Jonah 1:2
Parallel Verses
New International Version
"Go to the great city of Nineveh and preach against it, because its wickedness has come up before me."

New Living Translation
"Get up and go to the great city of Nineveh. Announce my judgment against it because I have seen how wicked its people are."

English Standard Version
“Arise, go to Nineveh, that great city, and call out against it, for their evil has come up before me.”

New American Standard Bible
"Arise, go to Nineveh the great city and cry against it, for their wickedness has come up before Me."

King James Bible
Arise, go to Nineveh, that great city, and cry against it; for their wickedness is come up before me.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
Get up! Go to the great city of Nineveh and preach against it, because their wickedness has confronted Me."

International Standard Version
"Get up and go to Nineveh, that great city! Then cry out in protest against it, because their evil has come to my attention."

NET Bible
"Go immediately to Nineveh, that large capital city, and announce judgment against its people because their wickedness has come to my attention."

GOD'S WORD® Translation
"Leave at once for the important city, Nineveh. Announce to the people that I can no longer overlook the wicked things they have done."

Jubilee Bible 2000
Arise, go to Nineveh, that great city, and cry against it; for their wickedness is come up before me.

King James 2000 Bible
Arise, go to Nineveh, that great city, and cry against it; for their wickedness has come up before me.

American King James Version
Arise, go to Nineveh, that great city, and cry against it; for their wickedness is come up before me.

American Standard Version
Arise, go to Nineveh, that great city, and cry against it; for their wickedness is come up before me.

Douay-Rheims Bible
Arise, and go to Ninive the great city, and preach in it: for the wickedness thereof is come up before me.

Darby Bible Translation
Arise, go to Nineveh, the great city, and cry against it; for their wickedness is come up before me.

English Revised Version
Arise, go to Nineveh, that great city, and cry against it; for their wickedness is come up before me.

Webster's Bible Translation
Arise, go to Nineveh, that great city, and cry against it; for their wickedness is come up before me.

World English Bible
"Arise, go to Nineveh, that great city, and preach against it, for their wickedness has come up before me."

Young's Literal Translation
'Rise, go unto Nineveh, the great city, and proclaim against it that their wickedness hath come up before Me.'
Parallel Commentaries
Matthew Henry's Concise Commentary

1:1-3. It is sad to think how much sin is committed in great cities. Their wickedness, as that of Nineveh, is a bold and open affront to God. Jonah must go at once to Nineveh, and there, on the spot, cry against the wickedness of it. Jonah would not go. Probably there are few among us who would not have tried to decline such a mission. Providence seemed to give him an opportunity to escape; we may be out of the way of duty, and yet may meet with a favourable gale. The ready way is not always the right way. See what the best of men are, when God leaves them to themselves; and what need we have, when the word of the Lord comes to us, to have the Spirit of the Lord to bring every thought within us into obedience.

