Anti-Pelagian Writings

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preface to the american edition

Preface to the American Edition.

introductory essay on augustin and the pelagian controversy.

A Select Bibliography of the Pelagian Controversy.

Introductory Essay on Augustin and the Pelagian Controversy.

I. The Origin and Nature of Pelagianism.

II. The External History of the Pelagian Controversy.

III. Augustin's Part in the Controversy.

IV. The Theology of Grace.

Dedication of Volume I. Of the Edinburgh Edition.

Dedication of Volume II. Of the Edinburgh Edition.

Preface to Volume I. Of the Edinburgh Edition.

Preface to Volume II. Of the Edinburgh Edition.

a treatise on the merits and forgiveness of sins, and on the baptism of infants.

A Treatise on the Merits and Forgiveness of Sins, and on the Baptism of Infants

Chapter 1 [I.]--Introductory, in the Shape of an Inscription to His Friend Marcellinus.

Chapter 2 [II.]--If Adam Had Not Sinned, He Would Never Have Died.

Chapter 3 [III.]--It is One Thing to Be Mortal, Another Thing to Be Subject to Death.

Chapter 4 [IV.]--Even Bodily Death is from Sin.

Chapter 5 [V.] --The Words, Mortale (Capable of Dying), Mortuum (Dead), and Moriturus (Destined to Die).

Chapter 6 [VI.]--How It is that the Body Dead Because of Sin.

Chapter 7 [VII.]--The Life of the Body the Object of Hope, the Life of the Spirit Being a Prelude to It.

Chapter 8 [VIII.]--Bodily Death from Adam's Sin.

Chapter 9 [IX.]--Sin Passes on to All Men by Natural Descent, and Not Merely by Imitation.

Chapter 10.--The Analogy of Grace.

Chapter 11 [X.]--Distinction Between Actual and Original Sin.

Chapter 12.--The Law Could Not Take Away Sin.

Chapter 13 [XI.]--Meaning of the Apostle's Phrase "The Reign of Death."

Chapter 14.--Superabundance of Grace.

Chapter 15 [XII.]--The One Sin Common to All Men.

Chapter 16 [XIII.]--How Death is by One and Life by One.

Chapter 17.--Whom Sinners Imitate.

Chapter 18.--Only Christ Justifies.

Chapter 19 [XV.]--Sin is from Natural Descent, as Righteousness is from Regeneration; How "All" Are Sinners Through Adam, and "All" Are Just Through Christ.

Chapter 20.--Original Sin Alone is Contracted by Natural Birth.

Chapter 21 [XVI.]--Unbaptized Infants Damned, But Most Lightly; The Penalty of Adam's Sin, the Grace of His Body Lost.

Chapter 22 [XVII.]--To Infants Personal Sin is Not to Be Attributed.

Chapter 23 [XVIII.]--He Refutes Those Who Allege that Infants are Baptized Not for the Remission of Sins, But for the Obtaining of the Kingdom of Heaven.

Chapter 24 [XIX.]--Infants Saved as Sinners.

Chapter 25.--Infants are Described as Believers and as Penitents. Sins Alone Separate Between God and Men.

Chapter 26 [XX.]--No One, Except He Be Baptized, Rightly Comes to the Table of the Lord.

Chapter 27.--Infants Must Feed on Christ.

Chapter 28.--Baptized Infants, of the Faithful; Unbaptized, of the Lost.

Chapter 29 [XXI.]--It is an Inscrutable Mystery Why Some are Saved, and Others Not.

Chapter 30.--Why One is Baptized and Another Not, Not Otherwise Inscrutable.

Chapter 31 [XXII.]--He Refutes Those Who Suppose that Souls, on Account of Sins Committed in Another State, are Thrust into Bodies Suited to Their Merits, in Which They are More or Less Tormented.

Chapter 32.--The Case of Certain Idiots and Simpletons.

Chapter 33.--Christ is the Saviour and Redeemer Even of Infants.

