[The Latin text is from the editio princeps, 1531, as printed in the best editions of the 'Book of Concord,' and especially (with all the various readings) in the Corpus Reformatorum, ed. Bindseil, Vol. XXVI. (1858), pp.263-336. I have inserted in brackets the most important additions of the German text, and marked in foot-notes the chief alterations of the edition of 1540. The English translation (in the style of the sixteenth century) was prepared (1868), and at my request carefully revised for this work (1874), by my friend, The Rev. Dr. Charles P. Krauth, Vice-Provost of the University of Pennsylvania, and Professor of Theology in the Evangelical Lutheran Seminary, Philadelphia. First English translation by Richard Taverner, London, 1536; recent translations, more or less complete, by S. S. Schmucker (1834): E. Hazelius (1841), Ambrose and Socrates Henkel (1851 and 1854). See Vol. I. § 41, pp.225 sqq.]
Confessio Fidei Confession of Faith
Exhibita Invictissimo Imperatori Carolo V. Cæsari Augusto in Comiciis Augustæ. Anno MDXXX. 
Presented to the Invincible Emperor Charles V., Cæsar Augustus, at the Diet of Augsburg, Anno Domini MDXXX. 
Et loquebar de testimoniis tuis in conspectu Regum, et non confundebar. -- Psalm cxix.46.
I will speak of thy testimonies also before kings, and will not be ashamed. -- Psalm cxix.46.
ut, quemadmodum sub uno Christo sumus et militamus: ita in una etiam Ecclesia Christiana, in unitate et concordia vivere possimus; cumque nos infra scripti Elector et Principes, cum aliis, qui nobis conjuncti sunt, perinde ut alii Electores et Principes et Status ad præfata Comitia evocati simus, ut Cæsareo mandato obedienter obsequeremur, mature venimus Augustam; et, quod citra jactantiam dictum volumes, inter primos affuimus. and corrected, these things may be harmonized and brought back to the one simple truth and Christian concord; so that hereafter the one unfeigned and true religion may be embraced and preserved by us, so that as we are subjects and soldiers of the one Christ, so also, in unity and concord, we may live in the one Christian Church: And inasmuch as we, the Elector and Princes, whose names are subscribed, together with others who are conjoined with us, in common with other Electors, and Princes, and States, have been called to the aforenamed Diet, -- we have, in order to render most humble obedience to the Imperial Mandate, come early to Augsburg, and, with no desire to boast, would state that we were among the very first to be present. Cum igitur V.C.M. Electoribus, Principibus et aliis Statibus Imperii etiam hic Augustæ sub ipsa initia horum Comitiorum inter coetera proponi fecerit, quod singuli Status Imperii vigore Cæsarei edicti suam opinionem et sententiam in Germanica et Latina lingua proponere debeant atque offerre; et habita deliberatione proxima feria quarta, rursum responsum est V.C.M. nos proxima feria sexta articulos nostræ Confessionis pro nostra parte oblaturos esse: When, therefore, Your Imperial Majesty, among other things, has also at Augsburg, at the very beginning of these sessions, caused the proposition to be made to the Princes and States of the Empire, that each of the States of the Empire, in virtue of the Imperial Edict, should propose and offer in the German and in the Latin language its opinion and decision; after discussion on Wednesday we replied to Your Imperial Majesty, that on the following Friday we would offer on our part the Articles of our Confession:
re inter nos partes citra odiosam contentionem pacifice agitata, Deo dante, dissensio dirimatur, et ad unam veram concordem religionem reducatur; sicut omnes sub uno Christo sumus et militamus et unum Christum confiteri debemus, juxta tenorem edicti V.C.M. et omnia ad veritatem Dei perducantur, id quod ardentissimis votis a Deo petimus. our friends already designated, to compare views in a kindly manner in regard to mode and ways which may be available, so that, as far as may honorably be done, we may agree, and the matter between us of both parts being peacefully discussed, with no hateful contention, by God's help the dissension may be removed, and brought back to one true accordant religion (as we are all subjects and soldiers under one Christ, so also we ought to confess one Christ, in accordance with the tenor of the decree of Your Imp. M.), and all things should be brought back to the truth of God, which with most fervent prayers we beseech God to grant.
idem latius expositum est ante annum in publico proximo conventu, qui Spiræ congregatus fuit. Ubi V.C.M. per Dominum Ferdinandum, Bohemiæ et Ungariæ Regem, amicum et Dominum clementem nostrum, deinde per Oratorem et Comissarios Cæsareos, hæc inter coetera proponi fecit, quod V.C.M. intellexisset et expendisset Locum Tenentis V.C.M. in Imperio et Præsidentis et Consiliariorum in Regimine et Legatorum ab aliis Statibus, qui Ratisbonæ convenerant, deliberationem de Concilio congregando, et quod judicaret etiam V.C.M. utile esse, ut congregaretur Concilium, et quia causæ, quæ tum tractabantur inter V.C.M. et Romanum Pontificem, vicinæ essent concordiæ et Christianæ reconciliationi, non dubitaret V.C.M. quin Romanum Pontifex adduci posset ad habendum generale Concilium: ideo significabat se V.C.M. operam daturam, ut præfatus Pontifex Maximus una cum V.C.M. tale generale Concilium primo quoque tempore emissis literis publicandum congregare consentiret. in accordance with his office, to assemble a General Council; as also the same matter was more amply set forth a year ago in the last public Convention, which was held at Spires, where through His Highness Ferdinand, King of Bohemia and Hungary, our friend and clement Lord, afterward through the Orator and the Imperial Commissioners, Your I. M., among other propositions, caused these to be made: that Your I. M. had known and pondered the resolution to convene a Council, formed by the Representatives of Your I. M. in the Empire, and by the Imperial President and Counselors, and by the Legates of other States convened at Ratisbon, and this Your I. M. also judged that it would be useful to assemble a Council; and because the matters which were to be adjusted at this time between Your I. M. and the Roman Pontiff were approaching agreement and Christian reconciliation, Your I. M. did not doubt that, but that the Pope could be induced to summon a General Council: Wherefore Your I. M. signified that Your I. M. would endeavor to bring it to pass that the Chief Pontiff, together with Your I. M., would consent at the earliest opportunity to issue letters for the convening of such a General Council.
(nisi causa inter nos et partes juxta tenorem Cæsareæ proximæ citationis amice in caritate composita, sedata, et ad Christianam concordiam reducta fuerit) deserere intendimus aut possumus; de quo hic etiam solenniter et publice protestamur. and a Council we still adhere; nor do we intend, nor would it be possible for us to forsake it by this or any other document, unless the matter between us and the other party should, in accordance with the tenor of the latest Imperial citation, be adjusted, settled, and brought to Christian concord, in friendship and love; concerning which appeal we here also make our solemn and public protest.
Damnant omnes hæreses, contra hunc articulum exortas, ut Manichæos, qui duo principia ponebant, Bonum et Malum, item Valentinianos, Arianos, Eunomianos, Mahometistas et omnes horum similes. Damnant et Samosatenos, veteres et neotericos,  qui, cum tantum unam personam esse contendant de Verbo et de Spiritu Sancto astute et impie rhetoricantur, quod non sint personæ distinctæ, sed quod Verbum significet verbum vocale, et Spiritus motum in rebus creatum [geschaffene Regung in Creaturen]. They condemn all heresies which have sprung up against this Article, as the Manichees, who set down two principles, good and evil; in the same manner the Valentinians, Arians, Eunomians, Mohammedans, and all such like. They condemn also the Samosatenes, old and new;  who, when they earnestly contend that there is but one person, do craftily and wickedly trifle, after the manner of rhetoricians, about the Word and Holy Ghost, that they are not distinct persons, but that the Word signifieth a vocal word, and the Spirit a motion created in things.
disputant hominem propriis viribus rationis coram Deo justificari posse.  benefits of Christ, argue that a man may, by the strength of his own reason, be justified before God.
ut judicet vivos et mortuos, etc., juxta Symbolum Apostolorum. come again, to judge the quick and the dead, according as he Apostles' Creed declareth these and other things.
qui sentient, Spiritum Sanctum contingere sine verbo externo hominibus per ipsorum preparationes et opera.  and others,  who imagine that the Holy Spirit is given to men without the outward word, through their own preparations and works.
recte [rein] docetur, et recte [laut des Evangelii] administrantur Sacramenta. Rightly taught [purely preached] and the Sacraments rightly administered [according to the Gospel].
sentiebant ministerium malorum inutile et inefficax esse. men in the Church, and held that the ministry of evil men is useless and without effect.
sit, quanquam in confessione non sit necessaria omnium delictorum enumeratio Est enim impossibilis juxta Psalmum (xix.12): Delicta quis intelligit? in the churches, though enumeration of all offenses be not necessary in confession. For it is impossible; according to the Psalm: 'Who can understand his errors?"
wieder fallen mögen]. Damnantur et Novatiani, qui nolebant absolvere lapsos post Baptismum redeuntes ad poenitentiam. Rejiciuntur et isti, qui non docent remissionem peccatorum per fidem contingere, sed jubent nos mereri gratiam per satisfactiones nostras. fall again.] The Novatians are also condemned, who would not absolve such as had fallen after baptism, though they returned to repentance. They also that do not teach that remission of sins is obtained by faith, and who command us to merit grace by satisfactions, are rejected.
aut Sacramenta administrare, nisi rite vocatus [ohne ordentlichen Beruf]. in the Church teach, or administer the Sacraments, except he be rightly called [without a regular call].
jure bellare, militare, lege contrahere, tenere proprium, jusjurandum postulantibus magistratibus dare, ducere uxorem, nubere. Damnant Anabaptistas, qui interdicunt hæc civilia officia Christianis. Damnant et illos, qui Evangelicam perfectionem non collocant in timore Dei et fide, sed in deserendis civilibus officiis, quia Evangelium tradit justiciam æternam cordis. Interim non dissipat Politiam aut OEconomiam, sed maxime postulat conservare tanquam ordinationes Dei, et in talibus ordinationibus exercere caritatem. Itaque necessario debent Christiani obedire magistratibus suis et legibus; nisi cum jubent peccare, tunc etiam magis debent obedire Deo quam hominibus (Acts v.29). appoint just punishments, engage in just war, act as soldiers, make legal bargains and contracts, hold property, take an oath when the magistrates require it, marry a wife, or be given in marriage. They condemn the Anabaptists who forbid Christians these civil offices. They condemn also those that place the perfection of the Gospel, not in the fear of God and in faith, but in forsaking civil offices, inasmuch as the Gospel teacheth an everlasting righteousness of the heart. In the mean time, it doth not disallow order and government of commonwealths or families, but requireth especially the preservation and maintenance thereof, as of God's own ordinances, and that in such ordinances we should exercise love. Christians, therefore, must necessarily obey their magistrates and laws, save only when they command any sin; for then they must rather obey God than men (Acts v.29). Art. XVII. -- De Christi Reditu ad Judicium. Art. XVII. -- Of Christ's Return to Judgment.
