Josephus
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JOSEPHUS

jo-se'-fus (Iosephos; Codex Vaticanus reads Phosepos): In 1 Esdras 9:34, corresponding to "Joseph" in Ezra 10:42.

JOSEPHUS; FLAVIUS

jo-se'-fus, fla'-vi-us:

1. Early Life and Beliefs:

Was born at Jerusalem 37-38 A.D., and died at Rome early in the 2nd century, when is not known precisely. His father and mother belonged to families of the priestly aristocracy; consequently he received an excellent education, becoming familiar, not only with Jewish, but with Hellenistic, culture. When 16 years old he resorted to one Banus, an ESSENES, (which see), in the desert of Engedi, with whom he remained for 3 years, absorbing occult lore, and practicing the ascetic life. It might have been expected from his social position that, on his return to Jerusalem, he would join the SADDUCEES (which see); but, his Essene experience having indoctrinated him with ceremonialism, he preferred to become a Pharisee (see PHARISEES). He evidently believed, too, that the Pharisees were akin to the Stoics, who were then influential in the Hellenistic world. During his absence in the desert, the misgovernment of the Roman procurators at Jerusalem had grown apace. And the ineptitudes and injustices of Felix, Albanus and Florus were succeeded by anarchy under Annas, the high priest (62). Accordingly, the Zealots (see ZEALOTS) plotted against Roman rule. Rebellion simmered, and many of the disaffected were transported to Rome to be dealt with there. Among these were several priests, whom Josephus knew. About the year 64, he went to Rome to plead for them, met shipwreck on the voyage, was rescued with a few survivors and was brought to port at Puteoli. Here he met Alityrus, a Jewish actor, who happened to be in the good graces of Poppea, Nero's consort. The empress, a Jewish proselyte, espoused his cause at Rome, and showed him many favors. At the capital, he also discerned the power of the Romans and, in all probability, grew convinced of the hopelessness of armed revolt. On his return to Jerusalem, he found his people set upon insurrection, and was forced, possibly against his better judgment, to make common cause with them. The first part of his public career is concerned with the great struggle that now began.

2. Public Career:

When war broke out, Josephus was appointed governor of Galilee, the province where the Roman attack would first fall. He had no military fitness for command, but the influence of his friends and the exigencies of politics thrust the office upon him. The Zealots soon found that he did not carry out the necessary preparations with thoroughness, and they tried to compass his removal. But he was too influential, too good a politician also, to be undermined. Surrounded by enemies among his own folk, who even attempted to assassinate him, he encountered several dangerous experiences, and, at length, flying from the Romans, was beleaguered with his army in Jotopata, near the Lake of Gennesaret, in May, 67 A.D. The Jews withstood the siege for 47 days with splendid courage, till Titus, assaulting under cover of a mist, stormed the stronghold and massacred the weary defenders. Josephus escaped to a cave where, with his usual adroitness, he saved himself from death at the hands of his companions. The Romans soon discovered his hiding-place, and haled him before Vespasian, the commander-in-chief. Josephus worked upon the superstitions of the general, and so ingratiated himself that Vespasian took him to Alexandria in his train. Having been liberated by his captor, he adopted the family name of the Flavians, according to Roman custom. Returning to Palestine with Titus, he proceeded to mediate between the Romans and the Jews, earning the suspicion of the former, the hatred of the latter. His wonted diplomacy preserved him from anything more serious than a wound, and he was an eyewitness of the terrible events that marked the last days of Jerusalem. Then he accompanied Titus to Rome for the TRIUMPH (which see). Here he lived the remainder of his days, in high favor with the ruling house, and relieved from all anxiety about worldly goods by lavish imperial patronage. He was thus enabled to devote himself to literary pursuits.

3. Works:

The works of Josephus render him one of the most valuable authorities for the student of New Testament times. They are as follows:

(1) Concerning the Jewish War, written before 79; we have the Greek translation of this history by the author; there are 7 books: I, the period from Antiochus Epiphanes (175 B.C.) to Herod the Great (4 B.C.); II, from 4 B.C. to 66 A.D., covering the early events of the War; III, occurrences in Galilee in 67 A.D.; IV, the course of the War till the siege of Jerusalem; V and VI, the investment and fall of Jerusalem; VII, the aftermath of the rebellion. While this work is not written with the objective accuracy of scientific history, it is credible on the whole, except where it concerns the role played by the author.