Chapter 34 [XXIV.]--Baptism is Called Salvation, and the Eucharist, Life, by the Christians of Carthage.

Chapter 35.--Unless Infants are Baptized, They Remain in Darkness.

Chapter 36.--Infants Not Enlightened as Soon as They are Born.

Chapter 37.--How God Enlightens Every Person.

Chapter 38.--What "Lighteth" Means.

Chapter 39 [XXVI.]--The Conclusion Drawn, that All are Involved in Original Sin.

Chapter 40 [XXVII.]--A Collection of Scripture Testimonies. From the Gospels.

Chapter 41.--From the First Epistle of Peter.

Chapter 42.--From the First Epistle of John.

Chapter 43.--From the Epistle to the Romans.

Chapter 44.--From the Epistles to the Corinthians.

Chapter 45.--From the Epistle to the Galatians.

Chapter 46.--From the Epistle to the Ephesians.

Chapter 47.--From the Epistle to the Colossians.

Chapter 48.--From the Epistles to Timothy.

Chapter 49.--From the Epistle to Titus.

Chapter 50.--From the Epistle to the Hebrews.

Chapter 51.--From the Apocalypse.

Chapter 52.--From the Acts of the Apostles.

Chapter 53.--The Utility of the Books of the Old Testament.

Chapter 54.--By the Sacrifices of the Old Testament, Men Were Convinced of Sins and Led to the Saviour.

Chapter 55 [XXVIII.]--He Concludes that All Men Need the Death of Christ, that They May Be Saved. Unbaptized Infants Will Be Involved in the Condemnation of the Devil. How All Men Through Adam are Unto Condemnation; And Through Christ Unto Justification. No One is Reconciled with God, Except Through Christ.

Chapter 56.--No One is Reconciled to God Except Through Christ.

Chapter 57 [XXIX.]--The Good of Marriage; Four Different Cases of the Good and the Evil Use of Matrimony.

Chapter 58 [XXX.]--In What Respect the Pelagians Regarded Baptism as Necessary for Infants.

Chapter 59.--The Context of Their Chief Text.

Chapter 60 [XXXI.]--Christ, the Head and the Body; Owing to the Union of the Natures in the Person of Christ, He Both Remained in Heaven, and Walked About on Earth; How the One Christ Could Ascend to Heaven; The Head, and the Body, the One Christ.

Chapter 61 [XXXII.]--The Serpent Lifted Up in the Wilderness Prefigured Christ Suspended on the Cross; Even Infants Themselves Poisoned by the Serpent's Bite.

Chapter 62 [XXXIII.]--No One Can Be Reconciled to God, Except by Christ.

Chapter 63 [XXXIV.]--The Form, or Rite, of Baptism. Exorcism.

Chapter 64.--A Twofold Mistake Respecting Infants.

Chapter 65 [XXXV.]--In Infants There is No Sin of Their Own Commission.

Chapter 66.--Infants' Faults Spring from Their Sheer Ignorance.

Chapter 67 [XXXVI.]--On the Ignorance of Infants, and Whence It Arises.

Chapter 68 [XXXVII.]--If Adam Was Not Created of Such a Character as that in Which We are Born, How is It that Christ, Although Free from Sin, Was Born an Infant and in Weakness?

Chapter 69 [XXXVIII.]--The Ignorance and the Infirmity of an Infant.

Chapter 70 [XXXIX.]--How Far Sin is Done Away in Infants by Baptism, Also in Adults, and What Advantage Results Therefrom.

Book II.

Chapter 1 [I.]--What Has Thus Far Been Dwelt On; And What is to Be Treated in This Book.

Chapter 2 [II.]--Some Persons Attribute Too Much to the Freedom of Man's Will; Ignorance and Infirmity.

Chapter 3 [III.]--In What Way God Commands Nothing Impossible. Works of Mercy, Means of Wiping Out Sins.

