Verbs, 15-33
15. The Verb Einai. emen the 1st person singular of the imperfect, which is condemned by Phrynichus, occurs frequently in the LXX. It is found also in the N.T. --

1 Cor.13:11: Gal.1:10, 22: Acts 10:30, 11:5, 17, 22:19, 20: Mt.25:35: Jn.11:15. According to the text of Dindorf it occurs even in Eur. Hel.931. It is a familiar feature of Hellenistic Greek, being common in Philo and Josephus, also in the Pastor of Hermas, and occuring moreover in such authors as Epictetus (Diss.1.16.19), Plutarch (Pomp.74), Diogenes Laertius (6.56), Lucian (Asinus 46).

es for estha, which is condemned by the same authority, occurs in Jdg.11:35: Ruth 3:2: Job 38:4: Obd.1:11. Cp. Epict. Diss.4.1.132.

estosan is the only form for the 3d person plural imperative, neither eston nor onton being used. This form is found in Plato (Meno 92 D). See 16 d.

eto or esto occurs in Ps.103:31: 1 Mac.10:31, 16:3. So in N.T.1 Cor.16:22: James 5:12. Cp. Herm. Past. Vis.3.3.4: 1 Clem.48:5, where it occurs four times.

emetha for emen occurs in 1 K. [1 Sam.] 25:16: Baruch 1:19. This form appears in the Revisers' text in Eph.2:3.

16. The Termination -san. a. Probably the thing which will first arrest the attention of the student who is new to the Greek of the LXX is the termination in -san of the 3d person plural of the historical tenses of the active voice other than the pluperfect.

There are in Greek two terminations of the 3d person plural of the historic tenses --

(1) in -n, (2) in -san. Thus in Homer we have eban and also ebesan. In Attic Greek the rule is that thematic aorists (i.e. those which have a connecting vowel between the stem and the termination) and imperfects take n, e.g. --

e-lus-a-n, e-lab-o-n, elamban-o-n,

while non-thematic tenses and the pluperfect take -san, e.g. --

e-do-san, e-ti-the-san, e-le-luk-e-san

In the Greek of the LXX, which in this point represents the Alexadrian vernacular, thematic 2d aorists and imperfects may equally take -san.

Of 2d aorists we may take the following examples --

eidosan or idosan, eiposan, ekrinosan, elabosan, epiosan, heurosan, epherosan (=2d aor.), ephagosan, ephugosan, elthosan, hemartosan, erosan (Josh.3:14).

Compounds of these and others abound, e.g. -

apelthosan, dielthosan, eiselthosan, exelthosan, parelthosan, perielthosan, proselthosan, sunethosan, enebalosan, parenebalosan, exeliposan, kateliposan, apethanosan, eisegagosan.

b. Instances of imperfects, which, for our present purpose, mean historic tenses formed from a strengthened present stem, do not come so readily to hand. But here are two -

elambanosan Ezk.22:12. ephainosan 1 Mac.4:50.

These seem to be more common in the case of contracted vowel verbs --

egennosan Gen.6:4 euthenousan Lam.1:5.
epexonousan Nb.1:18. enomousan Ezk.22:11.
epoiousan Job 1:4. katenoousan Ex.33:8.
etapeinousan Judith 4:9. oikodomousan 2 Esd. [Ezra] 14:18. eulogousan Ps.61:5. pareterousan Sus. Th:12.
edoliousan Ps.5:9, 13:3.

Cp. Herm. Past. Sim.6.2.7 eustathousan, 9.9.5 edokousan.

Such forms occur plentifully in Mss. of the N.T., but the Revisers' text has only edoliousan in Romans 3:13 (a quotation from Ps.13:3) and parelabosan in 2 Thes.3:6.

c. The same termination -san sometimes takes the place of -en in the 3d person plural of the optative.

ainesaisan Gen.49:8. thereusaisan Job 18:7. eipoisan Ps.34:25. idoisan Job 21:20. ekkopsaisan Prov.24:52 kataphagoisan Prov.30:17. ekleipoisan Ps.103:35. olesaisan Job 18:11, 20:10. elthoisan Dt.33:16: Job 18:9, 11. peripatesaisan Job 20:26. enenkaisan Is.66:20. poiesaisan Dt.1:44. eulogesaisan Ps.34:25. purseusaisan Job 20:10. heuroisan Sir.33:9. pselaphesaisan Job 5:14, 12:25.

d. In Hellenistic Greek generally -san is also the termination of the 3d person plural of the imperative in all voices, e.g. --

1 K. [1 Sam.] 30:22 apagesthosan kai apostrephetosan.

For instances in N.T. see 1 Cor.7:9, 36: 1 Tim.5:4: Tit.3:14, Acts 24:20, 25:5.

17. Termination of the 2d Person Singular of Primary Tenses Middle and Passive. In the LXX, as in Attic, the 2d person singular of the present and futures, middle and passive, ends in -e, e.g. arxe, phage, lupethese. The only exceptions to this rule in Attic are boulei, oiei, opsei, and esei, of which the last is only used occasionally. In the LXX we have opsei in Nb.23:13.

