Table of Contents.



Introduction. Connection with Volume V. St. Leo's action, 1

Denial of the Primacy as acknowledged at Chalcedon
suicidal on the part of those who believe in the Church, 3

Subject of this volume as compared with the fifth, 5

The second wonder in human history, 6

The acknowledgment of the Primacy and the political powerlessness of the city of Rome coeval, 6

The three hundred years from Genseric to Astolphus, 9

St. Leo in Rome after Genseric, 10

Political condition of Rome. Avitus emperor, 455-6, 13

Majorian emperor, 457-461, 14

Death of Pope Leo; changes seen by him in his life, 15

Hilarus Pope and Libius Severus emperor, 461-465, 16

The over-lordship of Byzantium admitted in the choice of the Greek Anthemius as emperor, 467, 18

Sidonius Apollinaris an eye-witness of Rome's splendour, subjection to Byzantium, and unchanged habits in 467, 19

Anthemius murdered and Rome plundered by Ricimer, 472, 20

Olybrius emperor, 472; Ricimer and Olybrius die of the plague, 20

Glycerius emperor, 473; Nepos, 474; Romulus Augustulus, 475, 21

The senate declares to the eastern emperor that an emperor of the West is needless, 22

The twenty-one years' death-agony of imperial Rome, 23

State of the western provinces since the death of Theodosius I., 24

The first and the second victory of the Church, 25

The effect produced by the wandering of the nations, 26

The Visigoth and Ostrogoth migrations, 27

Gaul overrun by Teuton invaders, 28

Arianism propagated by the Goths among the other tribes, 29

Burgundian kingdom of Lyons. Spain overrun, 30

The Vandals in North Africa and their persecution of Catholics, 31

The Hunnish inroads, 33

All the western provinces under Teuton governments, 35

Odoacer and Theodorick, 36

Odoacer succeeded by Theodorick after the capture of Ravenna, 38

The character of Theodorick's reign, 39

His fairness towards the Roman Church and Pontiff, 40

The contrast between Theodorick and Clovis, 42

The dictum of Ataulph on the Roman empire, 43

Ataulph and Theodorick represent the better judgments of the invaders, 44

The outlook of Pope Simplicius at Rome over the western provinces, 45

And over the eastern empire, 46

Basiliscus and Zeno the first theologising emperors, 47

How the races descending on the empire had become Arian, 49

The point of time when the Church was in danger of losing all which she had gained, 50

How the division of the empire called out the Primacy, 51

How the extinction of the western empire does so yet more, 53

How the Pope was the sole fixed point in a transitional world, 54

Guizot's testimony, 55

What St. Jerome, St. Augustine, and St. Leo did not foresee, which we behold, 57



Great changes in the Roman State following the time of St. Leo, 59

Nature of the succession in the Caesarean throne, and then in the Byzantine, 61

Personal changes in the Popes and eastern emperors, 62

Gennadius succeeds Anatolius, and Acacius succeeds Gennadius in the see of Constantinople, 64

Acacius resists the Encyclikon of Basiliscus, 65

Letter of Pope Simplicius to the emperor Zeno, 66

Advancement of Acacius by Zeno, 69

Acacius induces Zeno to publish a formulary of doctrine, 70

John Talaia, elected patriarch of Alexandria, appeals for support to Pope Simplicius, 70

Pope Felix sends an embassy to the emperor, 71

His letter to Zeno, 72

His letter to Acacius, 73

His legates arrested, imprisoned, robbed, and seduced, 74

Pope Felix synodically deposes Acacius, 75

Enumerates his misdeeds in the sentence, 76

Synodal decrees in Italy signed by the Pope alone, 78

Letter of Pope Felix to Zeno setting forth the condemnation of Acacius, 79

The condition of the Pope when he thus wrote, 81

How Acacius received the Pope's condemnation, 83

The position which Acacius thereupon took up, 84

The greatness of the bishop of Constantinople identified with the greatness of his city, 84

The humiliations of Rome witnessed by Acacius, 86

How the Pope, under these humiliations, spoke to Acacius and to the emperor, 88

The Pope on the one side, Acacius on the other, represent an absolute contradiction, 89

Eudoxius and Valens matched by Acacius and Zeno, 92

Death of Acacius, and estimate of him by three contemporaries, 93

Fravita, succeeding Acacius, seeks the Pope's recognition, 93

Letters of the emperor and Fravita to the Pope, and his answers, 94

The position taken by Acacius not maintained by Zeno and Fravita, 96

Nor by Euphemius, who succeeds Fravita, 96

Euphemius suspects and resists the new emperor Anastasius, 97

Condition of the Empire and the Church at the accession of Pope Gelasius in 492, 98