diabolos condemnabit, ut sine fine crucientur. shall he condemn unto endless torments.
aut certe peragere: sed tantum in operibus vitæ præsentis tam bonis, quam etiam malis. Bonis dico, quæ de bono naturæ oriuntur, i.e., velle laborare in agro, velle manducare et bibere, velle habere amicum, velle habere indumenta, velle fabricare domum, uxorem velle ducere, pecora nutrire, artem discere diversarum rerum bonarum, vel quicquid bonum ad præsentem pertinet vitam. Quæ omnia non sine divino gubernaculo subsistunt, imo ex ipso et per ipsum sunt et esse coeperunt. Malis vero dico, ut est, velle idolum colere, velle homicidium, etc. begin or to perform any thing in matters pertaining to God, but only in works belonging to this present life, whether they be good or evil. By good works, I mean those which are of the goodness of nature; as to will to labor in the field, to desire meat or drink, to desire to have a friend, to desire apparel, to desire to build a house, to marry a wife, to nourish cattle, to learn the art of divers good things, to desire any good thing pertaining to this present life; all which are not without God's government, yea, they are, and had their beginning from God and by God. Among evil things, I account such as these: to will to worship an image; to will manslaughter, and such like.' Damnant Pelagianos et alios, qui docent, quod sine Spiritu Sancto, solis naturæ viribus possimus Deum super omnia diligere; item præcepta Dei facere, quoad substantiam actuum. Quanquam enim externa opera aliquo modo efficere natura possit, potest enim continere manus a furto, a cede: tamen interiores motus non potest efficere, ut timorem Dei, fiduciam erga Deum, castitatem, patientiam, etc.  They condemn the Pelagians and others, who teach that by the powers of nature alone, without the Spirit of God, we are able to love God above all things; also to perform the commandments of God, as touching the substance of our actions. For although nature be able in some sort to do the external works (for it is able to withhold the hands from theft and murder), yet it can not work the inward motions, such as the fear of God, trust in God, chastity, patience, and such like.
Art. XIX. -- De Causa Peccati. Art. XIX. -- Of the Cause of Sin. De causa peccati docent, quod tametsi Deus creat et conservat naturam, tamen causa peccati est voluntas malorum, videlicet diaboli et impiorum, quæ non adjuvante Deo avertit se a Deo, sicut Christus ait (John viii.44): Cum loquitur mendacium, ex se ipso loquitur. Touching the cause of sin, they teach that, although God doth create and preserve nature, yet the cause of sin is the will of the wicked; to wit, of the devil and ungodly men; which will, God not aiding, turneth itself from God, as Christ saith: 'When he speaketh a lie, he speaketh of his own' (John viii.44).
et opera, et dicunt, nos fide et operibus justificari. Quæ doctrina tolerabilior est priore, et plus afferre potest consolationis, quam vetus ipsorum doctrina. there was formerly a deep silence. They teach that we are not justified by works alone; but they conjoin faith and works, and say we are justified by faith and works. Which doctrine is more tolerable than the former one, and can afford more consolation than their old doctrine.
Hæc doctrina de fide ubique in Paulo tractatur (Eph. ii.8): Gratia salvi facti estis per fidem, et hoc non ex vobis, Dei donum est, non ex operibus, etc. Et ne quis cavilletur, a nobis novam Pauli interpretationem excogitari, tota hæc causa habet testimonia Patrum. Nam Augustinus multis voluminibus defendit gratiam et justitiam fidei contra merita operum. Et similia docet Ambrosius de vocatione gentium, et alibi. Sic enim inquit de vocatione gentium: Vilesceret redemptio sanguinis Christi, nec misericordiæ Dei humanorum operum prærogativa succumberet, si justificatio, quæ fit per gratiam, meritis præcedentibus deberetur, ut non munus largientis, sed merces esset operantis. This doctrine of faith is handled by Paul almost every where: 'By grace ye are saved through faith, and that not of yourselves: it is the gift of God, not of works' (Eph. ii.8, 9). And lest any here should cavil, that we bring in a new-found interpretation, this whole cause is sustained by testimonies of the Fathers. Augustine doth in many volumes defend grace, and the righteousness of faith, against the merit of works. The like doth Ambrose teach in his book, De Vocatione Gentium, and elsewhere; for thus he saith of the calling of the Gentiles: 'The redemption made by the blood of Christ would be of small account, and the prerogative of man's works would not give place to the mercy of God, if the justification which is by grace were due to merits going before; so as it should not be the liberality of the giver, but the wages or hire of the laborer.'
(Rom. v.1): Justificati per fidem, pacem habemus apud Deum. Tota hæc doctrina ad illud certamen perterrefactæ conscientiæ referenda est, nec sine illo certamine intelligi potest. Quare male judicant de ea re homines imperiti et prophani, qui Christianam justitiam nihil esse somniant, nisi civilem et philosophicam justitiam. by faith, we have peace with God' (Rom. v.1). This doctrine doth wholly belong to the conflict of a troubled conscience; and can not be understood, but where the conscience hath felt that conflict. Wherefore, all such as have had no experience thereof, and all that are profane men, who dream that Christian righteousness is naught else but a civil and philosophical righteousness, are poor judges of this matter.
effectum historiæ, videlicet hunc articulum, remissionem peccatorum, quod videlicet per Christum habeamus gratiam, justitiam et remissionem peccatorum. Jam qui scit, se per Christum habere propitium Patrem, is vere novit Deum, scit, se ei curæ esse, invocat eum; denique non est sine Deo, sicut gentes. Nam diaboli et impii non possunt hunc articulum credere, remissionem peccatorum. Ideo Deum tanquam hostem oderunt, non invocant eum, nihil boni ab eo expectant. Augustinus etiam de fidei nomine hoc modo admonet lectorem et docet, in Scripturis nomen fidei accipi, non pro notitia, qualis est in impiis, sed pro fiducia, quæ consolatur et erigit perterrefactas mentes. Which believeth, not only the history, but also the effect of the history; to wit, the article of remission of sins; namely, that by Christ we have grace, righteousness, and remission of sins. Now he that knoweth that he hath the Father merciful to him through Christ, this man knoweth God truly; he knoweth that God hath a care of him; he loveth God, and calleth upon him; in a word, he is not without God, as the Gentiles are. For the devils and the wicked can never believe this article of the remission of sins; and therefore they hate God as their enemy; they call not upon him, they look for no good thing at his hands. After this manner doth Augustine admonish the reader touching the name of Faith, and teacheth that this word Faith is taken in Scriptures, not for such a knowledge as is in the wicked, but for a trust, which doth comfort and lift up disquieted minds.
possint. Sic enim ait Ambrosius: Fides bonæ voluntatis et justæ actionis genitrix est. Nam humanæ vires, sine Spiritu Sancto, plenæ sunt impiis affectibus, et sunt imbecilliores, quam ut bona opera possint efficere coram Deo. Ad hæc, sunt in potestate diaboli, qui impellit homines ad varia peccata, ad impias opiniones, ad manifesta scelera. Quemadmodum est videre in philosophis, qui et ipsi conati honeste vivere, tamen id non potuerunt efficere, sed contaminati sunt multis manifestis sceleribus. Talis est imbecillitas hominis, cum est sine fide et sine Spiritu Sancto, et tantum humanis viribus se gubernat. so that they are able to bring forth good works. For thus saith Ambrose: 'Faith is the begetter of a good will and of good actions.' For man's powers, without the Holy Spirit, are full of wicked affections, and are too weak to perform any good deed before God. Besides, they are in the devil's power, who driveth men forward into divers sins, into profane opinions, and into heinous crimes; as was to be seen in the philosophers, who, assaying to live an honest life, could not attain unto it, but were defiled with many heinous crimes. Such is the weakness of man, when he is without faith and the Holy Spirit, and hath no other guide but the natural powers of man. Hinc facile apparet, hanc doctrinam non esse accusandam, quod bona opera prohibeat, sed multo magis laudandam, quod ostendit, quomodo bona opera facere possimus. Nam sine fide nullo modo potest humana natura primi aut secundi præcepti opera facere. Sine fide non invocat Deum, a Deo nihil expectat, non tollerat crucem, sed querit humana præsidia, confidit humanis præsidiis. Ita regnant in corde omnes cupiditates et humana consilia, cum abest fides et fiducia erga Deum. Hereby every man may se that this doctrine is not to be accused, as forbidding good works; but rather is much to be commended, because it showeth after what sort we must do good works. For without faith the nature of man can by no means perform the works of the First or Second Table. Without faith, it can not call upon God, hope in God, bear the cross; but seeketh help from man, and trusteth in man's help. So it cometh to pass that all lusts and human counsels bear sway in the heart so long as faith and trust in God are absent.
