Then Achish gave him Ziklag that day: why Ziklag pertains to the kings of Judah to this day.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)Ziklag.—In the days of Joshua this place fell to the lot of Simeon (Joshua 19:5). It was afterwards captured by the Philistines, not long before the time of David, and Keil thinks was left without inhabitants in consequence of this conquest. Its exact situation has never been clearly ascertained; it certainly lay far south, near the Amalekite borders.
Wherefore Ziklag pertaineth unto the kings of Judah unto this day.—These words supply us with a double note of time in the question of the date of this First Book of Samuel. They tell us that it was cast in its present shape after the revolt of Jeroboam, and certainly before the days of the carrying away of Israel to Babylon.1 Samuel 27:6. Achish gave him Ziklag — Not only that he might inhabit it for the present, but possess it as his own in future. This Achish did, either out of his royal bounty, or on condition of some service which David was to perform. Or perhaps he thought hereby to lay the greater obligations on David, whom he knew to be so able to serve him. In the division of the country it was first given to the tribe of Judah, Joshua 15:31; and afterward to that of Simeon, who had a portion out of the land given to Judah, Joshua 19:5. But the Philistines kept possession of it, so that neither of them enjoyed it, till now, by the gift of Achish, it became the peculiar inheritance of David and his successors. Ziklag pertaineth unto the kings of Judah unto this day — This and such clauses were evidently added after the substance of the books in which they are contained was written.Gave him Ziklag; not only to inhabit, but to possess it as his own; which he did, to lay the greater obligations upon David, whom he knew so able to serve him.
Pertaineth unto the kings of Judah: it was given to the tribe of Judah before, Joshua 15:31, and afterwards to the tribe of Simeon, Joshua 19:5, whose inheritance was given them within the inheritance of the children of Judah, Jos 19.
1. But the Philistines kept the possession of it till this time, and were hitherto permitted to do so. And being now given by them to David, it now belonged not to the people of the tribe of Judah, to whom it was allotted before; but to the king of Judah, David and his heirs for ever.
Unto this day: this and some such clauses seem to have been added by some sacred writers after the main substance of the several books was written. Joshua 15:31; though it seems not to have been possessed by either of them, at least not long, but soon came into the hands of the Philistines, who kept it till this time, and now it returned to its right owners; according to Bunting (g) it was twelve miles from Gath:
wherefore Ziklag pertaineth unto the kings of Judah unto this day; not to the tribe of Judah, though it originally belonged to it, but to the kings of it, it, being granted to David, who quickly after this became king of Judah; and this was annexed to the crown lands, and ever after enjoyed by the kings, of the house of Judah; for this was not given for a temporary habitation, but for perpetual possession. This clause seems to be added by the continuator of this history, after the death of Samuel; who might be Gad or Nathan; some say Ezra, and Abarbinel that Jeremiah was the writer of it.Then Achish gave him Ziklag that day: wherefore Ziklag pertaineth unto the kings of Judah unto this day.
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)6. Ziklag] One of the cities In the Negeb or “South Country,” originally assigned to Judah (Joshua 15:31), but transferred to Simeon (Joshua 19:5), and either never occupied by them or reconquered by the Philistines. Its site has not been identified, but was probably somewhere W. or N. W. of Beersheba, next to which it is mentioned in Nehemiah 11:28.
Ziklag pertaineth unto the kings of Judah unto this day] This note from the hand of the compiler indicates that the book was composed after the separation of the kingdom of Judah from the kingdom of Israel, and before the Captivity. Ziklag was, so to speak, one of the crown estates of the royal house.1 Samuel 26:25 ("Blessed art thou, my son David: thou wilt undertake, and also prevail:" תּוּכל יכל, lit. to vanquish, i.e., to carry out what one undertakes) does not express any genuine goodwill towards David, but only an acknowledgment, forced upon him by this fresh experience of David's magnanimity, that God was blessing all his undertakings, so that he would prevail. Saul had no more thoughts of any real reconciliation with David. "David went his way, and Saul turned to his place" (cf. Numbers 24:25). Thus they parted, and never saw each other again. There is nothing said about Saul returning to his house, as there was when his life was first spared (1 Samuel 24:22). On the contrary, he does not seem to have given up pursuing David; for, according to 1 Samuel 27:1-12, David was obliged to take refuge in a foreign land, and carry out what he had described in 1 Samuel 26:19 as his greatest calamity.
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