In the first month -- it is the month of Nisan -- in the twelfth year of the king Ahasuerus, hath one caused to fall Pur (that is the lot) before Haman, from day to day, and from month to month, to the twelfth, it is the month of Adar.
Esther 3:7 Additional TranslationsClarke's Commentary on the Bible
The first month - That is, of the civil year of the Jews.
The month Nisan - Answering to a part of our March and April.
The twelfth year of king Ahasuerus - According to the chronology in our Bibles, about five hundred and ten years before Christ.
They cast Pur, that is, the lot - This appears to be the Hebrew corruption of the pure Persian word pari, which signifies any thing that happens fortuitously. There is an addition here in the Greek text that was probably in the original, and which makes this place very plain. I shall set down the whole verse, and give the Greek in a parenthesis, that it may be read consecutively with what is in the Hebrew: "In the first month, that is, the month Nisan, in the twelfth year of King Ahasuerus, they cast Pur, that is, the lot, before Haman, from day to day, and from month to month." (ὡστε απολεσαι εν μιᾳ ἡμερᾳ το γενος Μαρδοχαιου, και επεσεν ὁ κληρος εις την τεσερακαιδεκατην του μηνος ὁς εστιν Αδαρ "that they might destroy in one day the people of Mordecai; and the lot fell on the fourteenth day of the month Adar.")
We see plainly intimated by the Hebrew text that they cast lots, or used a species of divination, to find which of the twelve months would be the most favorable for the execution of Haman's design; and, having found the desired month, then they cast lots, or used divination, to find out which day of the said month would be the lucky day for the accomplishment of the enterprise. But the Hebrew text does not tell us the result of this divination; we are left to guess it out; but the Greek supplies this deficiency, and makes all clear. From it we find that, when they cast for the month, the month Adar was taken; and when they cast for the day, the fourteenth (Heb. thirteenth) of that month was taken.
Some have questioned whether Pur may not have signified also some game of chance, which they played before or with Haman, from day to day, to divert him from his melancholy, till the lucky time came in which he was to have the gratification of slaying all the people who were objects of his enmity; or they cast lots, or played, who should get the property of such and such opulent families. Holinshed, one of our ancient historians, informs us that, previously to the battle of Agincourt, the English army, under Henry V., were so thinned and weakened by disease, and the French army so numerous, that "Frenchmen, in the mean while, as though they had been sure of victory, made great triumphe, for the captaines had determined before how to divide the spoil; and the souldiers, the night before, had plaied the Englishmen at dice." To this the chorus of Shakspeare alludes: -
"Proud of their numbers, and secure of soul,
The confident and over-lusty French
Do the low-rated English play at dice.
- The poor condemned English,
Like sacrifices by their watchful fires,
Sit patiently and inly ruminate
The morning's danger; and their gestures sad,
Investing lank-lean cheeks, and war-worn coats,
Treasury of Scripture Knowledge
the first month.
Nehemiah 2:1 And it came to pass in the month Nisan, in the twentieth year of Artaxerxes the king, that wine was before him: and I took up the wine...
in the twelfth.
Esther 1:3 In the third year of his reign, he made a feast to all his princes and his servants; the power of Persia and Media...
Esther 2:16 So Esther was taken to king Ahasuerus into his house royal in the tenth month, which is the month Tebeth...
they cast Pur.
Esther 9:24-26 Because Haman the son of Hammedatha, the Agagite, the enemy of all the Jews, had devised against the Jews to destroy them...
Proverbs 16:33 The lot is cast into the lap; but the whole disposing thereof is of the LORD.
Ezekiel 21:21,22 For the king of Babylon stood at the parting of the way, at the head of the two ways, to use divination: he made his arrows bright...
Matthew 27:35 And they crucified him, and parted his garments, casting lots: that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet...
Esther 9:1,5,17-19,21 Now in the twelfth month, that is, the month Adar, on the thirteenth day of the same...
Ezra 6:15 And this house was finished on the third day of the month Adar, which was in the sixth year of the reign of Darius the king.
Esther 3:7 Parallel CommentariesAdar Ahasuerus Ahasu-E'rus Cast Chose First Haman Lot Month Nisan Pur TwelfthAdar Ahasuerus Ahasu-E'rus Cast Chose First Haman Lot Month Nisan Pur TwelfthTHE HOLY BIBLE, NEW INTERNATIONAL VERSION®, NIV® Copyright © 1973, 1978, 1984, 2011 by Biblica®.
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