The full termination of the 2d person singular of primary tenses middle and passive (-sai), which in Attic Greek appears only in the perfect of all verbs and in the present of -mi verbs, as le-lu-sai, di-do-sai, is occasionally to be found in the LXX in other cases.

apexenousai 3 K. [2 Kings} 14:6.

koimasai Dt.31:16 (A).

ktasai Sir.6:7.

piesai Dt.28:39: Ruth 2:9, 14: 3 K. [2 Kings} 17:4: Ps.127:2: Jer.29:13 (A): Ezk.4:11, 12:18, 23:32, 34.

phagesai Ruth 2:14: Ezk.12:18.

So in N.T. --

kauchasai Rom.2:17, 23: 1 Cor.4:7.

katakauchasai Rom.9:18.

odunasai Lk.16:25.

phagesai kai piesai su Lk.17:8.

The Pastor of Hermas yields us epispasai, planasai, chrasai. Such forms are still used in Modern Greek.

In theory -sai is the termination of every 2d person singular in the middle and passive voices, as in di-do-sai, le-lu-sai, so that pi-e-sai, is a perfectly regular formation. But in Attic Greek the s has dropped out wherever there is a connecting vowel, and then contraction has ensued. Thus piesai becomes first pieai, and finally pie. Confirmation of this theory is to be found in Homer, where there are many examples of the intermediate form, e.g. anaireai, deueseai, ercheai, eucheai, ideai, keleai, lexeai, lilaieai, maineai, nemeai, odureai, poleai. It is an interesting question whether piesai and phagesai are survivals in the popular speech of pre-Homeric forms, or rather revivals, as Jannaris and others think, on the analogy of the perfect middle and passive of all verbs and of the present middle and passive of -mi verbs.

In kauchasai and the like, contraction has taken place in the vowels preceding the s (kauchaesai = kauchasai). apechenousai (3 K. [2 Kings} 14:6) looks like a barbarism for apexenosai.

As against these fuller forms, we sometimes find contracted forms in the LXX, where the -sai is usual in Attic.

dune for dunasai. Dan. O 5:16. So in N.T. Lk.16:2: Rev.2:2. In Eur. Hec.253 Porson substituted duna for dune, as being more Attic. dunasai itself occurs in Job 10:13, 35:6, 14, 42:2: Wisd.11:23: Dan. Th 2:26, 4:15, 5:16: Bel Th:24.

episte for epistasai. Nb.20:14: Dt.22:2: Josh.14:6: Job 38:4: Jer.17:16: Ezk.37:4.

18. Aorist in -a. a. Another inflexional form for the frequency of which the classical student will hardly be prepared is the aorist in -a in other than semivowel verbs. Attic Greek offers some rare instances of this formation, as eip-a, enenk-a, eche-a, and in Homer we have such stray forms as keantes (Od.4.231), aleasthai (Od.9.274), seua (Il.20.189). Nevertheless this is the type which has prevailed in the modern language.

b. In Attic the aorist eipa occurs more frequently in the other moods than in the indicative (e.g. Plat. Soph.240 D eipaimen, Prot.353 A eipaton imperative, Phileb.60 D eipato, Meno 71 D eipon imperative).

In the LXX this aorist is equally common in the indicative.

eipa Dt.1:20: Ps.40:5.

eipas Gen.44:23: Judith 16:14. Cp. Hom. Il.1 106, 108.

eipamen Gen.42:31, 44:22, 26.

eipate Gen.43.29, 44:28, 45:9.

eipan Jdg.14:15, 18: 1 K. [1 Sam.] 10:14: 2 K. [2 Sam.] 17:20, 19:42: 4 K. [2 Kings] 1:6: Tob.7:5: Jer.49:2.

eipon Gen.45:17: Dan. O' 2:7.

eipato Dan. Th 2:7.

eipate (imperative) Gen.50:7. Cp. Hom. Od.3.427.

eipas Gen.46:2.

c. While the classical aorist elthon is common in the LXX, the form with -a also occurs, especially in the plural.

elthamen Nb.13:28.

elthate Gen.26:27, 42:12: Dt.1:20: Jdg.11:7.

elthan Gen.47:18: Jdg.12:1: 2 K. [2 Sam.] 17:20, 24:7: 2 Chr.25:18: Dan. Q 2:2.

elthato Esther 5:4, 8: Is.5:19: Jer.17:15.

elthate Prov.9:5.

eiselthatosan Ex.14:6.

This aorist is common in Mss. of the N.T., but has not been admitted into the Revisers' text. Cp. Herm. Past. Vis.1.4.1 elthan, .3 apelthan: 1 Clem.38:3 eiselthamen.

d. By the side of eidon we have an aorist in -a, especially in the 3d person plural, where its advantage is obvious. (See h below.)

eidamen 1 K. [1 Sam.] 10:14.

eidan Jdg.6:28, 16:24: 1 K. [1 Sam.] 6:19: 2 K. [2 Sam.] 10:14, 19.

e. Similarly by the side of ei-lon we have parts formed as though from ei-la.

katheilan Gen.44:11: 3 K. [2 Kings} 19:14.

heilato Dt.26:18.

aneilato Ex.2:5.

apeilato 1 K. [1 Sam.] 30:18.

dieilanto Josh.22:8.

exeilamen 1 K. [1 Sam.] 10:18.

exeilato Ex.18:4, 8: Josh.24:10: 1 K. [1 Sam.] 12:11, 17:37, 30:18.

pareilato Nb.11:25.

f. The aorist epesa occurs frequently in the 3d person plural, but is rare in other parts.

epesa Dan. O 8:17. pesato Jer.44:20 (AS), 49:2 (AS).

epesas 2 K. [2 Sam.] 3:34. pesate Hos.10:8.

