Haydock Catholic Bible Commentary
Hard. Septuagint, "holy." (Calmet) --- Leviathan. That is, the devil, the great enemy of the people of God. He is called the bar serpent from his strength, and the crooked serpent from his wiles, and the whale of the sea, from they tyranny he exercises in the sea of this world. He was spiritually slain by the death of Christ, when his power was destroyed. (Challoner) --- It may also literally refer to Nabuchodonosor, and the king of Egypt, or rather to Cambyses, or Holofernes, but particularly Cambyses. (Calmet)
Vineyard; the Church of Christ, (Challoner) or Judea. It may be the beginning of a noted song. (Calmet)
Drink; or, as the Hebrew may also be rendered, I will continually water it. (Challoner) --- God will protect his people. (Calmet)
In me, against the Church; nor shall I become as a thorn or brier in its regard; or march against it, or set it on fire: but it shall always take fast hold of me, and keep an everlasting peace with me. (Challoner) --- God rather speaks of the enemy. If he attempt to lay waste this vineyard, I will chastise him. (Calmet)
Rush in. Some understand this of the enemies of the true Israel, that shall invade it in vain. Others of the spiritual invasion made by the apostles of Christ. (Challoner) --- Protestants, "He shall cause them that come of Jacob to take root." Septuagint, "those who come are children of Jacob." (Haydock)
Struck. Hath God punished the carnal persecuting Jews, in proportion to their doings against Christ and his saints? (Challoner) --- God punished Israel as a father: but he will destroy the Chaldeans, &c. (Calmet)
Cast off. When the synagogue shall be cast off, thou shalt judge it in measure, and in proportion to its crimes. (Challoner) --- The Israelites have been rigorously punished. (Calmet) --- He, &c. God hath designed severe punishments in the day of his wrath. (Challoner)
Jacob; viz., of such of them as shall be converted. (Challoner) --- Altar, dedicated to idols: then he shall obtain pardon. (Calmet)
City. Jerusalem, (Challoner) or more probably Babylon, of which he is going to speak.
Women. The princes shall be weak and irresolute. (Calmet) --- Septuagint, "Hither, ye women, coming from the shew. For it is not an intelligent people."
River Euphrates, even to the Nile. (Haydock) --- Nabuchodonosor laid waste all the intermediate countries. Afterwards Cyrus gave the people liberty. On the death of Cambyses, the nations were in consternation; and it was only during the peaceable reign of Darius that Israel returned, though not in a body, as the Jews had done twenty years before, chap. xxvi. (Calmet) --- By one, into the Church of Christ, John xi. (Menochius)
Trumpet. The preaching of the Gospel for the conversion of the Jews. (Challoner)