9; 1 Corinthians 4:12.
 1 Corinthians 9:11.
 Virg., G. i. 108-10.
 Proverbs 6:8, LXX.
 Proverbs 13:4, LXX.
 Ezekiel 16:25.
 Cf. Letter XXII. 7.
 In Letter XVIII. 10 Jerome speaks of his teacher as one so learned in the Hebrew language that the very scribes regarded him as a Chaldæan (i.e., as a graduate of the Babylonian school of Rabbinic learning).
 2 Corinthians 2:7.
 Cic., T. Q. iv. 35.
 Esther 2:1-4.
 Psalm 34:14.
 Philippians 4:7.
 Psalm 76:2, LXX.
 Romans 12:13, R.V. marg.
 Pliny, N. H. x. 32.
 Romulus and Remus, the first of whom slew the second.
 Genesis 25:22.
 When Jerome wrote, these terms had but recently come into use in the West; no doubt, however, the offices described by them were of older date. Archpresbyters seem to have been the forerunners of those who are now called "rural deans."
 1 Corinthians 14:15.
 Ephesians 5:19.
 Psalm 47:7.
 Deuteronomy 27:9, R.V.
 Cic., Off. 1. 36.
 Caninam exercent facundiam. The phrase recurs in Letter CXXXIV. 1.
 See also Lactantius, vi. 18.
 The most celebrated physician of antiquity.
 1 Timothy 6:8.
 'agoranmoi .
 Philippians 3:13.
 Imitated from Persius (I. 58-60).
 i.e., Rufinus who was now dead. The nickname is taken from a burlesque very popular in Jerome's day entitled "The Porker's Last Will and Testament." In this the testator's full name is set down as Marcus Grunnius Corocotta, i.e., Mark Grunter Hog. In the beginning of the twelfth book of his commentary on Isaiah Jerome mentions the "Testament" as being then a popular school book.
 Plautus, Aulularia, I. 1. 10.
 A Platonist of the third century after Christ, much celebrated for his learning and critical skill. "To judge like Longinus" became a synonym for accurate discrimination.
 A martinet of the old school, who did his utmost to oppose what he considered the luxury of his age. He was censor in 184 b.c.
 Lucr. V. 905, Munro. The words come first from Homer, Il. vi. 181.
 Psalm 141:4, Vulg.
 Psalm 50:20.
 Psalm 57:4.
 Psalm 55:21.
 Ecclesiastes 10:11, R.V. marg.
 Psalm 141:4.
 Galatians 6:7.
 1 Samuel 16:7.
 Proverbs 25:23.
 Psalm 78:57.
 Ecclus. xxvii. 25.
 Isaiah 33:15.
 Proverbs 24:21, 22 Vulg.
 1 Timothy 5:19, 20 (inexact).
 Psalm 141:5. LXX.
 Hebrews 12:6.
 Isaiah 3:12. LXX.
 Matthew 18:15-17.
 Ephesians 5:27.
 2 Corinthians 11:2.
 Matthew 25:1-10.
 He was bishop of Massilia (Marseilles).
 Numbers 20:17.
 Isaiah 26:12. LXX.
 Bishop of Toulouse. See Letter LIV. 11, and Pref. to Comm. on Zech.
 1 Kings 17:8-16.