A Psalm of David, in his fleeing from the face of Absalom his son. Jehovah, how have my distresses multiplied! Many are rising up against me.
Psalm 3:1 Additional TranslationsKeil and Delitzsch Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament
(Heb.: 3:2-3) The first strophe contains the lament concerning the existing distress. From its combination with the exclamative מה, רבּוּ is accented on the ultima (and also in Psalm 104:24); the accentuation of the perf. of verbs עע very frequently (even without the Waw consec.) follows the example of the strong verb, Ges. ֗67 rem. 12. A declaration then takes the place of the summons and the רבּים implied in the predicate רבּוּ now becomes the subject of participial predicates, which more minutely describe the continuing condition of affairs. The ל of לנפשׁי signifies "in the direction of," followed by an address in Psalm 11:1 ( equals "to"), or, as here and frequently (e.g., Genesis 21:7) followed by narration ( equals "of," concerning). לנפשׁי instead of לי implies that the words of the adversaries pronounce a judgment upon his inmost life, or upon his personal relationship to God. ישׁוּעתה is an intensive form for ישׁוּעה, whether it be with a double feminine termination (Ges., Ew., Olsh.), or, with an original (accusative) ah of the direction: we regard this latter view, with Hupfeld, as more in accordance with the usage and analogy of the language (comp. Psalm 44:27 with Psalm 80:3, and לילה prop. νύκτα, then as common Greek ἡ νύκτα νύχθα). God is the ground of help; to have no more help in Him is equivalent to being rooted out of favour with God. Open enemies as well as disconcerted friends look upon him as one henceforth cast away. David had plunged himself into the deepest abyss of wretchedness by his adultery with Bathsheba, at the beginning of the very year in which, by the renewal of the Syro-Ammonitish war, he had reached the pinnacle of worldly power. The rebellion of Absolom belonged to the series of dire calamities which began to come upon him from that time. Plausible reasons were not wanting for such words as these which give up his cause as lost.
Psalm 3:1 Parallel CommentariesAbsalom Adversaries Attacks David Face Fled Fleeing Flight Foes Great Greatly Increased Multiplied Numbers Psalm Rise Rising TroubleAbsalom Adversaries Attacks David Face Fled Fleeing Flight Foes Great Greatly Increased Multiplied Numbers Psalm Rise Rising TroubleThe ESV® Bible (The Holy Bible, English Standard Version®) copyright © 2001 by Crossway Bibles, a publishing ministry of Good News Publishers.
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