Quare et Christus dixit: Sine me nihil potestis facere (John xv.5). Et Ecclesia canit: Sine tuo numine nihil est in homine, nihil est innoxium. Wherefore, also, Christ saith, 'Without me ye can do nothing' (John xv.5), and the Church singeth, 'Without thy power is naught in man, naught that is innocent.'
vel ab Ecclesia Romana quatenus ex scriptoribus [aus der Väter Schrift] nota est. Quod cum ita sit, inclementer judicant isti qui nostros pro hæreticis haberi postulant. Sed dissensio est de quibusdam [Traditionen und] abusibus, qui sine certa autoritate in ecclesias irrepserunt, in quibus etiam, si qua esset dissimilitudo, tamen decebat hæc lenitas episcopos, ut propter Confessionem, quam modo recensuimus, tolerarent nostros, quia ne Canones quidem tam duri sunt, ut eosdem ritus ubique esse postulent, neque similes unquam omnium ecclesiarum ritus fuerunt. Quanquam apud nos magna ex parte veteres ritus diligenter servantur. Falsa enim calumnia est, quod omnes ceremoniæ, omnia vetera instituta in ecclesiis nostris aboleantur. Verum publica querela fuit, abusus quosdam in vulgaribus ritibus hærere. Hi, quia non poterant bona conscientia probari, aliqua ex parte correcti sunt.  Church Catholic, or even with the Roman Church, so far as that Church is known from writers [the writings of the Fathers]. This being the case, they judge us harshly who insist that we shall be regarded as heretics. But the dissension is concerning certain [traditions and] abuses, which without any certain authority have crept into the churches; in which things, even if there were some difference, yet would it be a becoming lenity on the part of the bishops that, on account of the Confession which we have now presented, they should bear with us, since not even the Canons are so severe as to demand the same rites every where, not were the rites of all churches at any time the same. Although among us in large part the ancient rites are diligently observed. For it is a calumnious falsehood, that all the ceremonies, all the things instituted of old, are abolished in our churches. But the public complaint was that certain abuses were connected with the rites in common use. These, because they could not with good conscience be approved, have to some extent been corrected.
Pars II. Part Second.
Porro veritas ex vulgi rumoribus aut maledictis inimicorum colligi non potest. Facile autem hoc judicari potest, nihil magis prodesse ad dignitatem ceremoniarum conservandam et alendam reverentiam ac peitatem in populo, quam si ceremoniæ rite fiant in ecclesiis. which these wicked and malicious men describe. The truth, moreover, can not be gathered from common rumors and the reproaches of enemies. But it is easy to judge this, that nothing is more profitable to preserve the dignity of ceremonies and to nurture reverence and piety among the people than that the ceremonies should be rightly performed in the churches.
die Historien und der Väter Schriften beweisen kann]. Cyprianus aliquot locis testatur, populo sanguinem datum esse. Idem testatur Hieronymus, qui ait, sacerdotes Eucharistiæ ministrant, et sanguinem Christi populis dividunt. Imo Gelasius Papa mandat, ne dividatur Sacramentum (Dist. II. De Consecratione. Cap. Comperimus). Tantum consuetudo non ita vetus aliud habet. Constat autem, quod consuetudo, contra mandata Dei introducta, non sit probanda, ut testantur Canones (Dist VIII. Cap. Veritate) cum sequentibus. Hæc vero consuetudo non solum contra Scripturam, sed etiam contra veteres Canones et exemplum Ecclesiæ recepta est. Quare si qui maluerunt utraque specie Sacramenti uti, non fuerunt cogendi, ut aliter facerent cum offensione conscientiæ. Et quia divisio Sacramenti non convenit cum institutione Christi, solet apud nos omitti processio, quæ hactenus fieri solita est. time in the churches, as may be proved from history and the writings of the Fathers.] Cyprian in certain places doth witness that the blood was given to the people; the same thing doth Jerome testify, saying, 'The priests do minister the Eucharist, and communicate the blood of Christ to the people.' Nay, Pope Gelasius commandeth that the Sacrament be not divided (Dist. II., De Consecr. Cap. Comperimus). Only a custom, not thus ancient, doth otherwise. But it is manifest that a custom, brought in contrary to the commandments of God, is not to be approved, as the Canons do witness (Dist. VIII., Cap. Veritate) with the words which follow. Now this custom has been received, not only against the Scripture, but also against the ancient Canons and the example of the Church. Therefore if any would rather use both kinds in the Sacrament, they are not to be compelled to do otherwise with the offense of their conscience. And because that the division of the Sacrament doth not agree with the institution of Christ, among us it is the custom to omit that procession which hitherto hath been in use.
Quam ob causam et Pius Papa dixisse fertur, fuisse aliquas causas, cur ademptum sit sacerdotibus conjugium, sed multo majores esse causas, cur reddi debeat; sic enim scribit Platina. Cum igitur sacerdotes apud nos publica illa scandala vitare vellent, duxerunt uxores, ac docuerunt, quod liceat ipsis contrahere matrimonium. Primum, quia Paulus dicit (1 Cor vii.2): Unusquisque habeat uxorem suam propter fornicationem. Item (9): Melius est nubere, quam uri. Secundo, Christus inquit (Matt. xix.12): Non omnes capiunt verbum hoc; ubi docet, non omnes homines ad cælibatum idoneos esse, quia Deus creavit hominem ad procreationem (Gen. i.28). Nec est humanæ potestatis, sine singulari dono et opere Dei creationem mutare. Igitur qui non sunt idonei ad cælibatum, debent contrahere matrimonium. Nam mandatum Dei et ordinationem Dei nulla lex humana, nullum votum tollere potest. Ex his causis docent Sacerdotes, sibi licere uxores ducere. Constat etiam, in Ecclesia veteri Sacerdotes fuisse maritos. Nam et Paulus ait (1 Tim. iii.2), Episcopum eligendum esse, qui sit maritus Et in Germania were not continent. For which cause Pope Pius is reported to have said, that 'there were certain causes for which marriage was forbidden to priests, but there were many weightier causes why it should be permitted again;' for so Platina writeth. Whereas, therefore, the priests among us seek to avoid these public offenses, they have married wives, and have taught that it is lawful for them to enter into marriage. First, because that Paul saith, 'To avoid fornication, let every man have his wife;' again, 'It is better to marry than to burn' (1 Cor vii.2, 9). Secondly, Christ saith, 'All men can not receive this word' (Matt. xix.11); where he showeth that all men are not fit for a single life, because that God created mankind male and female (Gen. i.28). Nor is it in man's power, without a special gift and work of God, to alter his creation. Therefore such as are not meet for a single life ought to contract marriage. For no law of man, no vow, can take away the commandment of God and his ordinance. By these reasons the priest do prove that they may lawfully take wives. And it is well known that in the ancient churches priests were married. For Paul saith, 'That a bishop must be chosen which is a husband' (1 Tim. iii.2).
primum ante annos quadringentos Sacerdotes vi coacti sunt ad cælibatum, qui quidem adeo adversati sunt, ut Archiepiscopus Moguntinus, publicaturus edictum Rom. Pontificis de ea re, pene ab iratis Sacerdotibus per tumultum oppressus sit. Et res gesta est tam inciviliter, ut non solum in posterum conjugia prohiberentur, sed etiam præsentia, contra omnia jura divina et humana, contra ipsos etiam Canones, factos non solum a Pontificibus, sed a laudatissimis Synodis, distraherentur. Et cum senescente mundo paulatim natura humana fiat imbecillior, convenit prospicere, ne plura vitia serpant in Germaniam. Porro Deus instituit conjugium, ut esset remedium humanæ infirmitatis. Ipsi Canones veterem rigorem interdum posterioribus temporibus propter imbecillitatem hominum laxandum esse dicunt, quod optandum est, ut fiat et in hoc negotio. Ac videntur ecclesiis aliquando defuturi pastores, si diutius prohibeatur conjugium. And in Germany, not until about four hundred years ago, were the priests by violence compelled to live a single life; who then were so wholly bent against the mater, that the Archbishop of Mentz, being about to publish the Pope of Rome's decree to that effect, was almost murdered in a tumult by the priests in their anger. And the matter was handled so rudely, that not only were marriages forbidden for the time to come, but also such as were then contracted were broken asunder, contrary to all laws divine and human, contrary to the Canons themselves, that were before made not only by Popes, but also by most famous Councils. And seeing that, as the world decayeth, man's nature by little and little waxeth weaker, it is well to look to it, that no more vices do overspread Germany. Furthermore, God ordained marriage to be a remedy for a man's infirmity. The Canons themselves do say that the old rigor is now and then in latter times to be released because of the weakness of men. Which it were to be wished might be done in this matter also. And if marriage be forbidden any longer, the churches may at length want pastors.
sit, cum impurus cælibatus plurima pariat scandala, adulteria et alia scelera, digna animadversione boni magistratus: tamen mirum est, nulla in re majorem exerceri sævitiam, quam adversus conjugium Sacerdotum. Deus præcepit honore afficere conjugium. Leges in omnibus rebus publicis bene constitutis, etiam apud Ethnicos, maximis honoribus ornaverunt. At nunc capitalibus pænis excruciantur, et quidem Sacerdotes, contra Canonum voluntatem, nullam aliam ob causam, nisi propter conjugium. Paulus vocat doctrinam dæmoniorum, quæ prohibet conjugium (1 Tim. iv.1, 3). Id facile nunc intelligi potest, cum talibus suppliciis prohibitio conjugii defenditur. use of the Church is well known; seeing that impure single life bringeth forth very many offenses, adulteries, and other enormities worthy to be punished by the godly magistrate, it is a marvel that greater cruelty should be showed in no other thing than against the marriage of priests. God had commanded to honor marriage; the laws in all well-ordered commonwealths, even among the heathen, have adorned marriage with very great honors. But now men are cruelly put to death, yea, and priests also, contrary to the mind of the Canons, for no other cause but marriage. Paul calleth that 'a doctrine of devils' which forbiddeth marriage (1 Tim. iv.1, 3); which may now very well be seen, since the forbidding of marriage is maintained by such punishments. Sicut autem nulla lex humana potest mandatum Dei tollere, ita nec votum potest tollere mandatum Dei. Proinde etiam Cyprianus suadet, ut mulieres nubant, quæ non servant promissam castitatem. Verba ejus sunt hæc, Lib. I., Epistola XI.: 'Si autem perseverare nolunt, aut non posunt, melius est, ut nubant, quam ut in ignem deliciis suis cadant; certe nullum fratribus aut sororibus But as no law of man can take away the law of God, no more can any vow whatsoever. Therefore Cyprian also giveth counsel, that those women should marry who do not keep their vowed chastity. His words are these, in the 1st Book, the 2d Epistle: 'If they will not or are not able to endure, it is far better they should marry than that they should fall into the fire by their importunate desires. In any wise let them give no offense to their
scandalum faciant? Et æquitate quadam utuntur ipsi Canones erga hos, qui ante justam ætatem voverunt, quomodo fere hactenus fieri consuevit. brethren or sisters.' Yea, even the Canons show some kind of justice towards such as before their ripe years did vow chastity, as hitherto the use hath for the most part been.
afferat pavidis conscientiis, ut discant Deo credere, et omnia bona a Deo expectare et petere. mind of the worthiness and use of the Sacrament, how great comfort it bringeth to timid consciences; that they may learn to believe God, and to look for and crave all good things at his hands.