Pulpit Commentary

Verse 2. - Nineveh, the capital of the kingdom of Assyria, is first mentioned in Genesis 10:11, as founded by Nimrod. It stood on the left bank of the river Tigris, where it is joined by the Khosr, opposite to the present town of Mosul. The Assyrians had already become known in Syria. In B.C. 854 Shal-maneser II. had defeated at Karkar twelve kings confederate against him, among whom is reckoned Ahab King of Israel. Long before his time, Tiglath-Pileser I. had made a great expedition to the west, captured a town at the foot of Lebanon, and reached the coast of the Mediterranean Sea. Jehu was compelled to pay tribute to the Assyrians; and Rimmon-nirari, who reigned from B.C. 810 to 781, held the suzerainty of Phoenicia, Samaria, Edom, and Philistia. Jonah, therefore, knew well what his country might expect at the hands of this people. That great city. It is thus called in Jonah 3:2, 3; Jonah 4:11; and the epithet is added here in order to show to Jonah the importance of his mission. The size of Nineveh is variously estimated according to the sense attached to the name "Nineveh." This appellation may be restricted to Nineveh proper, or it may comprise the four cities which lay close together in the immediate neighbourhood of each other, and whose remains are now known as the mounds of Kouyunjik, on the southwest, directly opposite to Mosul; Nimrud, about eighteen miles to the southeast; Karamless, twelve miles to the north; and Khorsabad, the most northerly, about the same distance both from Karamless and Kouyunjik. Khorsabad, however, was not built till some hundred years after Jonah's time (Schrader, 'Keilinschr.,' p. 448). These cities are contained in an irregular parallelogram of some sixty miles in circumference. The following account of Nineveh proper is derived from Professor Rawlinson, 'Ancient Monarchies,' 1:252, etc.: "The ruins consist of two principal mounds, Nebbiyunus and Kouyunjik. The Kouyunjik mound, which lies nearly half a mile northwest of the others, is very much the more considerable of the two. Its shape is an irregular oval, elongated to a point towards the northeast. The surface is nearly flat; the sides slope at a steep angle, and are furrowed with numerous ravines worn in the soft material by the rains of some thirty centuries. The greatest height above the plain is ninety feet, and the area is estimated at a hundred acres. It is an artificial eminence, computed to contain 14,500,000 tons of earth, and on it were erected the palaces and temples of the Assyrian monarchs. The mound of Nebbi-yunus is at its base nearly triangular, and covers an area of nearly forty acres. It is loftier, and its sides are more precipitous than Kouyunjik, especially on the west, where it abutted on the wall of the city. The mass of earth is calculated at six and a half millions of tons. These two vast mounds are both in the same line, and abutted on the western wall of the city, which was some two and a half miles in length. Anciently it seems to have immediately overhung the Tigris, but the river has now receded to the west, leaving a plain of nearly a mile in width between its bank and the old rampart which evidently once followed the course of the river bank. The western wall is joined at fight angles by the northern rampart which runs in a straight line for seven thousand feet. At its other extremity the western wall forms a very obtuse angle with the southern, which impends over a deep ravine, and runs in a straight line for about a thousand yards, when it meets the eastern wall, which is the longest and the least regular of the four. The entire length of this side is sixteen thousand feet, or above three miles. It is divided into two portions by. the Stream of the Khosr-su; which, coming from the northwest, finds its way through the city and then across the low plain to the Tigris. The town is thus of an oblong shape, and the circuit of its walls is somewhat less than eight miles, and the area which they include is eighteen hundred acres. This, at the computation of something less than one hundred inhabitants per acre, would ascribe to Nineveh a population of one hundred and seventy-five thousand souls" (Rawlinson, 'Anc. Men.,' 1. ch. 1). Cry against it. The message is given in Jonah 3:4. Thus the knowledge of the true God is made known among the Gentiles. Their wickedness; i.e., as Pusey notes, their evil doing towards others, as in Nahum 3:19 (see Introduction, § I.). Is come up before me, and appeals for punishment, as Genesis 4:10; Genesis 18:20, 21; Septuagint, Ἀνέβη ἡ κραυγή τῆς κακίας αὐτής πρὸς μέ, "The cry of its wickedness is come up unto me."

Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible

Arise, go to Nineveh, that great city,.... That is, arise from the place where he was, and leave the business he was about, and prepare for a long journey to the place mentioned, and be as expeditious in it as possible. Nineveh was the metropolis of the Assyrian empire at this time; it was an ancient city built by Ashur, not by Nimrod; though he by some is said to go into Ashur or Assyria, and build it, Genesis 10:11; and called it after the name of his son Ninus; for it signifies the mansion or palace of Ninus; and by most profane writers is called Ninus; according to Diodorus Siculus (m), and Strabo (n), it was built by Ninus himself in Assyria, in that part of it called by him Adiabena. It is said to be a great city, as it must, to be three days' journey in compass, and to have in it six score thousand infants, besides men and women, Jonah 3:3. It is allowed by Strabo (o) to be larger than Babylon. Diodorus (p) says that it was in compass of sixty miles; and had a wall a hundred feet high, and so broad that three chariots or carriages might go abreast upon it; and it had, fifteen hundred towers, two hundred feet high. Aben Ezra calls it the royal city of Assyria, which is at this day destroyed; and the wise men of Israel, in the country of Greece, say it is called Urtia; but, whether so or not, he knew not:

and cry against it; or prophesy against it, as the Targum; he was to lift up his voice, and cry aloud, as he passed along in it, that the inhabitants might hear him; and the more to affect them, and to show that he was in earnest, and what he delivered was interesting to them, and of the greatest moment and importance: what he was to cry, preach, or publish, see Jonah 3:2;

for their wickedness is come up before me; it was come to a very great height; it reached to the heavens; it was not only seen and known by the Lord, as all things are; but the cry of it was come up to him; it called aloud for vengeance, for immediate vengeance; the measure of it being filled up, and the inhabitants ripe for destruction; it was committed openly and boldly, with much impudence, in the sight of the Lord, as well as against him; and was no more to be suffered and connived at: it intends and includes their idolatry, bloodshed, oppression, rapine, fraud, and lying; see Jonah 3:8.

(m) Bibliothec. l 2. p. 92. (n) Geograph. l. 16. p. 507. (o) Ut supra. (Geograph. l. 16. p. 507.) (p) Bibliothec. l. 2. p. 92.

Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Bible Commentary

2. to Nineveh—east of the Tigris, opposite the modern Mosul. The only case of a prophet being sent to the heathen. Jonah, however, is sent to Nineveh, not solely for Nineveh's good, but also to shame Israel, by the fact of a heathen city repenting at the first preaching of a single stranger, Jonah, whereas God's people will not repent, though preached to by their many national prophets, late and early. Nineveh means "the residence of Ninus," that is, Nimrod. Ge 10:11, where the translation ought to be, "He (Nimrod) went forth into Assyria and builded Nineveh." Modern research into the cuneiform inscriptions confirms the Scripture account that Babylon was founded earlier than Nineveh, and that both cities were built by descendants of Ham, encroaching on the territory assigned to Shem (Ge 10:5, 6, 8, 10, 25).

great city—four hundred eighty stadia in circumference, one hundred fifty in length, and ninety in breadth [Diodorus Siculus, 2.3]. Taken by Arbaces the Mede, in the reign of Sardanapalus, about the seventh year of Uzziah; and a second time by Nabopolassar of Babylon and Cyaxares the Mede in 625 B.C. See on [1147]Jon 3:3.

cry—(Isa 40:6; 58:1).

come up before me—(Ge 4:10; 6:13; 18:21; Ezr 9:6; Re 18:5); that is, their wickedness is so great as to require My open interposition for punishment.

Jonah 1:2 Additional Commentaries
Context
Jonah Sent to Nineveh, Flees to Tarshish
1The word of the LORD came to Jonah the son of Amittai saying, 2"Arise, go to Nineveh the great city and cry against it, for their wickedness has come up before Me." 3But Jonah rose up to flee to Tarshish from the presence of the LORD. So he went down to Joppa, found a ship which was going to Tarshish, paid the fare and went down into it to go with them to Tarshish from the presence of the LORD.
Cross References
Matthew 12:41
The men of Nineveh will stand up at the judgment with this generation and condemn it; for they repented at the preaching of Jonah, and now something greater than Jonah is here.

Genesis 10:11
From that land he went to Assyria, where he built Nineveh, Rehoboth Ir, Calah

Genesis 18:20
Then the LORD said, "The outcry against Sodom and Gomorrah is so great and their sin so grievous

2 Kings 19:36
So Sennacherib king of Assyria broke camp and withdrew. He returned to Nineveh and stayed there.

Isaiah 37:37
So Sennacherib king of Assyria broke camp and withdrew. He returned to Nineveh and stayed there.

Isaiah 58:1
"Shout it aloud, do not hold back. Raise your voice like a trumpet. Declare to my people their rebellion and to the descendants of Jacob their sins.

Jeremiah 20:9
But if I say, "I will not mention his word or speak anymore in his name," his word is in my heart like a fire, a fire shut up in my bones. I am weary of holding it in; indeed, I cannot.

Ezekiel 3:5
You are not being sent to a people of obscure speech and strange language, but to the people of Israel--

Hosea 7:2
but they do not realize that I remember all their evil deeds. Their sins engulf them; they are always before me.

Jonah 3:3
Jonah obeyed the word of the LORD and went to Nineveh. Now Nineveh was a very large city; it took three days to go through it.

Nahum 1:1
A prophecy concerning Nineveh. The book of the vision of Nahum the Elkoshite.

Zephaniah 2:13
He will stretch out his hand against the north and destroy Assyria, leaving Nineveh utterly desolate and dry as the desert.
Treasury of Scripture

Arise, go to Nineveh, that great city, and cry against it; for their wickedness is come up before me.

Nineveh.

Jonah 3:2 Arise, go to Nineveh, that great city, and preach to it the preaching …

Jonah 4:11 And should not I spare Nineveh, that great city…

Genesis 10:11 Out of that land went forth Asshur, and built Nineveh, and the city …

2 Kings 19:36 So Sennacherib king of Assyria departed, and went and returned, and …

Nahum 1:1 The burden of Nineveh. The book of the vision of Nahum the Elkoshite.

Nahum 2:1-3:19 He that dashes in pieces is come up before your face: keep the fortification, …

Zephaniah 2:13-15 And he will stretch out his hand against the north, and destroy Assyria; …

cry.

Jonah 3:2 Arise, go to Nineveh, that great city, and preach to it the preaching …

Isaiah 58:1 Cry aloud, spare not, lift up your voice like a trumpet, and show …

Jeremiah 1:7-10 But the LORD said to me, Say not, I am a child: for you shall go …

Ezekiel 2:7 And you shall speak my words to them, whether they will hear, or …

Ezekiel 3:5-9 For you are not sent to a people of a strange speech and of an hard …

Micah 3:8 But truly I am full of power by the spirit of the LORD, and of judgment, …

Matthew 10:18 And you shall be brought before governors and kings for my sake, …

for.

Genesis 18:20,21 And the LORD said, Because the cry of Sodom and Gomorrah is great, …

Ezra 9:6 And said, O my God, I am ashamed and blush to lift up my face to …

James 5:4 Behold, the hire of the laborers who have reaped down your fields, …

Revelation 18:5 For her sins have reached to heaven, and God has remembered her iniquities.

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