A. H. Wratislaw: John Hus (S.P.C.K.1882).

H. B. Workman: The Letters of Hus (Hodder and Stoughton).

Johann Loserth: Wyclif and Hus.

Anton Gindely: Geschichte der Böhmischen Brüder. For the external fortunes of the Brethren, Gindely's narrative is excellent; but his account of their inner life is poor and inaccurate.

Anton Gindely: Quellen zur Geschichte der Böhmischen Brüder. A collection of documents, dealing chiefly with the Brethren's relations with Luther.

Anton Gindely: Geschichte des dreiszig-jährigen Krieges. (Vol. IV.)

Jaroslav Goll: Quellen und Untersuchung zur Geschichte der Böhmischen Brüder (1882). Specially useful for Peter of Chelcic.

Bishop Edmund de Schweinitz: History of the Unitas Fratrum (Bethlehem, Pa.1885). This is the standard English work on the Bohemian Brethren. It must, however, be used with caution. The author occasionally betrays a tendency to make out the Brethren more evangelical than they really were. Further, since Gindely and de Schweinitz wrote, many new discoveries have been made; their conclusions must be tested by the recent researches of J. T. Müller, the Brethren's Archivar at Herrnhut.

J. T. Müller: Die deutschen Katechismen der Böhmischen Brüder (Berlin: A. Hofmann and Comp., 1887). Absolutely indispensable. No book ever written gives so full a description of the Brethren's principles and methods, or so true an estimate of the great part they played in the Reformation.

J. T. Müller: Die Gefangenschaft des Johann Augusta (Leipzig, Friedrich Jansa.1895). A translation, with introduction and notes, of Jacob Bilek's narrative. It throws quite a new light on Augusta's policy and character.

J. T. Müller: Das Bischoftum der Brüder-Unität (Herrnhut.1889).

J. T. Müller: "Gemeindeverfassung der Böhmischen Brüder," in Monatshefte der Comenius-Gesellschaft, 1896.

L. G. Hassé and E. Walder: "Report of the Committee appointed by the Synod of the Moravian Church in Great Britain for the purpose of inquiring into the possibility of more friendly relations on the part of this Church with the Anglican Church" (Moravian Publication Office, 32, Fetter Lane, E.C.). Complete statement of the evidence on the Brethren's Episcopal Orders.

Eugen Borgius: Aus Posens und Polens kirchlicher Vergangenheit (Berlin, 1898. Wiegandt und Grieben). Contains a discussion (pp.46-51) of Müller's Das Bischoftum.

Lützow, Count: History of Bohemian Literature (William Heinemann; new edition, 1907). Contains useful information on the Brethren's literary activities.

Benjamin Seifferth (Moravian Bishop): Church Constitution of the Bohemian and Moravian Brethren (W. Mallalieu and Co., 97, Hatton Garden.1866). Translation of the Ratio Disciplinae, with original text and notes.

Walther E. Schmidt: Das religiöse Leben in den ersten Zeiten der Brüderunität, in the Zeitschrift für Brüder-Geschichte (Herrnhut, NO.1, 1907.)

J. T. Müller: Ueber eine Inquisition gegen die Waldenser in der Gegend von Altenburg und Zwichau, in the Zeitschrift für Brüd. Gesch. (Herrnhut.1908).

Zeitschrift für Brüder-Geschichte. An historical half-yearly magazine, edited by J. T. Müller and Gerhard Reichel. Scientific and scholarly; complete guide to the most recent works on Brethren's History.


S. S. Laurie: John Amos Comenius, his Life and Educational Works (Cambridge, Pitt Press Series.1895).

M. W. Keatinge: The Great Didactic (Edinburgh, A. and C. Black). The introduction contains a good life of Comenius, perhaps the fullest in the English language.

Daniel Benham: The School of Infancy.

Count Lützow: The Labyrinth of the World and the Paradise of the Heart (Dent's Temple Classics.1907). Translation, with brief memoir.

Monatshefle der Comenius-Gesellschaft (Berlin, R. Gaertner's Verlagsbuchandlung). Founded 1892. See especially Vol. VII. (1898), Nos.3 and 4, for articles on the Gymnasium at Lissa and on "Comenius und die Volksschule."


Albrecht Ritschl: Geschichte des Pietismus (Vol. III.1889). By English historians Ritschl's great work is generally regarded as a classic. But his account of Zinzendorf and the Brethren is one of the most inaccurate narratives ever written. It is bigoted in tone, careless in details, and based on second-hand evidence; and absolutely misleading in the general impression that it gives. It is not serious history; it is rather a theological romance. (For examples, see notes passim.)