Among compounds we find apepesatosan, diepesan, enepesan, epepesan.

So in N.T. --

epesa Rev.1:17.

epesan Rev.5:14, 6:13, 11:16, 17:10: Hb.11:30.

exepesate Gal.5:4.

Cp. Polyb.3.19.5 antepesan.

g. Other aorists of the same type are -

apethanan Tob.3:9. elaban 2 K. [2 Sam.] 23:16.

enkatelipan 2 Chr.29:6. ephagamen 2 K. [2 Sam.] 19:42.

ebalan 3 K. [2 Kings} 6:3. ephugan Jdg.7:21.

embalate Gen.44:1.

h. The frequency of the 3d person plural in this form is no doubt due to a desire to differentiate the 3d person plural from the 1st person singular, which are confounded in the historic tenses ending in -on. It also secured uniformity of ending with the aorist in -sa. In 2 K. [2 Sam.] 10:14 we have this collocation -

eidan . . . ephugan . . . eiselthan . . . anestrepsan.

In Jdg.6:3 we find the anomalous form anebainan followed by sunanebainon.

19. Augment. a. The augment with the pluperfect is at times omitted by Plato and the best Attic writers. Instances in the LXX are -

bebrokei 1 K. [1 Sam.] 30:12. endedukei Lvt.16:23. dedokein 2 K. [2 Sam.] 18:11. epebebekei Nb.22:22. dedokei 3 K. [2 Kings} 10:13 pepokei 1 K. [1 Sam.] 30:12. endedukein Job 29:14.

So in N.T. --

dedokei Mk.14:44. memenekeisan 1 Jn.2:19. dedokeisan Jn.11:57: cp. Mk.15:10. pepisteukeisan Acts 14:23. ekbeblekei Mk.16:9. pepoiekeisan Mk.15:7. kekrikei Acts 20:16.

But in the LXX we occasionally find other historic tenses without the augment, e.g.2 Esd. [Ezra] 14:18 oikodomousan. This is especially the case with eidon.

ides Lam.3:59. idon Gen.37:25, 40:5.
iden Gen.37:9, 40:6. proidon Gen.37:18.

b. In Attic Greek, when a preposition had lost its force and was felt as part of the verb, the augment was placed before, instead of after, it, as ekatheudon, ekathizon, ekathemen.

The same law holds in the Greek of the LXX, but is naturally extended to fresh cases, e.g. to pronomeuein, which in the Alexandrian dialect seems to have been the common word for to ravage.'

epronomeusamen Dt.2:35, 3:7. enechurasan Job 24:3. epronomeusan Nb.31:9.

c. The aorist enoixa is already found in Xenophon. In the LXX it is common, though by no means to the exclusion of the form with internal augment. Besides enoixa itself, which is conjugated throughout the singular and plural, we have also the following --

enoichthe Nb.16:32: Ps.105:17, 108:1. enoigon 1 Mac.11:2. enoichthesan Ezk.1:1. enoigeto 3 K. [2 Kings} 7:21. enoigmena Is.42:20.

So also in N.T. --

enoixe Acts 12:14, 14:27: Rev.8:1. dienoigmenous Acts 7:56. dienoixe Acts 16:14. enoige Rev.11:19.

Besides the Attic form with double internal augment, aneoxa, the LXX has also forms which augment the initial vowel of this, and so display a triple augment. --

eneoxe Gen.8:6: 3 Mac.6:18.

eneochthesan Gen.7:11: Sir.43:14: Dan.7:10.

eneogmenous 3 K. [2 Kings} 8:29: 2 Chr.6:20, 40, 7:15: Neh.1:6.

eneogmena 3 K. [2 Kings} 8:52.

So in N.T. --

eneogmenon Rev.10:8.

d. In propheteuein the internal augment is wrong, since the verb is formed on the noun prophetes. In the LXX proepheteusen occurs only in 1 K. [1 Sam.] 18:10 (A) and Sir.46:20. Nevertheless this is the form which has been everywhere preferred in the Revisers' text of the N.T.

proepheteuon Acts 19:6.

proepheteuse Mt.15:7: Mk.7:6: Lk.1:67: Jn.11:51: Jude 14.

proepheteusamen Mt.7:22.

proepheteusan Mt.11:18.

e. Instances of double augment in the LXX are --

apekateste Ex.15:27.

apekatestesen 1 Esd.1:33.

enochlethen 1 K. [1 Sam.] 30:13. Cp. Dan.3:50: Dan. O' 6:18.