The "libellus synodicus" on the emperor Anastasius, 100

With whom the four Popes -- Gelasius, Anastasius, Symmachus, and Hormisdas -- have to deal, 101

Euphemius, writing to the Pope, acknowledges him to be successor of St. Peter, 103

Gelasius replies to Euphemius, insisting on the repudiation of Acacius, 104

Absolute obedience of the Illyrian bishops professed to the Apostolic See, 105

Gelasius shows that the canons make the First See supreme judge of all, 106

Says that the bishop of Constantinople holds no rank among bishops, 107

Praises bishops who have resisted the wrongdoings of temporal rulers, 108

The Holy See, in virtue of its Principate, confirms every Council, 109

Gelasius in 494 defines to the emperor the domain of the Two Powers, 110

And the subordination of the temporal ruler in spiritual things, 111

The words of Gelasius have become the law of the Church, 113

The emperor Anastasius deposes Euphemius by the Resident Council, 114

Pope Gelasius, in a council of seventy bishops at Rome, sets forth the divine institution of the Primacy, 115

And the order of the three Patriarchal Sees, 115

And three General Councils -- the Nicene, Ephesine, and Chalcedonic, 115

Denies to the see of Constantinople any rank beyond that of an ordinary bishop, and omits the Council of 381, 116

Death of Pope Gelasius and character of his pontificate, 118

His own description of the time in which he lived, 118



Pope Anastasius: his letter to the emperor Anastasius, 120

He makes the Pope's position in the Church parallel with that of the emperor in the world, 121

He writes to Clovis on his conversion, 122

St. Gregory of Tours notes the prosperity of Catholic kingdoms and the decline of Arian in the West, 123

Letter of St. Avitus, bishop of Vienne, to Clovis on his baptism, 124

He recognises the vast importance of the professing the Catholic faith by Clovis, 125

And the duty of Clovis to propagate the faith in peoples around, 126

How the words of St. Avitus to Clovis were fulfilled in history, 127

The election of Pope Symmachus traversed by the emperor's agent, 128

His letter termed "Apologetica" to the eastern emperor, 129

The imperial and papal power compared, 131

The papal and the sovereign power the double permanent head of human society, 133

Emperors wont to acknowledge Popes on their accession, 134

Inferences to be deduced from this letter, 135

The answer of the emperor Anastasius is to stir up a fresh schism at Rome, 136

The Synodus Palmaris, without judging the Pope, declares him free from all charge, 137

Letter of the bishop of Vienne to the Roman senate upon this Council, 139

The cause of the Bishop of Rome is not that of one bishop, but of the Episcopate itself, 140

Words of Ennodius, bishop of Pavia, embodied in the act of the Roman Council of 503, 142

Result of the attack of the emperor on the Pope is the recording in black and white that the First See is judged by no man, 143