abusus episcopi, qui si correxissent eos in tempore, minus nunc esset dissensionum. Antea sua dissimulatione multa vitia passi sunt in Ecclesiam serpere. Nunc sero incipiunt queri de calamitatibus Ecclesiæ, cum hic tumultus non aliunde sumpserit occasionem, quam ex illis abusibus, qui tam manifesti erant, ut tolerari amplius non possent. Magnæ dissensiones de Missa, de Sacramento extiterunt. Fortasse dat poenas orbis tam diuturnæ prophanationis Missarum, quam in Ecclesiis tot seculis toleraverunt isti, qui emendare et poterant et debebant. Nam in Decalogo scriptum est (Exod. xx.7): 'Qui Dei nomine abutitur, non erit impunitus.' At ab initio mundi nulla res divina ita videtur unquam ad quæstum collata fuisse, ut Missa. the bishops ignorant of these abuses, and if they had amended them in time, there had now been less of dissensions. Heretofore, by their dissembling, they suffered much corruption to creep into the Church; now they begin, though it be late, to complain of the calamities of the Church; seeing that this tumult was raised up by no other mean than by those abuses, which were so evident that they could no longer be tolerated. There were many dissensions, concerning the Mass, concerning the Sacrament. And perhaps the world is punished for so long a profaning of Masses, which they, who both could and ought to have amended it, have so many years tolerated in the churches. For in the Ten Commandments it is written, 'He that taketh in vain the name of the Lord shall not be held guiltless' (Exod. xx.7). And from the beginning of the world there neither was nor is any divine thing which seems so to have been employed for gain as the Mass.
quod Missa sit opus delens peccata vivorum et mortuorum ex opere operato. Hic coeptum est disputari, utrum una Missa, dicta pro pluribus, tantundem valeat, quantum singulæ pro singulis. Hæc disputatio peperit istam infinitam multitudinem Missarum. De his opinionibus nostri admonuerunt, quod dissentiant a Scripturis Sanctis, et ledant gloriam passionis Christi. Nam passio Christi fuit oblatio et satisfactio, non solum pro culpa originis, sed etiam pro omnibus reliquis peccatis, ut ad Hebræos (x.10) scriptum est: 'Sanctificati sumus per oblationem Jesu Christi semel.' Item (Heb. x.14): 'Una oblatione consumavit in perpetuum sanctificatos.' Item, Scriptura docet, nos coram Deo justificari per fidem in Christum, cum credimus, nobis remitti peccata propter Christum. Jam si Missa delet peccata vivorum et mortuorum ex opere operato, contingit justificatio ex opere Missarum, non ex fide, quod Scriptura non patitur. Sed Christus jubet (Luke xxii.19) 'facere in sui memoriam,' quare Missa instituta est, ut fides in iis, qui utuntur Sacramento, recordetur, quæ beneficia accipiat per received, that the Mass is a work that taketh away the sins of the quick and the dead, and that for the doing of the work. Here men began to dispute whether one Mass said for many were of as great force as particular Masses said for particular men. This disputation hath brought forth that infinite multitude of Masses. Our preachers have admonished concerning these opinions that they do depart from the holy Scriptures, and diminish the glory of the passion of Christ. For the passion of Christ was an oblation and satisfaction, not only for original sin, but also for all other sins; as it is written in the Epistle to the Hebrews (x.10): 'We are sanctified by the oblation of Jesus Christ once made;' also, 'By one oblation he hath perfected forever them that are sanctified' (Heb. x.14). The Scripture also teacheth that we are justified before God through faith in Christ, when we believe that our sins are forgiven for Christ's sake. Now, if the Mass do take away the sins of the quick and the dead, even for the work's sake that is done, then justification cometh by the work of Masses, and not by faith; which the Scripture can not endure. But Christ commandeth us 'to do it in remembrance of himself' (Luke xxii.19), therefore
Christum, et erigat et consoletur pavidam conscientiam. Nam id est meminisse Christi, beneficia meminisse, ac sentire, quod vere exhibeantur nobis. Nec satis est historiam recordari, quia hanc etiam Judæi et impii recordari possunt. Est igitur ad hoc facienda Missa, ut ibi porrigatur Sacramentum his, quibus opus est consolatione, sicut Ambrosius ait: 'Quia semper pecco, semper debeo accipere medicinam.' the Mass has been instituted that faith in them which use the Sacrament may remember what benefits it receiveth by Christ, and that it may raise and comfort the fearful conscience. For this is to remember Christ, to wit, to remember his benefits, and to feel and perceive that they be indeed imparted unto us. Nor is it sufficient to call to mind the history; because that the Jews also and the wicked can do. Therefore the Mass must be used to this end, that there the Sacrament may be reached unto them that have need of comfort as Ambrose saith, 'Because I do always sin, therefore I ought always to receive the medicine.'
sumpserunt corpus Domini. Sic enim sonant verba Canonis Niceni: 'Accipiant diaconi secundum ordinem post presbyteros ab episcopo vel a presbytero sacram communionem.' Et Paulus (1 Cor. xi.33) de communione jubet, ut alii alios expectant, ut fiat communis participatio. and deacons did receive the body of the Lord. And Paul, concerning the Communion, commandeth, 'that one tarry for another' (1 Cor. xi.33), that so there may be a common participation.
Art. IV. -- De Confessione. Art. IV. -- Of Confession.
sit necessaria, nec sint onerandæ conscientiæ cura enumerandi omnia delicta, quia impossibile est omnia delicta recitare, ut testatur Psalmus (xix.13): 'Delicta quis intelligit?' Item Jeremias (xvii.9): 'Pravum est cor hominis et inscrutabile' Quod si nulla peccata nisi recitata remitterentur, nunquam adquiescere conscientæ possent, quia plurima peccata neque vident, neque meminisse possunt. is not necessary, nor are consciences to be burdened with the care of enumerating all sins, inasmuch as it is impossible to recount all sins, as the Psalm (xix.12) testifies: 'Who can understand his errors?' So also Jeremiah (xvii.9): 'The heart is deceitful above all things, and desperately wicked. Who can know it?' But if no sins were remitted except what were recounted, consciences could never find peace, because very many sins they neither see nor can remember.
tum propter alias conscientiarum utilitates apud nos retinetur. as well as for other uses to the conscience, Confession is retained among us. Art. V. -- De Discrimine Ciborum. Art. V. -- Of the Distinction of Meats, and of Traditions.
removet, ut ostendat justitiam Christianam aliud quiddam esse, quam hujusmodi opera, videlicet fidem, quæ credit peccata gratis remitti propter Christum. At hæc doctrina Pauli pene tota oppressa est per traditiones, quæ pepererunt opinionem, quod per discrimina ciborum et similes cultus oporteat mereri gratiam et justitiam. In poenitentia nulla mentio fiebat de fide, tantum hæc opera satisfactoria proponebantur, in his videbatur poenitentia tota consistere. lays much stress on this point: he removeth the law and human traditions, that he may show that the righteousness of Christ is a far other thing than such works as these be, namely, a faith, which believeth that sins are freely remitted for Christ's sake. But this doctrine of Paul is almost wholly smothered by traditions, which have bred an opinion, that, by making difference in meats, and such like services, a man should merit grace and justification. In their doctrine of repentance there was no mention of faith; only these works of satisfaction were spoken of: repentance seemed to consist wholly in these.
observationibus. Et hic error valde cruciavit pias conscientias, quæ dolebant se teneri imperfecto vitæ genere, in conjugio, in magistratibus, aut aliis funtionibus civilibus, mirabantur monachos et similes, et falso putabant illorum observationes Deo gratiores esse. inferior to those glittering observances. And this error did greatly torment pious consciences, which were grieved that they were held by an imperfect kind of life, in marriage, in magistracy, or in other civil functions. They had the monks, and such like, in admiration, and falsely imagined that the observances of these men were more grateful to God than their own.
consolatione conscientiarum in arduis tentationibus. Itaque Gerson et alii quidam Theologi graviter questi sunt, se his rixis traditionum impediri, quo minus versari possent in meliore genere doctrinæ. Et Augustinus vetat onerare conscientias hujusmodi observationibus, et prudenter admonet Januarium, ut sciat eas indifferenter observandas esse; sic enim loquitur. of the comfort of conscience in arduous trials. Wherefore Gerson and some other Divines have made grievous complaints, that they were hindered by these strifes about traditions, so that they could not be occupied in some better kind of doctrine. And Augustine forbiddeth that men's consciences should be burdened with observations of this kind, and doth very prudently warn Januarius to know that they are to be observed as things indifferent; for he so speaketh.
Christus (Matt. xv.3) excusat Apostolos, qui non servaverant usitatam traditionem, quæ tamen videbatur de re non illicita, sed media esse, et habere cognationem cum baptismatibus legis; et dicit (ver.9): 'Frustra colunt me mandatis hominum.' Igitur non exigit cultum inutilem. Et Paulo post addit (ver.11): 'Omne quod intrat in os, non inquinat hominem.' Item (Rom. xiv.17): 'Regnum Dei non est esca aut potus.' Col. ii.16: 'Nemo judicet vos in cibo, potu, sabbato aut die festo.' Item (ver.20 sq.): 'Si mortui estis cum Christo ab elementis mundi, quare tanquam viventes in mundo decreta facitis: Ne attingas, ne gustes, ne contrectes?' out of the Scriptures. Christ excuseth his Apostles who kept not the received tradition (which yet seemed to be about a matter not unlawful, but indifferent, and to have some affinity with the baptisms of the law), and saith, 'They worship me in vain with the commandments of men' (Matt. xv.9). Christ, therefore, exacteth no unprofitable service. And a little after, he addeth: 'Whatsoever entereth in at the mouth defileth not the man' (ver.11). So also (Paul): 'The kingdom of God is not meat and drink' (Rom. xv.17). 'Let no man judge you in meat or drink, or in respect of the Sabbath-days, or of a holiday' (Col. ii.16). Again: 'If ye be dead with Christ from the rudiments of the world, why, as though ye lived in the world, are ye subject to traditions: Touch not, taste not, handle not?' (ver.20, 21).