20. Reduplication a. In verbs compounded with a preposition reduplication is sometimes applied to the preposition.

kekataramenos Dt.21:23: Sir.3:16. Cp. Enoch 27:2.

pepronomeumenos Is.42:2. Cp.19.b.

b. In the form kekaterantai (Nb.22:6, 24:9. Cp. Enoch 27:1,2.) we have what may be called double reduplication.

c. With rherimmenos (Jdg.4:22) and ekrerimmenen (Jdg.15:15) may be compared Homer's rherupomena (Od.6.59). rheriphthai [rheriphthai] is cited from Pindar by Choeroboscus.

d. The reduplicated present ekdiduskein occurs in four passages --

1 K. [1 Sam.] 31:8: 2 K. [2 Sam.] 23:10: Neh.4:23: Hos.7:1. It is used also by Josephus. Kichran, to lend,' occurs in three passages --

1 K. [1 Sam.] 1:28: Prov.13:11: Ps.111:5. kichremi is used in this sense by Demosthenes.

e. The verb krazein has a reduplicated weak aorist, ekekraxa, which is very common, especially in the Psalms; also a reduplicated strong aorist, though this is very rare.

ekekragen Is.6:3. ekekragon Is.6:4.

21. Attic Future. a. What is called the Attic future, i.e. the future out of which s has dropped, is more common in the LXX than in Attic Greek. Thus the future of elpizein, so far as it appears in Attic authors at all, is elpiso: but in the LXX it is always elpio. Among verbs in -izo which take this form of future are --

aichmalotizein engizein keratizein oionizein
aposkorakizein episterizein komizein sabbatizein
aphagnizein euangelizein melizein sullogizein
aphanizein katharizein merizein sunetizein
aphorizein kathizein

There is no apparent reason for the contradiction in the future of verbs in -izein. The retention of s in the future of such verbs is quite exceptional, as in Eccl.11:4 therisei (mid.), Lvt.25:5 ektheriseis. Of the two versions of Daniel O has in 4:29 psomisousi, while Th has psomiousin. Meniein has a future in the LXX of the same sort as verbs in -izein.

menio Jer.3:12. menieis Lvt.19:18.
meniei Ps.102:9.

b. In Attic Greek there are a few instances of verbs in -azein dropping the s and contracting in the future. Thus bibazein, exetazein have the futures bibo, exeto in addition to the full forms. In the LXX the former of these sometimes retains the s in the future (Dt.6:7: Ps.31:8: Is.40:13: Wisd.6:3: Sir.13:11), the latter always: but the tendency which they exemplify is carried out in the case of other verbs in -azein. Hence we meet with the following futures --

harpa Lvt.19:13.

harpomai Hos.5:14.

ekdikatai Lvt.19:18: Dt.32:43: Judith 11:10.

erga Gen.4:12, 29:27: Ex.20:9, 34:21: Lvt.25:40: Dt.5:13, 15:19: 2 K.[2 Sam.] 9:10.

ergatai Lvt.25:40: Job 33:29.

ergontai Is.5:10: Jer.37:8, 9, 22:13, 41:14: Ezk.48:19.

katerga Dt.28:39.

koima Dt.31:16.

koimatai Job 8:17.

c. Both in the LXX and in the N.T. semivowel verbs, i.e. those with l, r, m, n, have a contracted future, as in Attic, e.g. psalo, spereis, temeis, rhanei.

d. In Attic Greek the future of cheo is still cheo and indistinguishable from the present. In the LXX the future is distinguished by being treated as a contracted tense. Thus we have --

ekcheo, echeeis, ekcheei,
ekcheeite, ekcheousi.

The 1st person plural does not seem to occur.

e. To the contracted futures the LXX adds the post-classical helo, from the same stem as ei-lon. This future occurs both in the active and the middle voices, e.g. aphelo (Nb.11:17), exeleisthe (Josh.2:13).

So in N.T. --

anelei 2 Th.2:8.

f. In Attic telein and kalein are in the future indistinguishable from the present. In the later Greek of the LXX this ambiguity is avoided by the retention of the full form of the future. Thus we have --

sunteleso, sunteleseis, suntelesei,
suntelesete, suntelesousin,


kaleso, kaleseis, kalesei,
kalesete, kalesousin.

g. The future oleso, which is common in Homer but rare in Attic, does not occur in the LXX, which has only the contracted forms --

olei Prov.1:32. olountai Prov.2:22, 13:2, 15:5, 16:33, 25:19. oleitai Job 8:13.

h. On the other hand, elaseis in Ex.25:11 is the only instance of the future of elauno in the LXX.

i. In Attic skedannumi has future skedo, but in the LXX it retains the s, e.g. diaskedaso Jdg.2:1.

22. Retention of Short Vowel in the Future. As a rule in Greek a and e verbs lengthen the vowel in forming the future. Exceptions are spao and chalao among a verbs, and among e verbs aineo, kaleo, teleo. When the vowel is short in the future, it is also short in the 1st aorist.

To the e verbs which have the vowel short in the future and 1st aorist we may add from the LXX ponein, phthonein, phorein.

So in N.T. --

ephoresamen . . . . . phoresomen 1 Cor.15:49.