The eastern Church under the emperor Anastasius, 143

He deposes Macedonius as well as Euphemius, 144

Both these bishops of Byzantium failed to resist his despotism, 147

Eastern bishops address Pope Symmachus to succour them, 148

Pope Hormisdas succeeds Symmachus in 514, 149

His instruction to the legates sent to Constantinople, 150

The bishop of Constantinople presents all bishops to the emperor, 157

The conditions for reunion made by Pope Hormisdas, 158

The treacherous conduct of the emperor, 159

Hormisdas describes Greek diplomacy, 160

The Syrian Archimandrites supplicate the Pope for help, 161

Sudden death of the emperor Anastasius, 162

The emperor Justin's election and antecedents, 162

He notifies his accession to the Pope, 163

The Pope holds a council and sends an embassy to Constantinople, 164

The bishop, clergy, and emperor accept the terms of the Pope, 165

The formulary of union signed by them, 167

The report of the legates to the Pope, 169

The emperor Justin's letter to the Pope, 170

Character of the period 455-519, 171

Political state of the East and West most perilous to the Church, 172

The Popes under Odoacer and Theodorick, 173

How Acacius took advantage of the political situation, 174

The meaning and range of his attempt, 175

The Pope from 476 onwards rests solely upon his Apostolate, 176

The seven Popes who succeed St. Leo, 179

The seven bishops who succeed Anatolius at Constantinople, 180

The eastern emperors in this time, 182

The state of the eastern patriarchates, Alexandria and Antioch, 184

The waning of secular Rome reveals the power of the Pontificate, 185

The Popes alone preserved the East from the Eutychean heresy, 185

The position of St. Leo maintained by the seven following Popes, 186

The submission to Hormisdas an act of the "undivided" Church, 187

The adverse circumstances which developed the Pope's Principate, 188



Sequel in Justinian of the submission to Pope Hormisdas, 189

His acknowledgment of the Primacy to Pope John II. in 533, 190

Reply of Pope John II. confirming the confession sent to him by Justinian, 191

The Pandects of Justinian issued in the same year, 192

Close interweaving of ecclesiastical and temporal interests, 193

Interference with the freedom of the papal election by the temporal ruler, 194

Letter of Cassiodorus as Praetorian prefect to Pope John II., 195

Justinian all his reign acknowledged the Primacy of the Pope, 196

His character, purposes, and actions, 196

Succeeds his uncle the emperor Justin I., 198

Great political changes coeval with his succession, 199

He reconquers Northern Africa by Belisarius, 199

The Catholic bishops of Africa meet again in General Council, 200

They send an embassy to consult Pope John II., 201

Pope Agapetus notes their reference to the Apostolic Principate, 202

Great renown of Justinian at the reconquest of Africa, 203

Pope Agapetus at Constantinople deposes its bishop, 204

Justinian begins the Gothic War. Belisarius enters Rome, 205

He is welcomed as restorer of the empire, 206

The empress Theodora deposes Pope Silverius by Belisarius, 207

First siege of Rome by Vitiges, 210

The mausoleum of Hadrian stripped of its statues, 211

Vitiges, having lost half his army, raises the siege, 213

Belisarius, having reconquered Italy, is recalled for the war with Persia, 214

Totila, elected Gothic king, renews the war, 214

Visits St. Benedict at Monte Cassino, and is warned by him, 215

Second siege of Rome by Totila, 216

Rome taken by Totila in 546, 216

Third capture of Rome by Belisarius, in 547, 217

Fourth capture of Rome by Totila, in 549, 218

Totila defeated and killed by Narses at Taginas, 219

Fifth capture of Rome by Narses, in 552, 220

End of the Gothic war, in 555, 221

Its effect on the civil condition of the Pope, Italy, and Rome, 222

The sufferings of Rome from assailants and defenders, 223

The new test of papal authority applied by these events, 225

Vigilius, having become legitimate Pope, is sent for by Justinian, 226

Church proceedings at Constantinople after the death of Pope Agapetus, 227

The patriarch Mennas, in conjunction with the emperor, consecrates at Constantinople a patriarch of Alexandria, 228

The Origenistic struggle in the eastern empire, 229

Justinian theologising, 230

The whole East urged to consent to his edict on doctrine, 231

Pope Vigilius, summoned by Justinian, enters Constantinople, 232

After long conferences with emperor and bishops he issues a Judgment, 234

The Pope and emperor agree upon holding a General Council, 235

The emperor's despotism, and the bishops crouching before it, 236

The Pope takes sanctuary, and is torn away from the altar, 237

Flies to the church at Chalcedon, 238

The bishops relent, and the Pope returns to Constantinople, 239

Eutychius, succeeding Mennas, proposes a council under presidency of the Pope, 239

The emperor causes it to meet under Eutychius without the Pope, 240

Proceedings of the Council. The Pope declines their invitation, 241

Close of the Council, without the Pope's presence, 242

The Pope issues a Constitution apart from the Council, 242

Also a condemnation of the Three Chapters without mention of the Council, 243

The Pope on his way back to Rome dies at Syracuse, 244

The patriarch Eutychius, refusing to sign a doctrinal decree of Justinian, is deposed by the Resident Council, 244

Justinian issues his Pragmatic Sanction for government of Italy, 245

State of things following in Italy, 246

Justinian's conception of the relation between Church and State, 248

He gives to the decrees of Councils and to the canons the force of law, 250

Three leading principles in these enactments, 251

The State completely recognises the Church's whole constitution, 251

The episcopal idea thoroughly realised, 253

Concurrent action of the laws of Church and State herein, 254

Justinian further associated bishops with the civil government, 255

The part given to them in civil administration, 256

A system of mutual supervision in bishops and governors, 257

The branches of civil matters specially put under bishops, 259

The completeness and the cordiality of the alliance with the Church, 261

Which differentiates Justinian's attitude from that of modern governments, 262

In what Justinian was a true maintainer of the imperial idea, 264

The dark blot which lies upon Justinian, 267

How he passed from the line of defence to that of interference and mastery, 269

The result, spiritual and temporal, of Justinian's reign, 270



The state of Rome as a city after the prefecture of Narses, 272

Contrast of Nova Roma, 274

The Rome of the Church a new city, 275

St. Gregory's antecedents as prefect, monk, nuncio, and deacon of the Roman Church, 276