dæmoniorum,' quia pugnat cum Evangelio, talia opera instituere aut facere, ut per ea mereamur gratiam, aut quod non posit existere Christianismus sine tali cultu. meats 'a doctrine of devils' (1 Tim. iv.1), because that it is against the Gospel to appoint or do such works, to the end that by them we may merit grace or justification, or as though Christianity could not exist without such service. Hic objiciunt adversarii, quod nostri prohibeant disciplinam et mortificationem carnis, sicut Jovinianus. Verum aliud deprehendetur ex scriptis nostrorum. Semper enim docuerunt de cruce, quod Christianos oporteat tollerare afflictiones. Hæc est vera, seria et non simulata mortificatio, variis afflictionibus exerceri et crucifigi cum Christo. Insuper docent, quod quilibet Christianus debeat se corporali disciplina aut corporalibus exercitiis et laboribus sic exercere et cærcere, ne saturitas aut desidia estimulet ad peccandum, non ut per illa exercitia mereamur gratiam, aut satis faciamus pro peccatis. Et hanc corporalem disciplinam oportet semper urgere, non solum paucis et constitutis diebus. Sicut Christus præcipit (Luke xxi.34): 'Cavete, ne corpora vestra graventur crapula.' Item (Matt. xvii.21): 'Hoc genus dæmoniorum non ejicitur nisi jejunio et oratione.' Et Paulus ait (1 Cor. ix.27): 'Castigo Here our adversaries object against us, that our ministers hinder all good discipline and mortification of the flesh, as Jovinian did. But the contrary may be seen by our men's writings. For they have always taught, touching the cross, that Christians ought to bear afflictions. This is the true, earnest, and unfeigned mortification, to be exercised with divers afflictions, and to be crucified with Christ. Moreover they teach that every Christian must so by bodily discipline, or bodily exercises and labor, exercise and keep himself under, that plenty and sloth do not stimulate him to sin; not that he may by such exercises merit grace, or satisfy for sins. And this corporal discipline should be used always, not only on a few and set days; according to the commandment of Christ: 'Take heed lest your hearts be overcharged with surfeiting' (Luke xxi.34). Again: 'This kind (of devils) goeth not out but by prayer and fasting' (Matt. xvii.21). And Paul saith, 'I keep under my body,
corpus meum, et redigo in servitutem.' Ubi clare ostendit, se ideo castigare corpus, non ut per eam disciplinam mereatur remissionem peccatorum, sed ut corpus habeat obnoxium et idoneum ad res spirituales et ad faciendum officium juxta vocationem suam. Itaque non damnantur ipsa jejunia, sed traditiones, quæ certos dies, certos cibos præscribunt, cum periculo conscientiæ, tanquam istiusmodi opera sint necessarius cultus. and bring it into subjection' (1 Cor. ix.27), where he plainly showeth that he did therefore chastise his body; not that by that discipline he might merit remission of sins, but that his body might be apt and fit for spiritual things, and to do his duty according to his calling. Therefore we do not condemn fasts themselves, but the traditions which prescribe certain days and certain meats, with danger to the conscience, as though such works as these were a necessary service.
et Dist. XII.  Gregorius Papa significant, talem dissimilitudinem non ledere unitatem Ecclesiæ. Et in Historia Tripartita, lib. nono, multa colliguntur exempla dissimilium rituum, et recitantur hæc verba: 'Mens Apostolorum fuit, non de diebus festis sancire, sed prædicare bonam conversationem et pietatem [Glaube und Liebe zu lehren].' about fasting doth not break off the agreement of faith.' Besides, Pope Gregory, in the 12th Distinction, intimates that such diversity doth not hurt the unity of the Church; and in the Tripartite History, lib.9, many examples of dissimilar rites are gathered together, and these words are there rehearsed: 'The mind of the Apostles was, not to give precepts concerning holidays, but to preach godliness and a holy life [faith and love].'
Multi inciderunt errore in hoc vitæ genus, quibus etiam si non deesent anni, tamen judicium de suis viribus defuit. Qui sic irretiti erant, cogebantur manere, etiam si quidam beneficio Canonum liberari possent. Et hoc accidit magis etiam in monasteriis virginum, quam monachorum, cum sexui imbecilliori magis parcendum esset. Many through error fell into this kind of life unawares, who, though they wanted not years, yet they wanted discretion to judge of their strength and ability. They who were once got within these nets were constrained to abide in them, though, by the benefit of the Canons, some might be set at liberty. And that fell out rather in the monasteries of nuns than of monks; although the weaker sex ought more to have been spared.
Deo, sed amplius etiam, quia servaret non modo præcepta, sed etiam consilia Evangelica. Ita persuadebant monasticam professionem longe meliorem esse baptismo, vitam monasticam plus mereri, quam vitam magistratuum, vitam pastorum et similium, qui in mandatis Dei sine facticiis religionibus suæ vocationi serviunt. monk's life did not only merit righteousness before God, but more than that, because it observed not only the commandments, but also the counsels of the Gospel. And thus they taught that the monk's profession was better than baptism; that the monk's life did merit more than the life of magistrates, of pastors, and such like, who, in obedience to God's commandment, followed their calling without any such religions of man's making. Nihil horum negari potest, extant enim in libris eorum. None of these things can be denied: they are to be seen in their writings. Quid fiebat postea in monasteriis? Olim erant scholæ sacrarum literarum, et aliarum disciplinarum, quæ sunt utiles Ecclesiæ, et sumebantur inde pastores et episcopi: nunc alia res est; nihil opus est recitare nota. Olim ad discendum conveniebant: nunc fingunt institutum esse vitæ genus ad promerendam gratiam et justitiam; imo prædicant esse statum perfectionis, et longe præferunt omnibus aliis vitæ generibus a Deo ordinatis. What occurred afterwards in the monasteries? In old time they were schools for the study of sacred letters, and other branches of knowledge, which were profitable to the Church; and thence were pastors and bishops taken: but now the case is altered. It is needless to rehearse what is notorious. In old time they came together into such places to learn; but now they feign that it is a kind of life taken up to merit remission of sins and justification; yea, they say it is a state of perfection, and prefer it to all other kinds of life, the kinds that God ordained.
posset de hac re doctrina nostrorum. exaggerating nothing, to the end that the doctrine of our churches touching this matter might be understood.
haberet causas, cur mutari posit: nec Romani Pontifices dispensassent; neque enim licet homini obligationem, quæ simpliciter est juris divini, rescindere. Sed prudenter judicaverunt Romani Pontifices æquitatem in hac obligatione adhibendam esse. Ideo sæpe de votis dispensasse leguntur. Nota est historia de Rege Arragonum, revocato ex monasterio, et extant exempla nostri temporis. vows has no causes why it might be changed, then could not the Roman Pontiffs have dispensed therewith. For neither is it lawful for man to disannul that bond which doth simply belong to the law of God. But the Roman Pontiffs have judged very prudently, that in this obligation there must equity be used; therefore they often, as we read, have dispensed with vows. The history of the King of Arragon, being called back out of a monastery, is well known; and there are examples in our own time.
voti naturam esse, quod non sponte, quod inconsulto admittitur. against the nature of a vow, that it is not done of a man's own accord, nor advisedly.
irrita, qui omnis cultus Dei, ab hominibus sine mandato Dei institutus et electus ad promerendam justificationem et gratiam, impius est, sicut Christus ait (Matt. xv.9): 'Frustra colunt me mandatis hominum.' Et Paulus ubique docet, justitiam non esse quærendam ex nostris observationibus et cultibus, qui sint excogitati ab hominibus, sed contingere eam per fidem credentibus, se recipi in gratiam a Deo propter Christum. void: because that all the worship of God, instituted of men without the commandment of God, and chosen to merit remission of sins and justification, is wicked; as Christ saith: 'In vain they do worship me, teaching for doctrines the commandments of men' (Matt. xv.9). And Paul doth every where teach that righteousness is not to be sought of our own observances, and services which are devised by men; but that it cometh by faith to those that believe that they are received into favor by God for Christ's sake.
Christo, et a gratia excidunt. Nam et hi, qui votis tribuunt justificationem, tribuunt propriis operibus hoc, quod proprie ad gloriam Christi pertinet. Neque vero negari potest, quin monachi docuerint, se per vota et observationes suas justificari et mereri remissionem peccatorum, imo affinxerunt absurdiora, dixerunt se aliis mutuari sua opera. Hæc si quis velit odiose exaggerare, quam multa possit colligere, quorum jam ipsos monachos pudet. justified by vows, are made void of Christ, and fall from grace. For they also who attribute justification to their vows, attribute to their own works what properly belongs to the glory of Christ. Nor truly can it be denied that the monks taught that they are justified by their vows and observances, and merit the remission of sins; nay, they invented yet greater absurdities, and said they could transfer their good works to others. If any man wished to expand these things, so as to excite odium, how many things might he rehearse whereof the monks themselves are now ashamed!
Dei et verus cultus Dei, cum audiunt homines, solos monachos esse in statu perfectionis, quia perfectio Christiana est serio timere Deum, et rursus concipere magnam fidem, et confidere propter Christum, quod habeamus Deum placatum, petere a Deo, et certo expectare auxilium in omnibus rebus gerendis, juxta vocationem; interim foris diligenter facere bona opera, et servire vocationi. In his rebus est vera perfectio et verus cultus Dei, non est in cælibatu, aut mendicitate, aut veste sordida. God, and the true worship of God, are obscured when men hear that monks alone are in that state of perfection; because that Christian perfection is this, to bear God sincerely, and again, to conceive great faith, and to trust assuredly that God is pacified towards us, for Christ's sake; to ask, and certainly to look for, help from God in all our affairs, according to our calling; and outwardly to do good works diligently, and to attend to our vocation. In these things doth true perfection and the true worship of God consist: it doth not consist in singleness of life, in beggary, or in vile apparel. Verum populus concipit multas perniciosas opiniones ex illis falsis preconiis vitæ monasticæ. Audit sine modo laudari cælibatum: ideo cum offensione conscientiæ versatur in conjugio. Audit solos mendicos esse perfectos: ideo cum offensione conscientiæ versatur in conjugio. Audit solos mendicos esse perfectos: ideo cum offensione conscientæ retinet possessiones, negotiatur. Audit consilium Evangelicum esse de non vindicando: ideo alii in privata vita non verentur ulcisci, audiunt enim consilium esse, non præceptum. Alii omnes magistratus et civilia officia judicant indigna esse Christianis. The people doth also conceive many pernicious opinions from these false commendations of the monastic life. They hear celibacy praised above measure; therefore with offense of conscience they live in marriage. They hear that mendicants only are perfect; therefore with offense of conscience they keep their possessions, and buy and sell. They hear that the Gospel only giveth counsel not to take revenge; therefore some in private life are not afraid to avenge themselves; for they hear that it is a counsel, not a commandment. Others do think that all magistracy and civil offices are unworthy of Christian men.
