1 Samuel 20:33
And Saul cast a javelin at him to smite him: whereby Jonathan knew that it was determined of his father to slay David.
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1 Samuel 20:33-34. Saul cast a javelin to smite him — Saul seemed a moment before to be in great care, that Jonathan should be established in his kingdom: and now he himself aims at his life! What fools, what worse than savage beasts, does anger make men! Because — Or, and because, &c., for this seems to be a second cause of his grief; his father had done him shame — That is, had done shame, not to David, but Jonathan, by giving him such rough words, and throwing a javelin at him. It may, however, be understood of his father’s speaking so contemptuously of David.

20:24-34 None were more constant than David in attending holy duties; nor had he been absent, but self-preservation obliged him to withdraw. In great peril present opportunities for Divine ordinances may be waved. But it is bad for us, except in case of necessity, to omit any opportunity of statedly attending on them. Jonathan did wisely and well for himself and family, to secure an interest in David, yet for this he is blamed. It is good to take God's people for our people. It will prove to our advantage at last, however it may now be thought against our interest. Saul was outrageous. What savage beasts, and worse, does anger make men!The greatest insult and most stinging reproach that can be cast upon an Oriental is to reproach his parents or ancestors (see Job 30:8). Saul means to intimate that Jonathan was stubborn from his mother's womb. 33. Saul cast a javelin at him—This is a sad proof of the maniacal frenzy into which the unhappy monarch was transported. To smite him, i. e. to wound him, though not to smite him even to the wall, as he designed to do to David, 1 Samuel 19:10.

And Saul cast a javelin at him to smite him,.... So provoked to wrath was he by what he said. It seems by this that Saul always had a javelin or spear in his hand, which is to be accounted for by the custom of those times; in other countries, as well as in this, the kings used to carry spears in their hands instead of sceptres, and which they used as such; so Justin (h), speaking of the times of Romulus, says, that kings in those times had spears, as an ensign of royalty, which the Greeks call sceptres; and so the Greeks called sceptres spears (i):

whereby Jonathan knew that it was determined of his father to slay David; for since he attempted to smite him, his own son, for speaking on his behalf, it might be well concluded, that such was his settled wrath and malice, that he would if possible kill David, could he get him into his hands.

(h) E Trogo, l. 43. c. 3.((i) Pausanias in Boeoticis, sive, l. 9. p. 859. Vid. Barthii Animadv. ad Claudian in nupt. Honor ver. 119.

And Saul cast a javelin at him to smite him: whereby Jonathan knew that it was determined of his father to slay David.
33. cast a javelin] Or, as in 1 Samuel 18:11, lifted his spear: brandished it threateningly, without actually casting it.

1 Samuel 20:33When Jonathan replied, "My father, why shall he die? what has he done?" Saul was so enraged that he hurled his javelin at Jonathan (cf. 1 Samuel 18:11). Thus Jonathan saw that his father had firmly resolved to put David to death, and rose up from the table in fierce anger, and did not eat that day; for he was grieved concerning David, because his father had done him shame. כּלה is a substantive in the sense of unalterable resolution, like the verb in 1 Samuel 20:9. השּׁני בּיום־החדשׁ, on the second day of the new moon or month.
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