Cp. Herm. Past. Sim.9.13.3, 15.6 ephoresan.

23. Aorist of Semivowel Verbs. In Attic Greek semivowel verbs with a? in their stem lengthen the a? into e in forming the 1st aorist (as phan-, ephena), except after i or r, when they lengthen into a? (as mian-, emia?na, peran-, epera?na). See G. .672.

In the LXX many such verbs lengthen into a? when the a? of the stem is preceded by a consonant. Hence we meet with such forms as eglukanas, ekkatharon, exekathara, epecharas, epiphanon, epoimanen, esemanen, semane, huphanai, huphanen, huphanes, psalate. In Amos 5:2 esphalen is ambiguous, as it might be 2d aorist.

The form kathares is read in Dindorf's text of Xen. Ec.18.8, and in Hermann's text of Plato Laws 735 we have kathare in B followed by kathereien in D. The aorist esemana is found as early as Xenophon. Cp. Aristeas 16, 33. Ekerdana was always regarded as good Attic.

Such forms are also to be found in the N.T., e.g. --

ebaskanen Gal.3:1. esemanen Rev.1:1.

24. The Strong Tenses of the Passive. The Greek of the LXX displays a preference for the strong over the weak tenses of the passive, i.e. for the tenses which are formed directly from the verbal stem, namely, the 2d aorist and the 2d future. Thus engelen, which is not to be found in classical authors, except in a disputed reading of Eur. I.T.932, occurs frequently (in compounds) in the LXX, and the future passive, when employed, is the corresponding form in -esomai, e.g. Ps.21:81 anangelesetai, Ps.58:13 diangelesontai.

So again from rhipto we find only the 2d aorist and 2d future passive, e.g. Ezk.19:12 erriphe, 2 K. [2 Sam.] 20:21 rhiphesetai.

The following are other instances of the same formation: -

brachesetai (Brecho) Is.34:3.

graphesontai Ezk.13:9. Cp. Aristeas 32.

diethrubesan Nahum 1:6.

eklegenai Dan. O' 11:35.

heligesetai Is.34:4.

enephrage Ps.62:12.

exaliphenai 1 Chr.29:4. Cp. Plat. Phaedr.258 B.

epeskepesan 1 Chr.26:31.

ekatastatesan Tobit 1:15.

oruge Ps.93:18.

perieplakesan Ps.118:61.

sunephrugesan Ps.101:4.

hupetagesan Ps.59:10.

25. The Verbs peinan and dipsan. In Attic Greek these two verbs contract into e instead of a?. In the LXX they contract into a?, and peinao further forms its future and aorist in a? instead of e.

ean peina . . . ean dipsa Prov.25:21. epeinas Dt.25:18. dipsa (ind.) Is.29:8.

The parts of peinan which occur in the future and aorist are peinasei, peinasete, peinasousi, epeinasen, epeinasan, peinaso (subj.), peinasomen, peinasete.

So also in N.T. --

peinan Phil.4:12.

peina (ind.) 1 Cor.11:21.

peina . . . . . dipsa (subj.) Rom.12:20 (quoted from Prov.25:21).

ean tis dipsa Jn.7:37.

For the future and aorist of peinan in N.T. see Mt.12:1, 3, 25:35: Lk.4:2: Jn.6:35: Rev.7:16.

26. The Perfect of hekein. Hekein in the LXX has a perfect heka, which occurs however only in the plural.

hekamen Gen.47:4: Josh.9:12.

hekate Gen.42:7, 9: Dt.12:9: 1 Chr.12:17.

hekasi(n) 18 times.

This form occurs once in the N.T. --

hekasi Mk.8:3.

Cp.1 Clem.12:2 in a quotation from Josh.2:3.

The aorist hexa, which is found in late authors, is not used in the LXX.

Wherever the form heke occurs, it is either imperative, as in 2 K. [2 Sam.] 14:32, or imperfect, as in 2 Mac.4:31, 8:35, 14:4, 26.

27. Presents formed from Perfects. a. From the perfect hesteka there was formed a new present steko, which occurs in two or three passages of the LXX.

stekei Jdg.16:26. stekein 3 K. [2 Kings} 8:11. stekete (imper.) Ex.14:13 (A).

So in N.T. --

stekei Rom.14:4.

stekete (ind.) Phil.1:27.

stekete (imper.) 1 Cor.16:13: Gal.5:1: Phil.4:1: 2 Thes.2:15.

stekete 1 Th.3:8: Mk.11:25.

b. Similar to this is the verb gregorein, formed from egregora. We may conjecture that the pluperfect egegorei came to be regarded as a contracted imperfect, and so gave rise to gregoro.

egregoroun Jer.38:28.

gregorein 1 Mac.12:27.

gregorounton Neh.7:3.

gregoreso Jer.38:28.

egregorese(n) Jer.5:6: Bar.2:9: Dan. Th 9:14.

egregorethe Lam.1:14.

From this verb in its turn was formed a new verbal noun gregoresis Dan. Th 5:11, 14. Cp. also the proper name Gregorios.