Leguntur exempla hominum, qui deserto conjugio, deserta reipublicæ administratione, abdiderunt se in monasteria. Id vocabant fugere ex mundo, et quærere vitæ genus, quod Deo magis placeret, nec videbant, Deo serviendum esse in illis mandatis, quæ ipse tradidit, non in mandatis, quæ sunt excogitata ab hominibus. Bonum et perfectum vitæ genus est, quod habet mandatum Dei. De his rebus necesse est admonere homines. Et ante hæc tempora reprehendit Gerson errorem monachorum de perfectione, et testatur, suis temporibus novam vocem fuisse, quod vita monastica sit status perfectionis. We read examples of men who, forsaking wedlock, and leaving the government of the commonwealth, have hid themselves in monasteries. This they called flying out of the world, and seeking a kind of life which is more acceptable to God: neither did they see that God is to be served in those commandments which he himself hath delivered, not in the commandments which are devised by men. That is a good and perfect kind of life which hath the commandment of God for it. It is necessary to admonish men of these things. And before these times Gerson did reprehend this error of the monks concerning perfection; and witnesseth, that in his time this was a new saying, that the monastical life is a state of perfection. Tam multæ impiæ opiniones hærent in votis, quod justificent, quod sint perfectio Christiana, quod servent consilia et præcepta, quod habeant opera supererogationis. Hæc omnia cum sint falsa et inania, faciunt vota irrita. Thus many wicked opinions do cleave fast unto vows: as that they merit remission of sins and justification, that they are Christian perfection, that they do keep the counsels and commandments, that they have works of supererogation. All these things (seeing they be false and vain) do make vows to be of none effect. Art. VII. -- De Potestate Ecclesiastica. Art. VII. -- Of Ecclesiastical Power.
quibus nonnulli incommode commiscuerunt potestatem Ecclesiasticam et potestatem gladii. in which many have incommodiously mingled together the Ecclesiastical power and the power of the sword. Et ex hac confusione maxima bella, maximi motus extiterunt, dum Pontifices, freti potestate clavium, non solum novos cultus instituerunt reservatione casuum, violentis excommunicationibus conscientias oneraverunt, sed etiam regna mundi transferre et imperatoribus adimere imperium conati sunt. And out of this confusion there have sprung very great wars and tumults, while that the Pontiffs, trusting in the power of the keys, have not only appointed new kinds of service, and burdened men's consciences by reserving of cases, and by violent excommunications; but have also endeavored to transfer worldly kingdoms from one to another, and to despoil emperors of their power and authority.
hoc mandata Christus mittit Apostolos (John xx.21 sqq.): 'Sicut misit me Pater, ita et ego mitto vos. Accipite Spiritum Sanctum: quorum remiseritis peccata, remittuntur eis, et quorum retinueritis peccata, retenta sunt.' Mark xvi.15: 'Ite, prædicate Evangelium omni creaturæ,' etc. For Christ doth send his Apostles with this charge: 'As the Father hath sent me, even so send I you. Receive ye the Holy Ghost: whosesoever sins ye remit, they are remitted unto them; and whosesoever sins ye retain, they are retained' (John xx.21-23). 'Go and preach the Gospel to every creature,' etc. (Mark xvi.15).
adversus manifestas injurias, et coërcet homines gladio et corporalibus pænis, ut justitiam civilem et pacem retineat. bodily things, against manifest injuries; and coerces men by the sword and corporal punishments, that it may uphold civil justice and peace. Non igitur commiscendæ sunt potestates ecclesiastica et civilis: ecclesiastica suum mandatum habet Evangelii docendi et administrandi Sacramenta. Non irrumpat in alienum officium, non transferat regna mundi, non abroget leges magistratuum, non tollat legitimam obedientiam, non impediat judicia de ullis civilibus ordinationibus aut contractibus, non præscribat leges magistratibus de forma rei publicæ; sicut dicit Christus (John xviii.36): 'Regnum meum non est de hoc mundo.' Item (Luke xii.14): 'Quis constituit me judicem aut divisiorem super vos?' Et Paulus ait (Phil. iii.20): 'Nostra politia in coelis est.' 2 Cor. x.4: 'Arma militiæ nostræ non sunt carnalia, sed potentia Dei, ad destruendas cogitationes,' etc. Ad hunc modum discernunt nostri utriusque potestatis officia, et jubent utramque honore afficere et agnoscere, utramque Dei donum et beneficium esse. Wherefore the ecclesiastical and civil powers are not to be confounded. The ecclesiastical power hath its own commandment to preach the Gospel and administer the Sacraments. Let it not by force enter into the office of another; let it not transfer worldly kingdoms; let it not abrogate the magistrates' laws; let it not withdraw from them lawful obedience; let it not hinder judgments toughing any civil ordinances or contracts; let it not prescribe laws to the magistrate touching the form of the republic; as Christ saith, 'My kingdom is not of this world' (John xviii.36). Again, 'Who made me a judge or a divider over you?' (Luke xii.14). And Paul saith, 'Our conversation [citizenship] is in heaven' (Phil. iii.20). 'The weapons of our warfare are not carnal, but might through God, casting down imaginations,' etc. (2 Cor. x.4). In this way do our teachers distinguish between the duties of each power one from the other, and do warn all men to honor both powers, and to acknowledge both to be the [highest] gift and blessing of God. Si quam habent Episcopi potestatem If so be that the Bishops have
gladii, hanc non habent Episcopi ex mandato Evangelii, sed jure humano donatam a regibus et imperatoribus, ad administrationem civilem suorum bonorum. Hæc interim alia functio est, quam ministerium Evangelii. any power of the sword, they have it not as Bishops by the commandment of the Gospel, but by man's law given unto them of kings and emperors, for the civil government of their goods. This, however, is a kind of function diverse from the ministry of the gospel.
Gal. i.8: 'Si Angelus de coelo aliud Evangelium evangelizaverit, anathema sit.' 2 Cor. xiii.8: 'Non possumus aliquid contra veritatem, sed pro veritate,' Item (10): 'Data est nobis potestas ad ædificationem, non ad destructionem.' Sic et Canones præcipiunt (II. Quæst. VII. Cap. Sacerdotes, et Cap. Oves). Et Augustinus contra Petiliani Epistolam inquit: 'Nec Catholicis Episcopis consentiendum est, sicubi forte falluntur, aut contra Canonicas Dei Scripturas aliquid sentiunt.' of false prophets' (Matt. vii.15). 'If an angel from heaven preach any other Gospel, let him be accursed' (Gal. i.8). 'We can not do any thing against the truth, but for the truth' (2 Cor. xiii.8). Also, 'This power is given us to edify, and not to destroy' (2 Cor. xiii.10). So do the Canons command (II. Quæst.7, Cap. Sacerdotes, and Cap. Oves). And Augustine, in his Treatise against Petilian's Epistle, saith, 'Neither must we subscribe to Catholic Bishops, if they chance to err, or determine any thing contrary to the canonical divine Scriptures.'
multa habeo vobis dicere, sed non potestis portare modo. Cum autem venerit ille Spiritus veritatis, docebit vos omnem veritatem.' Allegant etiam exemplum Apostolorum, qui prohibuerunt abstinere a sanguine et suffocato. Allegant Sabbatum mutatum in diem Dominicum, contra Decalogum ut videtur. Nec ullum exemplum magis jactatur, quam mutatio Sabbati. Magnam contendunt Ecclesiæ potestatem esse, quod dispensaverit de præcepto Decalogi. testimony for it: 'I have yet many things to say unto you, but ye can not bear them now; but when that Spirit of truth shall come, he shall teach you all truth' (John xvi 12, 13). They allege also the examples of the Apostles, who commanded to abstain from blood, and that which was strangled (Acts xv.29). They allege the change of the Sabbath into the Lord's day, contrary, as it seemeth, to the Decalogue; and they have no example more in their mouths than the change of the Sabbath. They will needs have the Church's power to be very great, because it hath dispensed with a precept of the Decalogue. Sed de hac quæstione nostri sic docent, quod Episcopi non habent poststatem statuendi aliquid contra Evangelium, ut supra ostensum est, docent idem Canones IX. Distinct. Porro contra Scripturam est, traditiones condere aut exigere, ut per eam observationem satis faciamus pro peccatis, aut mereamur gratiam et justitiam. Leditur enim Gloria meriti Christi, cum talibus observationibus conamur mereri justificationem. Constat autem propter hanc persuasionem, in Ecclesia pene in infinitum crevisse traditiones, oppressa interim doctrina de fide But of this question ours do thus teach: that the Bishops have no power to ordain any thing contrary to the Gospel, as was showed before. The same also do the Canons teach: Distinct.9. Moreover, it is against the Scripture to ordain or require the observation of any traditions, to the end that we may merit remission of sins, and satisfy for sins by them. For the glory of Christ's merit suffers when we seek by such observances to merit justification. And it is very apparent, that through this persuasion traditions grew into an infinite number in the Church. In the mean while, the doctrine concerning faith, and the
et justitia fidei, quia subinde plures feriæ factæ sunt, jejunia indicta, ceremoniæ novæ, novi honores sanctorum instituti sunt, quia arbitrabantur se autores talium rerum his operibus mereri gratiam. Sic olim creverunt Canones poenitentiales, quorum adhuc in satisfactionibus vestigial quædam videmus. righteousness of faith, was quite suppressed, for thereupon there were new holidays made, new fasts appointed, new ceremonies, new worships for saints, instituted; because that the authors of such things supposed by these works to merit grace. After the same manner heretofore did the Penitential Canons increase, whereof we still see some traces in satisfactions.