Elected Pope against his will. His description of his work, 278

And of the time's calamity, 279

The utter misery of Rome expressed in the words of Ezechiel, 281

Contrast between the language used of Rome by St. Leo and St. Gregory, 283

St. Gregory closes his preaching in St. Peter's, overcome with sorrow, 284

The works of St. Gregory out of this Rome, 285

The Lombard descent on Italy, 287

Rome ransomed from the Lombards, and Monte Cassino destroyed, 290

The Primacy untouched by the temporal calamities of Rome, 292

Its unique prerogative brought out by unequalled sufferings, 293

The new city of Rome lived only by the Primacy, 294

St. Gregory's account of the Primacy to the empress Constantina, 295

He identifies his own authority with that of St. Peter, 296

Writes to the emperor Mauritius that the union of the Two Powers would secure the empire against barbarians, 297

Claims to the emperor St. Peter's charge over the whole Church, 298

John the Foster's assumed title on injury to the whole Church, 299

What St. Gregory infers from the three patriarchal sees being all sees of Peter, 301

Contrast drawn by St. Gregory between the Pope's
Principate and John the Faster's assumed title, 302

The fatal falsehood which this title presupposed, 303

The opposing truth in the Principate made de Fide by the Vatican Council, 306

St. Leo against Anatolius, and St. Gregory against John the Faster, occupy like positions, 307

St. Gregory's title, "Servant of the servants of God," expresses the maxim of his government, 308

The fourteen books of St. Gregory's letters range over every subject in the whole Church, 309

The special relation between the sees of St. Peter and St. Mark, 311

Asserts his supremacy to the Lombard queen Theodelinda, 311

St. Gregory appoints the bishop of Arles to be over the metropolitans of Gaul, 312

The venture of St. Gregory in attempting the conversion of England, 313

St. Augustine commended to queen Brunechild and consecrated by the bishop of Arles, and the English Church made by Gregory, 315

Work of St. Gregory in the Spanish Church, 316

He relates the martyrdom of St. Hermenegild, 316

His letters to St. Leander of Seville, 317

Conversion of king Rechared, 318

St. Gregory's letter of congratulation to him, 318

Letter of king Rechared informing the Pope of his conversion, 321

Gibbon's account of the government which was the result of Rechared's conversion, 322

The important principles thus consecrated by the Church, 324

Overthrow of the Arian kingdoms in Africa, Spain, Gaul and Italy, between Pope Felix III. and Pope Gregory I., 325

The equal failure of Genseric, Euric, Gondebald, and Theodorick, 327

The part in this which the Catholic bishops had, 329

The Spanish monarchy first of many formed by the Church, 331

Superiority of this government to the Byzantine absolutism, 332

St. Gregory as fourth doctor of the western Church, 334

St. Gregory as a chief artificer in the Church's second victory, 335

Summary of St. Gregory's action as metropolitan patriarch and Pope, 337

Councils held by him in Rome: protection of monks, 338

His management of the Patrimonium Petri, 340

His success with schismatics and heretics, 341

The Primacy from St. Leo to St. Gregory, 342

The continued rise of the bishop of Constantinople, 343-5

The political degradation and danger of Rome, 345

Long disaster reveals still more the purely spiritual foundation of the Primacy, 346

Testimony given by the disappearance of the Arian governments and the conversion of Franks and Saxons, 347

The patriarchate of Constantinople imposed by civil law, 348

The Nicene constitution in the East impaired by despotism and heresy, 349

The persistent defence of this constitution by the Popes, 350

The Petra Apostolica in the sixty Popes preceding Gregory, 352

As discerned by Hurter in the time of Pope Innocent III., 353

As in the time from Pope Innocent III. to Leo XIII., 355

The continuous Primacy from St. Peter to St. Gregory, 355

As Rome diminishes the Primacy advances, 356

The times in which it was exercised by St. Gregory, 358

The opposing forces which unite to sustain the Petra Apostolica, 359

INDEX, 361

the letters of the popes
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