So in N.T. --

gregoromen 1 Th.5:6.

gregoreite (imper.) 1 Cor.16:13: Mk.13:37.

gregoresate 1 Pet.5:8.

c. Of like origin is the aorist epepoithesa, which occurs in Job 31:24. From pepoithein again we have the noun pepoithesis 4 K. [2 Kings] 18:19.

d. The tendency to form new presents from perfects is already exhibited in Homer. Thus we have anogei (Od.5.139 etc.) formed from anoga, and gegonein (Il.12.337) from gegona; also the imperfect ememekon (Od.9.439) from memeka.

28. The Verb histanai and its Cognates. By the side of the forms in -mi there existed from Homer downwards alternative forms in -o. Some of these present themselves in the LXX. Thus we have the following parts of the transitive verb histao.

histosin 1 Mac.8:1.

histon 2 K. [2 Sam.] 22:34: Job 6:2: Ps.17:33: Sir.27:26: Is.44:26: 1 Mac.2:27.

Among its compounds we may notice the following -

kathiston Dt.17:15: Dan. O' 4:34. Cp. Aristeas 228.

kathista. . . . . methista Dan. Th 2:21.

methiston . . . . . kathiston Dan. O' 2:21.

methistosi 1 Mac.8:13.

methistan 3 Mac.6:24.

So in N.T. --

histomen Rom.3:31. suniston 2 Cor.10:18.
apokathista Mk.9:12. sunistontes 2 Cor.4:2, 6:4.

The form histanein, also transitive, occurs in Ezk.17:14. Cp. Aristeas 280, 281 kathistanein.

So in N.T. --

methistanein 1 Cor.13:2. sunistanein 2 Cor.3:1. Cp.5:12, 10:12.

Cp. Herm. Past. Vis.1.3.4 methistanei.

Later Greek has a transitive perfect hestaka, which is implied by the rare, though classical, perfect passive hestamai (Plat. Tim.81 D). Thus in [Plato] Axiochus 370 D we find periestakas.

hestakamen 1 Mac.11:34.

aphestaka Jer.16:5.

kathestaka Jer.1:10, 6:17.

kathestakamen 1 Mac.10:20. Cp. Aristeas 37.

So in N.T. --

exestakenai Acts 8:11.

In Josh.10:19 there occurs the irregular perfect imperative hestekate with connecting vowel a instead of e. With this form may be compared pepoithate Ps.145:3: Is.50:10: Jer.9:4.

29. The Verb tithenai and its Cognates. This verb does not offer much scope for remark. The imperfect is formed, so far as it occurs, from the alternative form titheo.

etitheis Ps.49:18, 20. etithei Prov.8:28.

This is in accordance with classical usage, which however has etithen in the 1st person. Etithe is read by A in Esther 4:4.

The strong and weak aorists active seem to be about equally frequent. The only person of the latter that is missing is the 2d person plural. Ethekamen is found (2 Esd. [Ezra] 15:10: Is.28:15) and ethekan is common.

The 2d person singular of the strong aorist middle is always ethou, as in Attic.

In 1 Esd.4:30 we find epitithousan formed from the thematic titheo.

30. The Verb didonai and its Cognates. The present tense runs thus --

didomi, didos, didosi,

In Ps.36:21 we find 3d person singular didoi from the cognate didoo. The imperfect runs thus --

edidoun, edidous, edidou,
edidoun or edidosan.

Edidoun as 3d person plural occurs in 2 Chr.27:5: 3 Mac.3:30; edidosan in Judith 7:21: Jer.44:21: Ezk.23:42: 3 Mac.2:31.

The imperative active didou is found in Tobit 4:16: Prov.9:9, 22:26. The 1st aorist is common in the singular and in the 3d person plural of the indicative, edokan.

The 2d aorist subjunctive runs thus --

do, dos, do,
dote, dosi.

Of the above forms only didoi, 3d person plural edidoun, and edokan are non-Attic.

The optative of the 2d aorist has the stem vowel long -

does Ps.84:7, 120:3.

doe 29 times. In Job 6:8, 19:23: Sir.45:26 doie occurs as a variant. Cp. Aristeas 185 doe.

So in N.T. --

doe 2 Th.3:16: Rom.15:5: Eph.1:17: 2 Tim.1:16, 18, 2:25.

31. The Verb hienai and its Cognates. a. The simple verb hienai does not occur in the LXX. It has therefore to be studied in its compounds. The regular inflexion of the imperfect in Attic is supposed to be hien, hieis, hiei, though in Plat. Euthyd.293 A we have 1st person singular ephiein. Ephieis therefore (Sus. O' 53) may be considered classical.

b. The following two passages will set before us the points that have to be noticed with regard to aphienai --

Ex.32:32 ei men apheis . . . aphes.1 Esd.4:7 eipen apheinai, aphiousin.

In the former of these apheis must be from apheo, a cognate thematic form to aphiemi, but without the reduplication.

In the latter we have a new formation which treats the reduplication as though it were itself the stem. Of this new verb we have the following parts --

aphio Eccl.2:18. aphiousi 1 Esd.4:50.
aphion Eccl.5:11.