culpæ, sed de reservatione poenæ ecclesiasticæ loquantur. reserving of ecclesiastical penalty, and not of the reserving of the fault. Unde habent jus episcopi has traditiones imponendi Ecclesiis ad illaqueandas conscientias, quum Petrum (Acts xv.10) vetet 'imponere jugum discipulis,' quum Paulus (2 Cor. xiii.10) dicat, potestatem ipsis datam esse 'ad ædificationem, non ad destructionem.' Cur igitur augent peccata per has traditiones? Whence, then, have the Bishops power and authority of imposing these traditions upon the churches, for the ensnaring of men's consciences, when Peter forbids (Acts xv.10) 'to put a yoke upon the neck of the disciples,' and St. Paul says (2 Cor. xiii.10) that the power given him was to edification, not to destruction? Why, therefore do they increase sins by these traditions? Verum extant clara testimonia, quæ prohibent condere tales traditiones ad promerendam gratiam, aut tanquam necessarias ad salutem. Paulus (Col. ii.16): 'Nemo vos judicet in cibo, potu, parte diei festi, novilunio aut Sabbatis.' Item (20): 'Si mortui estis cum Christo ab elementis mundi, quare tanquam viventes in mundo, decreta facitis? Non attingas, non gustes, non contrectes; quæ omnia pereunt usu, et sunt mandata et doctrinæ hominum, quæ habent speciem sapientiæ.' Item, ad Titum (i.14) aperte prohibet traditiones: 'Non attendentes Judaicis fabulis et mandatis hominum aversantium veritatem.' Et Christus (Matt. xv.14) inquit de his, qui exigent traditions: 'Sinite illos, cæci sunt et duces For there are divers clear testimonies which prohibit the making of such traditions, either to merit grace, or as things necessary to salvation. Paul saith to the Colossians, 'Let no man judge you in meat, or in drink, or in respect of a holiday, or of the new moon, or of the Sabbath days' (Col. ii.16). Again, 'If ye be dead with Christ from the rudiments of the world, why, as though living in the world, are ye subject to ordinances (Touch not, taste not, handle not; which all are to perish with the using) after the commandments and doctrines of men? Which things indeed have a show of wisdom' (Col. ii.20-23). And to Titus he doth plainly forbid traditions; for he saith, 'Not giving heed to Jewish fables, and to commandments of men, that turn from the truth' (Tit. i.14). And Christ saith of them
cæcorum.' Et improbat tales cultus (13): 'Omnis plantatio, quam non plantavit Pater meus cælestis, eradicabitur.' which urge traditions, 'Let them alone; they be blind leaders of the blind' (Matt. xv.14). And he condemneth such services: 'Every plant which my heavenly Father hath not planted shall be rooted up' (ver.13).
Quid igitur sentiendum est de die Dominico et similibus ritibus templorum? Ad hæc respondent [die Unsern], quod liceat Episcopis seu Pastoribus facere ordinationes, ut res ordine gerantur in Ecclesia, non ut per illas mereamur gratiam, aut satis faciamus pro peccatis, aut obligentur conscientiæ, ut judicent esse necessarios cultus, ac sentient se peccare, cum sine offensione aliorum violant. Sic Paulus ordinat (1 Cor. xi.15) 'ut in congregatione mulieres velent capita' (1 Cor. xiv.30), 'ut ordine audiantur in Ecclesia interpretes,' etc. What is, then to be thought of the Lord's day, and of like rites of temples? Hereunto they [ours] answer, that it is lawful for Bishops or Pastors to make ordinances, whereby things may be done in order in the Church; not that by them we may merit grace, or satisfy for sins, or that men's consciences should be bound to esteem them as necessary services, and think that they sin when they violate them, without the offense of others. So Paul ordained, 'that women should cover their heads in the congregation' (1 Cor. xi.6); 'that the interpreters of Scriptures should be heard in order in the Church' (1 Cor. xiv.27), etc. Tales ordinations convenit ecclesias propter caritatem et tranquillitatem servare eatenus, ne alius alium offendat, ut ordine et sine tumultu omnia fiant in ecclesiis (1 Cor. xiv.40, comp. Phil. ii.14): verum ita, ne conscientiæ onerentur, ut ducant res esse necessarias ad salutem, ac judicent se peccare, cum violant eas sine aliorum offensione, sicut nemo dixerit peccare mulierem, quæ in publicum non velato capite procedit, sine offensione hominum. Such ordinances it behooveth the churches to keep for charity and quietness' sake, so that one offend not another, that all things may be done in order, and without tumult in the churches (1 Cor. xiv.40 and Phil. ii.14), but so that consciences be not burdened, so as to account them as things necessary to salvation, and think they sin when they violate them, without offense of others; as no one would say that a woman sins if she went into public with her head uncovered, provided it were without the offense of men.
Paschatis, Pentecostes et similium feriarum et rituum. Nam qui judicant Ecclesiæ autoritate pro Sabbato institutam esse diei Dominici observationem, tanquam necessariam, longe errant. Scriptura abrogavit Sabbatum, quæ docet omnes ceremonias Mosaicas, post revelatum Evangelium omitti posse. Et tamen, quia opus erat constituere certum diem, ut sciret populus, quando convenire deberet, apparet Ecclesiam [die christliche Kirche] ei rei destinasse diem Dominicum, qui ob hanc quoque causam videtur magis placuisse, ut haberent homines exemplum Christianæ libertatis, et scirent, nec Sabbati nec alterius diei observationem necessariam esse [dass weder die Haltung des Sabbaths, noch eines andern Tages vonnöthen sei].  Lord's day, of Easter, of Pentecost, and like holidays and rites. For they that think that the observation of the Lord's day was appointed by the authority of the Church, instead of the Sabbath, as necessary, are greatly deceived. The Scripture, which teacheth that all the Mosaical ceremonies can be omitted after the Gospel is revealed, has abrogated the Sabbath. And yet, because it was requisite to appoint a certain day, that the people might know when they ought to come together, it appears that the [Christian] Church did for that purpose appoint the Lord's day: which for this cause also seemed to have been pleasing, that men might have an example of Christian liberty, and might know that the observation, neither of the Sabbath, nor of another day, was of necessity. Extant prodigiosæ disputationes de mutatione legis, de ceremoniis novæ legis, de mutatione Sabbati, quæ omnes ortæ sunt There are certain marvelous disputations touching the changing of the law, and the ceremonies of the new law, and the change of the Sabbath:
ex falsa persuasione, quod oporteat in Ecclesia cultum esse similem Levitico, et quod Christus commiserit Apostolis et Episcopis excogitare novas ceremonias, quæ sint ad salutem necessariæ. Hi errores serpserunt in Ecclesiam, cum justitia fidei non satis clare doceretur. Aliqui disputant, diei Dominici observationem non quidem juris divini esse, sed quasi juris divini; præscribunt de feriis, quatenus liceat operari. Hujusmodi disputationes quid sunt aliud, nisi laquei conscientiarum? Quanquam enim conentur epiikeizare [zu lindern und epiiciren] traditiones, tamen nunquam potest æquitas deprehendi [so kann man doch kein epieikeian oder Linderung treffen], donec manet opinio necessitatis, quam manere necesse est, ubi ignorantur justitia fidei et libertas Christiana. which all arose from the false persuasion, that there should be a service in the Church, like to the Levitical; and that Christ committed to the Apostles and Bishops the devising new ceremonies, which should be necessary to salvation. These errors crept into the Church, when the righteousness of faith was not plainly enough taught. Some dispute that the observation of the Lord's day is not indeed of the law of God, but as it were of the law of God; and touching holidays, they prescribe how far it is lawful to work in them. What else are such disputations but snares for men's consciences? For though they seek to moderate traditions, yet the equity of them can never be perceived so long as the opinion of necessity remaineth; which must needs remain, where the righteousness of faith and Christian liberty are not know.
Vix ulli Canones servantur accurate, et multi quotidie exotescunt apud illos etiam, qui diligentissime defendunt traditiones. Nec potest conscientiis consuli, nisi hæc æquitas servetur [wo diese Linderung nicht gehalten wird], ut sciamus eos sine opinione necessitatis servari, nec lædi conscientias, etiamsi traditiones exolescant. Scarcely any canons are precisely kept; and many grow out of use daily, yea, even among them that do most busily defend traditions. Neither can there be sufficient care had of men's consciences, except this equity be kept, that men should know that such rites are not to be observed with any opinion of necessity, and that men's consciences are not hurt, though traditions grow out of use.
illas nunc mitigare, quia talis mutatio non labefacit Ecclesiæ unitatem. Multæ enim traditiones humanæ tempore mutatæ sunt, ut ostendunt ipsi Canones. Quod si non potest impetrari, ut relaxentur observationes, quæ sine peccato non possunt præstari, oportet nos regulam Apostolicam sequi (Acts v.29), quæ præcipit, 'Deo magis obedire, quam hominibus.' gentleness to mitigate them now; for such a change would not overthrow the unity of the Church. For many human traditions have been changed in time, as the Canons themselves declare. But if it can not be obtained that those observances may be relaxed which can not be kept without sin, then must we follow the Apostles' rule, which willeth 'to obey God rather than men' (Acts v.29). Petrus (1 Pet. v.3) vetat Episcopos dominari, et ecclesiis imperare. Nunc non id agitur, ut dominatio eripiatur Episcopis, sed hoc unum petitur, ut patiantur Evangelium pure doceri, et relaxent paucas quasdam observationes, quæ sine peccato servari non possunt. Quod si nihil remiserint, ipsi viderint, quomodo Deo rationem reddituri sint, quod pertinacia sua causam schismati præbent [Spaltung und Schisma, das sie doch billig sollen verhüten helfen]. Peter forbiddeth Bishops to be lords, and to be imperious over the churches (1 Pet. v.3). Now our meaning is not to have rule taken from the Bishops; but this one thing only is requested at their hands, that they would suffer the Gospel to be purely taught, and that they would relax a few observances, which can not be held without sin. But if they will remit none, let them look how they will give account to God for this, that by their obstinacy they afford cause of schism [division and schism, which it were yet fit they should aid in avoiding].