Chapter 4 [IV.]--Concupiscence, How Far in Us; The Baptized are Not Injured by Concupiscence, But Only by Consent Therewith.

Chapter 5 [V.]--The Will of Man Requires the Help of God.

Chapter 6.--Wherein the Pharisee Sinned When He Thanked God; To God's Grace Must Be Added the Exertion of Our Own Will.

Chapter 7 [VI.]--Four Questions on the Perfection of Righteousness: (1.) Whether a Man Can Be Without Sin in This Life.

Chapter 8 [VII.]--(2) Whether There is in This World a Man Without Sin.

Chapter 9.--The Beginning of Renewal; Resurrection Called Regeneration; They are the Sons of God Who Lead Lives Suitable to Newness of Life.

Chapter 10 [VIII.]--Perfection, When to Be Realized.

Chapter 11 [IX.]--An Objection of the Pelagians: Why Does Not a Righteous Man Beget a Righteous Man?

Chapter 12 [X.]--He Reconciles Some Passages of Scripture.

Chapter 13.--A Subterfuge of the Pelagians.

Chapter 14. --Job Was Not Without Sin.

Chapter 15.--Carnal Generation Condemned on Account of Original Sin.

Chapter 16--Job Foresaw that Christ Would Come to Suffer; The Way of Humility in Those that are Perfect.

Chapter 17 [XII.]--No One Righteous in All Things.

Chapter 18 [XIII.]--Perfect Human Righteousness is Imperfect.

Chapter 19.--Zacharias and Elisabeth, Sinners.

Chapter 20.--Paul Worthy to Be the Prince of the Apostles, and Yet a Sinner.

Chapter 21 [XIV.]--All Righteous Men Sinners.

Chapter 22 [XV.]--An Objection of the Pelagians; Perfection is Relative; He is Rightly Said to Be Perfect in Righteousness Who Has Made Much Progress Therein.

Chapter 23 [XXI.]--Why God Prescribes What He Knows Cannot Be Observed.

Chapter 24.--An Objection of the Pelagians. The Apostle Paul Was Not Free From Sin So Long as He Lived.

Chapter 25.--God Punishes Both in Wrath and in Mercy.

Chapter 26 [XVII.] -- (3) Why No One in This Life is Without Sin.

Chapter 27. --The Divine Remedy for Pride.

Chapter 28 [XVIII.]--A Good Will Comes from God.

Chapter 29.--A Subterfuge of the Pelagians.

Chapter 30.--All Will is Either Good, and Then It Loves Righteousness, or Evil, When It Does Not Love Righteousness.

Chapter 31.--Grace is Given to Some Men in Mercy; Is Withheld from Others in Justice and Truth.

Chapter 32.--God's Sovereignity in His Grace.

Chapter 33.--Through Grace We Have Both the Knowledge of Good, and the Delight Which It Affords.

Chapter 34 [XX.]--(4) That No Man, with the Exception of Christ, Has Ever Lived, or Can Live Without Sin.

Chapter 35 [XXI.]--Adam and Eve; Obedience Most Strongly Enjoined by God on Man.

Chapter 36 [XXII.]--Man's State Before the Fall.

Chapter 37 [XXIII.]--The Corruption of Nature is by Sin, Its Renovation is by Christ.

Chapter 38 [XXIV.]--What Benefit Has Been Conferred on Us by the Incarnation of the Word; Christ's Birth in the Flesh, Wherein It is Like and Wherein Unlike Our Own Birth.

Chapter 39 [XXV.]--An Objection of Pelagians.

Chapter 40.--An Argument Anticipated.

Chapter 41.--Children of Believers are Called "Clean" By the Apostle.

Chapter 42.--Sanctification Manifold; Sacrament of Catechumens.

Chapter 43 [XXVII.]--Why the Children of the Baptized Should Be Baptized.

Chapter 44.--An Objection of the Pelagians.