In the N.T. also we find apheis (Rev.2:20) and ephie(n) (Mk.1:34, 11:16)

the imperfect of aphio. Cp. Herm. Past. Vis.3.

7.1 aphiousin.

The weak aorist occurs in the singular and in the 3d person plural aphekan, e.g. Jdg.1:34.

c. A thematic verb suniein existed in classical Greek. Theognis 565 has the infinitive suniein: Plat. Soph.238 E uses xunieis. Of this verb we find the following parts in the LXX, if we may trust the accentuation --

suniein 3 K. [2 Kings} 3:9, 11. suniousin (dat. pl.) Prov.8:9. sunion 2 Chr.34:12.

So also in N.T. --

ho sunion Rom.3:11. In Mt.13:23 the R.V. text has sunion.

suniousi (3d pl.) Mt.13:13: 2 Cor.10:12.

d. In addition to this we find a verb of new formation like aphio -

sunieis Tob.3:8: Job 15:9, 36:4.

suniei Prov.21:12, 29: Wisd.9:11.

sunion Dan. Th 8:5, 23, 27 and passim.

sunionton (gen. pl.) 2 Chr.30:22.

In 2 Chr.26:5 suniontos and 2 Esd. [Ezra] 8:16 suniontas the accent seems to be misplaced.

The new participle sunion has not entirely ousted the -mi form in the LXX. We have sunieis Ps.32:15: hoi sunientes Dan.12:3: sunientas Dan. Th 14: ton sunienton Dan.11:35.

e. The 3d person plural of the 1st aorist hekan, which occurs in Xen. Anab.4.5.18, is used in the LXX in its compound aphekan.

f. The verb suniein is to be met with also in the Apostolic Fathers -

sunio Herm. Past. Mdt.4.2.1, 10.1.3.

suniei 4.2.2.

suniousin 10.1.6.

sunie 6.2.3, 6: Sim.9.12.1.

sunion Barn. Ep.12:10.

g. The 2d person singular present middle proie in Job 7:19 is doubtless formed on the analogy of lue, but might be reached from proiesai by loss of s and contraction.

32. The Imperatives anasta and aposta, etc. It is the by-forms in -o which account for these imperatives (anasta = anasta-e). Anasta in the LXX is used interchangeably with anastethi. Thus in Dan.7:5 O has anasta, while Th has anastethi. But the same writer even will go from on to the other. Thus in 3 K. [2 Kings} 19 we have anastethi in v.5 and anasta in v.7, and again in 3 K. [2 Kings} 20 anasta in v.15 and anastethi in v.18. So also Ps.43:24, 27 anastethi . . . anasta. Aposta occurs in Job 7:16, 14:6, 21:14.

So in N.T., where we find in addition the 3d person singular and the 2d person plural.

anasta Acts.12:7: Eph.5:14. katabato Mt.27:42.
anaba Rev.4:1. anabate Rev.11:12.

Cp. Herm Past. Mdt.6.2.6, 7 aposta . . . apostethi, Vis.2.8 antista.

Similar forms are to be found even in the Attic drama and earlier.

emba Eur. Elec.113: Ar. Ran.377.

epiba Theognis 845.

esba Eur. Phoen.193.

kataba Ar. Ran.35, Vesp.979.

proba Eur. Alc.872: Ar. Ach.262.

33. Special Forms of Verbs.

hairetizein denominative from hairetos.

amphiazein 4 K. [2 Kings] 17:9: Job 29:14, 31:19 (in 40:5 amphiesai) = amphiennunai.

apoktennein Ex.4:23: 2 K. [2 Sam.] 4:12: 4 K. [2 Kings] 17:25: Ps.77:34, 100:8: Wisd.16:14: Hab.1:17: Is.66:3: Dan. Th 2:13: 3 Mac.7:14.apotinnuein Gen.31:39: Ps.68:5: Sir.20:12.elean for eleein. Ps.36:26, 114:6: Prov.13:9, 14:21, 31, 21:26, 28:8: Sir.18:14: Tobit 13:2: 4 Mac.6:12, 9:3. So in N.T., Jude 22, 23. Cp.1 Clem.13:2: Barn. Ep.20:2.

elousthes Ezk.16:4.

heorakas 2 K. [2 Sam.] 18:11. Maintained by some to be the true Attic form.

erregos for errogos. Job.32:19.

esthein for esthiein. Lvt.7:15, 11:34, 17:10, 19:8, 26: Sir.20:16. Old poetic form. Hom. Il.24.415: Od.9.479, 10.273.

kathou for katheso. Gen.38:11: Jdg.17:10: Ruth 3:18: 1 K. [1 Sam.] 1:23, 22:5, 23: 4 K. [2 Kings] 2:2, 4, 6: Ps.109:1: Sir.9:7. Formed on the analogy of luou. Katheso itself occurs in 2 Chr.25:19. In Ezk.23:41 we have imperfect ekathou. So in N.T., Mt.22:44: Mk.12:36: Lk.20:42: Acts 2:34: Hb.1:13 (all quotations from Ps.109:1): James 2:3.

maimassein Jer.4:19.

oisthas Dt.9:2. Cp. Eur. Ion 999 (Dindorf).

piazein for piezein. Song 2:15: Sir.23:21. Piezein occurs only in Micah 6:15 in the original sense of to press.'

rhassein Jer.23:39 and eight other passages.