J. T. Müller: Zinzendorf als Erneuerer der alten Brüder-Kirche (Leipzig, Friedrich Jansa.1900). The only complete exposition of Zinzendorf's policy. His exposure of Ritschl's fictions is admirable.

Bernhard Becker: Zinzendorf und sein Christentum im Verhältnis zum kirchlichen und religiösen Leben seiner Zeit (Leipzig, Friedrich Jansa, 1886; second edition, 1900). A profound treatise; shows Zinzendorf's greatness and originality as a theologian.

Theodor G. Schmidt: Zinzendorfs soziale Stellung (Basel, Adolf Geering.1900). Deals with Zinzendorf's social policy.

Guido Burkhardt: Zinzendorf und die Brüdergemeine (Leipzig, Friedrich Jansa.1865 and 1901).

Guido Burkhardt: Die Brüdergemeine, Erster Theil (Gnadau, Unitäts-Buchhandlung, 1889).

Gneomar Ernst von Natzmer: Die Jugend Zinzendorfs (Eisenach, M. Wilckens.1894).

Hermann Römer: Nicolaus Ludwig, Graf von Zinzendorf (Gnadau, Unitäts-Buchhandlung.1900).

E. W. Croeger: Geschichte der erneuerten Brüder-Kirche (Gnadau, Unitäts-Buchhandlung.1852-1854).

David Cranz: Ancient and Modern History of the Brethren (translated by Benjamin La Trobe.1780). By no means out of date for Zinzendorf's times.

John Beck Holmes: History of the Protestant Church of the United Brethren (Vol. II.1830).

J. Taylor Hamilton: History of the Moravian Church during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries (Bethlehem, Pa. Times Publishing Co.1900).

Augustus Gottlieb Spangenberg: Life of Zinzendorf (English translation by Samuel Jackson.1836).

Gerhard Reichel: August Gottlieb Spangenberg, Bischof der Brüderkirche (Tübingen, J. C. B. Mohr, 1906. Of exceptional value and delightfully candid.)

Original Sources: For lack of space these cannot be enumerated here, but the student may find them all referred to in the foregoing works by Becker, Müller, Schmidt, Cranz, and Reichel.


Gerhard Wauer: Beginnings of the Brethren's Church in England. Translated by John Elliott. (32, Fetter Lane, E.C.1901.)

Bishop A. C. Hassé: The United Brethren in England (32, Fetter Lane, E.C.).

Daniel Benham: Memoirs of James Hutton (Hamilton, Adams and Co.1856).

J. P. Lockwood: Life of Peter Boehler (Wesleyan Conference Office.1868).

Daniel Benham: Life of Rev. John Gambold (Mallalieu and Co., 97, Hatton Garden.1865).

John Wesley's Journal.

Charles Wesley's Journal.

Of the sources in the Moravian Archives at Fetter Lane, those that I have found most useful are the following: (1) A miscellaneous collection, entitled "Pamphlets"; (2) MS. and Note-books, containing congregation diaries, copied out by the late Bishop A. C. Hassé; (3) Minutes of British Provincial Synods.

For other sources see: (1) The above work by Gerhard Wauer, (2) My own article, "The Moravian Contribution to the Evangelical Revival in England," in the Owens College "Historical Essays" (Manchester University Press.1907). (3) My own John Cennick; a sketch (32, Fetter Lane, E.C.1906). (4) Catalogue of the Moravian Archives at 32, Fetter Lane, E.C. (5) L. Tyerman: Life and Times of John Wesley. (6) L. Tyerman: The Oxford Methodists.


W. C. Reichel: Memorials of the Moravian Church (Philadelphia, Lippincott and Co.1870).

L. T. Reichel: Moravians in North Carolina (Salem, N. C. O. A. Keehln.1857).

L. T. Reichel: Early History of United Brethren in North America (Nazareth, Pa.1888).

Abraham Ritter: Moravian Church in Philadelphia (Philadelphia, C. Sherman.1857).

Transactions of the Moravian Historical Society (Nazareth, Pa.1859 to 1907).


J. T. Hamilton: History of the Missions of the Moravian Church during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries (Moravian Publishing Office, 32, Fetter Lane, E.C.1900).

Adolf Schulze: Abrisz einer Geschichte der Brüder-Mission (Herrnhut, Missionsbuchhandlung.1901). This is the standard work on the subject. It contains an elaborate bibliography.

book four the modern moravians
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