Exodus 1:14
Parallel Verses
New American Standard Bible
and they made their lives bitter with hard labor in mortar and bricks and at all kinds of labor in the field, all their labors which they rigorously imposed on them.

King James Bible
And they made their lives bitter with hard bondage, in morter, and in brick, and in all manner of service in the field: all their service, wherein they made them serve, was with rigour.

Darby Bible Translation
and they embittered their life with hard labour in clay and bricks, and in all manner of labour in the field: all their labour with which they made them serve was with harshness.

World English Bible
and they made their lives bitter with hard service, in mortar and in brick, and in all kinds of service in the field, all their service, in which they ruthlessly made them serve.

Young's Literal Translation
and make their lives bitter in hard service, in clay, and in brick, and in every kind of service in the field; all their service in which they have served is with rigour.

Exodus 1:14 Parallel
Commentary
Barnes' Notes on the Bible

The use of brick, at all times common in Egypt, was especially so under the 18th Dynasty. An exact representation of the whole process of brickmaking is given in a small temple at Thebes, erected by Tothmosis III, the fourth in descent from Amosis. Immense masses of brick are found at Belbeis, the modern capital of Sharkiya, i. e. Goshen, and in the adjoining district.

All manner of service in the field - Not merely agricultural labor, but probably the digging of canals and processes of irrigation which are peculiarly onerous and unhealthy.

Exodus 1:14 Parallel Commentaries

Library
Prosperity under Persecution
Of this general principle we shall now proceed to consider three special illustrations. First, the circumstances of the children of Israel; secondly, the history of the church of Christ; thirdly, the experience of individual Christians. I. IN THE CASE OF ISRAEL, it did seem to be a deep-laid plot, very politic and crafty indeed, that as the kings of Egypt, themselves of an alien race, had subdued the Egyptians, they should prevent the other alien race, the Israelites, from conquering them. Instead
Charles Haddon Spurgeon—Spurgeon's Sermons Volume 17: 1871

The Secret of Its Greatness
[Illustration: (drop cap G) The Great Pyramid] God always chooses the right kind of people to do His work. Not only so, He always gives to those whom He chooses just the sort of life which will best prepare them for the work He will one day call them to do. That is why God put it into the heart of Pharaoh's daughter to bring up Moses as her own son in the Egyptian palace. The most important part of Moses' training was that his heart should be right with God, and therefore he was allowed to remain
Mildred Duff—The Bible in its Making

Cross References
Acts 7:19
"It was he who took shrewd advantage of our race and mistreated our fathers so that they would expose their infants and they would not survive.

Exodus 1:11
So they appointed taskmasters over them to afflict them with hard labor. And they built for Pharaoh storage cities, Pithom and Raamses.

Exodus 1:13
The Egyptians compelled the sons of Israel to labor rigorously;

Exodus 1:15
Then the king of Egypt spoke to the Hebrew midwives, one of whom was named Shiphrah and the other was named Puah;

Exodus 2:23
Now it came about in the course of those many days that the king of Egypt died. And the sons of Israel sighed because of the bondage, and they cried out; and their cry for help because of their bondage rose up to God.

Exodus 6:9
So Moses spoke thus to the sons of Israel, but they did not listen to Moses on account of their despondency and cruel bondage.

Leviticus 25:43
'You shall not rule over him with severity, but are to revere your God.

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Bitter Bondage Brick Bricks Clay Conditions Egyptians Embittered Field Fields Hard Hardest Harshness Imposed Kind Kinds Life Lives Making Manner Mortar Rigor Rigorously Rigour Ruthlessly Serve Service Sorts Used Wherein Work
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Bitter Bondage Brick Bricks Clay Conditions Egyptians Embittered Field Fields Hard Hardest Harshness Imposed Kind Kinds Life Lives Making Manner Mortar Rigor Rigorously Rigour Ruthlessly Serve Service Sorts Used Wherein Work
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