Chapter 45 [XXVIII.]--The Law of Sin is Called Sin; How Concupiscence Still Remains After Its Evil Has Been Removed in the Baptized.

Chapter 46. --Guilt May Be Taken Away But Concupiscence Remain.

Chapter 47 [XXIX.]--All the Predestinated are Saved Through the One Mediator Christ, and by One and the Same Faith.

Chapter 48.--Christ the Saviour Even of Infants; Christ, When an Infant, Was Free from Ignorance and Mental Weakness.

Chapter 49 [XXX.]--An Objection of the Pelagians.

Chapter 50 [XXXI.]--Why It is that Death Itself is Not Abolished, Along with Sin, by Baptism.

Chapter 51.--Why the Devil is Said to Hold the Power and Dominion of Death.

Chapter 52 [XXXII.]--Why Christ, After His Resurrection, Withdrew His Presence from the World.

Chapter 53 [XXXIII.]--An Objection of the Pelagians.

Chapter 54 [XXXIV.]--Why Punishment is Still Inflicted, After Sin Has Been Forgiven.

Chapter 55.--To Recover the Righteousness Which Had Been Lost by Sin, Man Has to Struggle, with Abundant Labour and Sorrow.

Chapter 56.--The Case of David, in Illustration.

Chapter 57 [XXXV.]--Turn to Neither Hand.

Chapter 58 [XXXVI.]--"Likeness of Sinful Flesh" Implies the Reality.

Chapter 59.--Whether the Soul is Propagated; On Obscure Points, Concerning Which the Scriptures Give Us No Assistance, We Must Be on Our Guard Against Forming Hasty Judgments and Opinions; The Scriptures are Clear Enough on Those Subjects Which are Necessary to Salvation.

Book III.

Chapter 1 [I.]--Pelagius Esteemed a Holy Man; His Expositions on Saint Paul.

Chapter 2 [II.]--Pelagius' Objection; Infants Reckoned Among the Number of Believers and the Faithful.

Chapter 3.--Pelagius Makes God Unjust.

Chapter 4.

Chapter 5 [III.]--Pelagius Praised by Some; Arguments Against Original Sin Proposed by Pelagius in His Commentary.

Chapter 6.--Why Pelagius Does Not Speak in His Own Person.

Chapter 7 [IV.]--Proof of Original Sin in Infants.

Chapter 8.--Jesus is the Saviour Even of Infants.

Chapter 9.--The Ambiguity of "Adam is the Figure of Him to Come."

Chapter 10 [V.]--He Shows that Cyprian Had Not Doubted the Original Sin of Infants.

Chapter 11.--The Ancients Assumed Original Sin.

Chapter 12 [VI.]--The Universal Consensus Respecting Original Sin.

Chapter 13 [VII.]--The Error of Jovinianus Did Not Extend So Far.

Chapter 14.--The Opinions of All Controversialists Whatever are Not, However, Canonical Authority; Original Sin, How Another's; We Were All One Man in Adam.

Chapter 15 [VIII.]--We All Sinned Adam's Sin.

Chapter 16.--Origin of Errors; A Simile Sought from the Foreskin of the Circumcised, and from the Chaff of Wheat.

Chapter 17 [IX.]--Christians Do Not Always Beget Christian, Nor the Pure, Pure Children.

Chapter 18 [X.]--Is the Soul Derived by Natural Propagation?

Chapter 19 [XI.]--Sin and Death in Adam, Righteousness and Life in Christ.

Chapter 20.--The Sting of Death, What?

Chapter 21 [XII.]--The Precept About Touching the Menstruous Woman Not to Be Figuratively Understood; The Necessity of the Sacraments.

Chapter 22 [XIII.]--We Ought to Be Anxious to Secure the Baptism of Infants.

Chapter 23.--Epilogue.

a treatise on the spirit and the letter. Extract from Augustin's "Retractations,"

A Treatise on the spirit and the letter,

Chapter 1 [I.] --The Occasion of Writing This Work; A Thing May Be Capable of Being Done, and Yet May Never Be Done.