34. Adverbs. Hellenistic Greek supplied the missing adverb to agathos. Agathos occurs in Aristotle Rh.2.11.1. In the LXX it is found in 1 K. [1 Sam.] 20:7: 4 K. [2 Kings] 11:18: Tob.13:10.

Among adverbs of time we may notice ek proithen and apo prooithen as peculiar to the LXX. For the former see 2 K. [2 Sam.] 2:27: 3 K. [2 Kings} 18:26: 1 Mac.10:80; for the latter Ex.18:13, 14: Ruth 2:7: Job 4:20: Sir.18:26: 1 Mac.9:13. Similar to these among adverbs of place is apo makrothen, Ps.138:2. Such expressions remind us of our own double form from whence,' which purists condemn.

In the Greek of the LXX pouv is used for poi, just as we commonly say where' for whither.'

Jdg.19:17 Pou proeue, kai pothen erche;

Cp. Gen.37:31: Josh.2:5, 8:10: Jdg.19:17: 1 K. [1 Sam.] 10:14: Zech.2:2.

Poi occurs only in a doubtful reading in Jer.2:28, and has there the sense of pou.

Similarly hou is used for hoi, which is not found at all.

Jer.51:35 hou ean badises ekei.

Cp. Gen.40:3: Ex.21:13: 3 K. [2 Kings} 18:10: Ezk.12:16.

So in N.T. --

pou = poi 1 Jn.2:11, 3:8, 8:14: Hb.11:8.

hopou = hopoi James 3:4.

hopoi does not occur in Biblical Greek.

35. Homerisms. The Ionic infusion which is observable in the Greek of the LXX may possibly be due to the use of Homer as a schoolbook in Alexandria. This would be a vera causa in accounting for such stray Ionisms as kunomuies, machaire, epibebekuies, and the use of speires in the Papyri; possibly also for gaion, gaiais. Such forms also as epaoidos, esthein, etanusan (Sir.43:12), molibos, chalkeios, cheimarros, polemistes, have an Homeric ring about them.

36. Movable Consonants. n ephelkustikon is freely employed before consonants, as in Gen.31:15, 41:55: Dt.19:1: Ruth 2:3: Jdg.16:11.

To achri and mechri s is sometimes appended before a vowel and sometimes not.

Jdg.11:33 achris Arnon. Josh.4:23 mechris hou.
Job 32:11 achri hou. 1 Esd.1:54 mechri hou.
2 Mac.14:15 achri aionos. Job 32:12 mechri humon.

Anti?kru and anti?krus differ from one another by more than the s. The former does not occur at all in the LXX, the latter in Swete's text only once, 3 Mac.5:16 antikrus anaklithenai autou.

In the Revisers' text of the N.T. we find achri before a consonant in Gal.4:2; achris hou 1 Cor.11:26, 15:25: Gal.3:19, 4:19: Hb.3:13; mechris hou Mk.13:30; mechris haimatos Hb.12:4; antikru Chiou Acts 20:15.

37. Spelling. In matters of spelling Dr. Swete's text appears to reflect variations in the Mss.

a. The diphthong ei is often replaced by i, as in 1 Esd.1:11 chalkiois compared with 2 Chr.35:13 chalkeiois. This is especially the case with feminine nouns in -eia, as

apolia, doulia, latria, plinthia, sungenia, hugia, pharmakia.

Neuters plural in -eia also sometimes end in -ia with recession of accent, as --

angia Gen.42:25. poria Gen.45:17.

In the pluperfect of histemi again we sometimes find i for ei --

histekei Jdg.16:29. ephistekei Nb.23:6,17.

paristekei Gen.45:1.

So also in the future and 1st aorist of leicho, as --

eklixei, eklixai, elixan, lixousin.

On the other hand eideai for ideai (nom. pl. of idea) occurs in Dan. Th 1:13.

b. n in composition is sometimes changed into m before a labial and sometimes not, as --

sumbibaso Ex.4:12. sunbibasato Jdg.13:8.

Before a guttural or p, n is often retained, instead of being turned into g, as -

enkathetai, enkrateis, enkrouses, enkruphias, enpoie, enchorio.

But on the other hand -

sunkrisis, sungenia.

c. In the spelling of lambanein m appears in parts not formed from the present stem, as --

lempsomai, lepse, lempsesthe, elemphthe, katalempse.

This may indicate that the syllable in which the m occurs was pronounced with b. In modern Greek mp stands for b, and we seem to find this usage as early as Hermas (Vis.3.1.4), who represents the Latin subsellium by sumpselion. Cp. Hambakoum for Habakkuk.

d. The doubling of rh in the argument of verbs is often neglected, as -

exeriphesan, eranen, erapizon, eripsen.

e. The following also may be noticed -

eraunan for ereunan Dt.13:14.

mieros, mierophagia, mierophagein, mierophonia all in Maccabees only.

tesserakonta Dt.9:9, 11: Josh.14:7.

nouns 14-jan
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