Parochiæ multipliciter vexabantur per Stationarios. Infinitæ contentiones erant pastoribus cum monachis, de jure parochiali, de confessionibus, de sepulturis, de extraordinariis concionibus, et de aliis innumerabilibus rebus. Hujusmodi negotia prætermisimus, ut illa, quæ sunt in hac causa præcipua, breviter proposita, facilius cognosci possent. Neque hic quicquam ad ullius contumeliam dictum aut collectum est. Tantum ea recitata sunt, quæ videbantur necessario dicenda esse, ut intelligi posit in doctrina ac ceremoniis apud nos nihil esse receptum contra Scripturam aut Ecclesiam Catholicam [gemeiner christlichen Kirchen], quia manifestum est, nos diligentissime cavisse, ne qua nova et impia dogmata in ecclesias nostras serperent [sich einflechte, einreisse und überhand nehme]. excommunication. The parishes have been vexed in manifold ways by the stationarii. Endless contentions have arisen between the pastors and the monks about parochial law, about confession, about burials, about sermons on extraordinary occasions, and about other things without number. Things of this sort we pass over, that those which are chief in this matter, being briefly set forth, may more easily be noted. Nor has any thing been here said or adduced for the purpose of casting reproach on any one. Those things only have been enumerated which it seem necessary to say, that it might be understood that in doctrine and ceremonials among us there is nothing received contrary to Scripture or to the Catholic [Universal Christian] Church, inasmuch as it is manifest that we have diligently taken heed that no new and godless doctrines should creep into our churches.
Georgius, Marchio Brandenburgensis.
Senatus Magistratusque Nurnbergensis.
Senate and Magistracy of Nuremberg.
 The title of the German edition is Confessio odder Bekantnus des Glaubens etlicher Fürsten und Stedte: Uberantwort Kaiserlicher Majestet: zu Augspurg, Anno M.D.XXX.  The title of the German edition is Confessio odder Bekantnus des Glaubens etlicher Fürsten und Stedte: Uberantwort Kaiserlicher Majestet: zu Augspurg, Anno M.D.XXX.  Germ. ed.: Artikel des Glaubens und der Lehre.  The Antitrinitarian Anabaptists, Denk, Hetzer, etc., but not Servede and the Socinians, who appeared after 1530. See Zöckler, Die Augsb. Conf. p. 137.  The Antitrinitarian Anabaptists, Denk, Hetzer, etc., but not Servede and the Socinians, who appeared after 1530. See Zöckler, Die Augsb. Conf. p. 137.  Much enlarged in the edition of 1540.  The edition of 1540 changes this sentence as follows: Damnant Pelagianos, qui negant peccatum originis, et sentiunt defectus illos seu concupiscentiam esse res indifferentes seu poenas tantum, nec esse res sua natura domnatas, et somniant hominem legi Dei satisfacere posse, et propter hanc propriam obedientiam coram Deo justum pronunciari.  Much enlarged in the edition of 1540.  This Article is also much enlarged in the edition of 1540.  The Roman theologians, who teach that men receive the Holy Ghost through the Sacraments ex opere operato. Apol., German text, p. 71, Rechenb. edition.  Edition of 1540: Congregatio membrorum Christi, hoc est, Sanctorum, qui vere credunt et obediunt Christo; etsi in hac vita huic congregationi multi mali et hypocritæ admixti sunt usque ad novissimum judicium.  The Wiclefites (Donatistas et Viglevistas). Apol. p. 150, Rechenb. edition.  Edition of 1540: 'Infantes.'  The edition of 1540 adds after Baptismo: 'et extra Ecclesiam Christi.'  In the edition of 1540 the tenth article reads thus: 'De coena Domini docent quod cum pane et vino vere exhibeantur corpus et sanguis Christi vescentibus in Coena Domini.' The disapproval of other views is omitted. This is by far the most important departure from the original edition, and has caused much controversy. See Vol. I.[p. 241.  The wording of this article is considerably changed in the edition of 1540.  This article is enlarged to more than double its original size in the altered edition of 1540.  Considerably enlarged in the edition of 1540.  The first sentence of the conclusion of Part I. is much longer in the German text: 'Dies ist fast die Summa der Lehre, welche in unsern Kirchen zu rechtem christlichem Unterricht und Trost der Gewissen, auch zu Besserung der Gläubigen gepredigt und gelehret ist,' etc. The rest also differs considerably.  In the edition of 1540 Melanchthon changed the order of the articles, and put the Art. De Missa first.  The German edition omits the reference to Cardinal Nicolas de Cusa (d. 1464), but adds the clause which follows.  The word here denotes the public service with the holy communion. Missa (= missio, dismissal) is usually derived from the formula--missa or dismissa est ecclesia--by which in the ante-Nicene Church the catechumens were dismissed before the communion-service began, hence the division of the ancient service into two distinct parts, the missa catechumenorum and the missa fidelium.  The word here denotes the public service with the holy communion. Missa (= missio, dismissal) is usually derived from the formula--missa or dismissa est ecclesia--by which in the ante-Nicene Church the catechumens were dismissed before the communion-service began, hence the division of the ancient service into two distinct parts, the missa catechumenorum and the missa fidelium.  Viz., in Decret. P. I. Dist. XII. cap. 10, quod incipit a verbis: 'Novit fraternitas tua.' Vide Corp. jur. Can. ed. Richter, Tom. I. p. 25 sq. (From Bindseil.)  The ed. princeps reads possibi--a typographical error.  This view of the Christian Sabbath, which was held by all the Reformers, and still prevails on the Continent of Europe, overlooks the important fact that the Sabbath has a moral as well as a ceremonial aspect, and is a part of the Decalogue, which the Lord did not come 'to destroy, but to fulfill' (Matthew 5:17, 18; comp. xxii. 37-40; Romans 3:31; x. 4). As a periodical day of rest for the body, and worship for the soul, the Sabbath is founded in the physical and moral constitution of man, and reflects the rest of God after the work of creation (Genesis 2:3). Under this view it is of primitive origin, like the institution of marriage, and of perpetual obligation, like the other commandments of the Decalogue. A lax theory of the Sabbath naturally leads to a lax practice, and tends to destroy the blessing of this holy day. The Anglo-American churches have an unspeakable advantage over those of the Continent of Europe in their higher theory and practice of Sabbath observance, which dates from the close of the sixteenth century. Even Puritan rigor is better than the opposite extreme.
 The title of the German edition is Confessio odder Bekantnus des Glaubens etlicher Fürsten und Stedte: Uberantwort Kaiserlicher Majestet: zu Augspurg, Anno M.D.XXX.
 Germ. ed.: Artikel des Glaubens und der Lehre.
 The Antitrinitarian Anabaptists, Denk, Hetzer, etc., but not Servede and the Socinians, who appeared after 1530. See Zöckler, Die Augsb. Conf. p. 137.
 The Antitrinitarian Anabaptists, Denk, Hetzer, etc., but not Servede and the Socinians, who appeared after 1530. See Zöckler, Die Augsb. Conf. p. 137.
 Much enlarged in the edition of 1540.
 The edition of 1540 changes this sentence as follows: Damnant Pelagianos, qui negant peccatum originis, et sentiunt defectus illos seu concupiscentiam esse res indifferentes seu poenas tantum, nec esse res sua natura domnatas, et somniant hominem legi Dei satisfacere posse, et propter hanc propriam obedientiam coram Deo justum pronunciari.
 Much enlarged in the edition of 1540.
 This Article is also much enlarged in the edition of 1540.
 The Roman theologians, who teach that men receive the Holy Ghost through the Sacraments ex opere operato. Apol., German text, p. 71, Rechenb. edition.
 Edition of 1540: Congregatio membrorum Christi, hoc est, Sanctorum, qui vere credunt et obediunt Christo; etsi in hac vita huic congregationi multi mali et hypocritæ admixti sunt usque ad novissimum judicium.
 The Wiclefites (Donatistas et Viglevistas). Apol. p. 150, Rechenb. edition.
 Edition of 1540: 'Infantes.'
 The edition of 1540 adds after Baptismo: 'et extra Ecclesiam Christi.'
 In the edition of 1540 the tenth article reads thus: 'De coena Domini docent quod cum pane et vino vere exhibeantur corpus et sanguis Christi vescentibus in Coena Domini.' The disapproval of other views is omitted. This is by far the most important departure from the original edition, and has caused much controversy. See Vol. I.[p. 241.
 The wording of this article is considerably changed in the edition of 1540.
 This article is enlarged to more than double its original size in the altered edition of 1540.
 Considerably enlarged in the edition of 1540.
 The first sentence of the conclusion of Part I. is much longer in the German text: 'Dies ist fast die Summa der Lehre, welche in unsern Kirchen zu rechtem christlichem Unterricht und Trost der Gewissen, auch zu Besserung der Gläubigen gepredigt und gelehret ist,' etc. The rest also differs considerably.
 In the edition of 1540 Melanchthon changed the order of the articles, and put the Art. De Missa first.
 The German edition omits the reference to Cardinal Nicolas de Cusa (d. 1464), but adds the clause which follows.
 The word here denotes the public service with the holy communion. Missa (= missio, dismissal) is usually derived from the formula--missa or dismissa est ecclesia--by which in the ante-Nicene Church the catechumens were dismissed before the communion-service began, hence the division of the ancient service into two distinct parts, the missa catechumenorum and the missa fidelium.
 The word here denotes the public service with the holy communion. Missa (= missio, dismissal) is usually derived from the formula--missa or dismissa est ecclesia--by which in the ante-Nicene Church the catechumens were dismissed before the communion-service began, hence the division of the ancient service into two distinct parts, the missa catechumenorum and the missa fidelium.
 Viz., in Decret. P. I. Dist. XII. cap. 10, quod incipit a verbis: 'Novit fraternitas tua.' Vide Corp. jur. Can. ed. Richter, Tom. I. p. 25 sq. (From Bindseil.)
 The ed. princeps reads possibi--a typographical error.
 This view of the Christian Sabbath, which was held by all the Reformers, and still prevails on the Continent of Europe, overlooks the important fact that the Sabbath has a moral as well as a ceremonial aspect, and is a part of the Decalogue, which the Lord did not come 'to destroy, but to fulfill' (Matthew 5:17, 18; comp. xxii. 37-40; Romans 3:31; x. 4). As a periodical day of rest for the body, and worship for the soul, the Sabbath is founded in the physical and moral constitution of man, and reflects the rest of God after the work of creation (Genesis 2:3). Under this view it is of primitive origin, like the institution of marriage, and of perpetual obligation, like the other commandments of the Decalogue. A lax theory of the Sabbath naturally leads to a lax practice, and tends to destroy the blessing of this holy day. The Anglo-American churches have an unspeakable advantage over those of the Continent of Europe in their higher theory and practice of Sabbath observance, which dates from the close of the sixteenth century. Even Puritan rigor is better than the opposite extreme.