Chapter 2 [II.]--The Examples Apposite.

Chapter 3.--Theirs is Comparatively a Harmless Error, Who Say that a Man Lives Here Without Sin.

Chapter 4.--Theirs is a Much More Serious Error, Requiring a Very Vigorous Refutation, Who Deny God's Grace to Be Necessary.

Chapter 5 [III.]--True Grace is the Gift of the Holy Ghost, Which Kindles in the Soul the Joy and Love of Goodness.

Chapter 6 [IV.]--The Teaching of Law Without the Life-Giving Spirit is "The Letter that Killeth."

Chapter 7 [V.]--What is Proposed to Be Here Treated.

Chapter 8.--Romans Interprets Corinthians.

Chapter 9 [VI].--Through the Law Sin Has Abounded.

Chapter 10.--Christ the True Healer.

Chapter 11 [VII.]--From What Fountain Good Works Flow.

Chapter 12.--Paul, Whence So Called; Bravely Contends for Grace.

Chapter 13 [VIII.]--Keeping the Law; The Jews' Glorying; The Fear of Punishment; The Circumcision of the Heart.

Chapter 14.--In What Respect the Pelagians Acknowledge God as the Author of Our Justification.

Chapter 15 [IX.]--The Righteousness of God Manifested by the Law and the Prophets.

Chapter 16 [X.]--How the Law Was Not Made for a Righteous Man.

Chapter 17.--The Exclusion of Boasting.

Chapter 18 [XI.]--Piety is Wisdom; That is Called the Righteousness of God, Which He Produces.

Chapter 19 [XII]--The Knowledge of God Through the Creation.

Chapter 20.--The Law Without Grace.

Chapter 21 [XIII.]--The Law of Works and the Law of Faith.

Chapter 22.--No Man Justified by Works.

Chapter 23 [XIV.]--How the Decalogue Kills, If Grace Be Not Present.

Chapter 24.--The Passage in Corinthians.

Chapter 25.--The Passage in Romans.

Chapter 26.--No Fruit Good Except It Grow from the Root of Love.

Chapter 27 [XV.]--Grace, Concealed in the Old Testament, is Revealed in the New.

Chapter 28 [XVI]--Why the Holy Ghost is Called the Finger of God.

Chapter 29 [XVII.]--A Comparison of the Law of Moses and of the New Law.

Chapter 30.--The New Law Written Within.

Chapter 31 [XVIII.]--The Old Law Ministers Death; The New, Righteousness.

Chapter 32 [XIX.]--The Christian Faith Touching the Assistance of Grace.

Chapter 33.--The Prophecy of Jeremiah Concerning the New Testament.

Chapter 34.--The Law; Grace.

Chapter 35 [XX.]--The Old Law; The New Law.

Chapter 36 [XXI.]--The Law Written in Our Hearts.

Chapter 37 [XXII.]--The Eternal Reward.

Chapter 38 [XXIII.]--The Re-Formation Which is Now Being Effected, Compared with the Perfection of the Life to Come.

Chapter 39 [XXIV]--The Eternal Reward Which is Specially Declared in the New Testament, Foretold by the Prophet.

Chapter 40.--How that is to Be the Reward of All; The Apostle Earnestly Defends Grace.

Chapter 41.--The Law Written in the Heart, and the Reward of the Eternal Contemplation of God, Belong to the New Covenant; Who Among the Saints are the Least and the Greatest.

Chapter 42 [XXV.]--Difference Between the Old and the New Testaments.

Chapter 43 [XXVI.]--A Question Touching the Passage in the Apostle About the Gentiles Who are Said to Do by Nature the Law's Commands, Which They are Also Said to Have Written on Their Hearts.

Chapter 44.--The Answer Is, that the Passage Must Be Understood of the Faithful of the New Covenant.


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