(2) The Antiquities of the Jews, written not later than 94 A.D. In this Josephus purports to relate the entire history of his race, from the beginning till the War of 66 A.D. The 20 books fall naturally into 5 divisions, thus:

(a) I-X, from prehistoric times till the Captivity, in other words, the period related in the Old Testament substantially;

(b) XI, the age of Cyrus;

(c) XII-XIV, the beginnings of the Hellenistic period, from Alexander the Great, including the Maccabean revolt, till the accession of Herod the Great;

(d) XV-XVII, the reign of Herod;

(e) XVIII-XX, from Herod's death till the War of 66.

While it cannot be called an apology for the Jews, this work betrays the author's consciousness of the disfavor with which his people were viewed throughout the Roman Empire. Josephus does what he can to disabuse the Greek-Roman educated classes, although he shows curious obliquity to the grandeur of Hebrew religion. All in all, the work is disappointing; but it contains many details and sidelights of first importance to investigators.

(3) The treatise called, since Jerome, Against Apion, is Josephus' most inspiring performance. The older title, Concerning the High Antiquity of the Jews, tells us what it contains-a defense of Hebrew religion against the libels of heathendom. It is in two books. The vituperation with which Josephus visits Apion is unimportant in comparison with the defense of Mosaic religion and the criticism of paganism. Here the author's character is seen at its best; the air of Worldly Wiseman has been dropped, and he approaches enthusiasm.

(4) His last work is the Vita or Autobiography, a misleading title. It is an echo of old days in Galilee, directed against the traductions of an associate, Justus of Tiberias. We have Josephus at his worst here. He so colors the narrative as to convey a totally wrong impression of the part he played during the great crisis. In extenuation, it may be said that his relations with the imperial court rendered it difficult, perhaps impossible, for him to pursue another course.

LITERATURE.

W.D. Morrison, The Jews under Roman Rule (London, 1890); E. Schurer, History of the Jewish People in the Time of Jesus Christ, Div. I, Vol. I (Edinburgh, 1890); A. Hausrath, History of New Testament Times, IV, div VII, chapter ii (London, 1895); H. Graetz, History of the Jews from the Earliest Times to the Present Day, II, chapter x (London, 1891); article "Josephus" in Jewish Encyclopedia, Translations by Whiston (many editions), and of The War of the Jews, by Traill and Taylor (London, 1862).

R. M. Wenley

Greek
1834. exegeomai -- to show the way
... About ad 75, Josephus used 1834 () as a "technical term for the " (A. Schlatter, ,
Stuttgart, 1948, p 36, who cites Josephus, . 17.149; 1.649; 2.162).]. ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/1834.htm - 7k

4164. poikilos -- many colored
... 4164 -- properly, of various kinds, diversified ("manifold"). [This is the same
meaning 4164 () has in Pindar, Josephus, Philo, etc. cf. .]. Word Origin a prim. ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/4164.htm - 6k

5511. chlamus -- a chlamys or short cloak
... "5511 () was a kind of short cloak worn by soldiers, military officers,
magistrates, kings, emperors (2 Macc 12:35; Josephus, . ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/5511.htm - 7k

2351. thorubos -- an uproar
... hubbub" (Souter). (Mk 5:35-39) Josephus ( ad 1st century) reports that hired
flute players were common in NT times. They performed ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/2351.htm - 7k

940. baskaino -- to slander, hence by ext. to bewitch
... act) according to reason. 940 () is also associated with (so Josephus
V:425; Demosthenes 20,24; Theocr. 5,13, ).]. Word Origin from ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/940.htm - 7k

554. apekduomai -- to strip off from oneself
... throw ' " (Souter; note the prefix, ). [Josephus does use this term, but
the and forms are not documented .]. Word Origin from apo ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/554.htm - 7k

1347. dikaiosis -- the act of pronouncing righteous, acquittal
... [1347 (), in ancient secular Greek, is closely associated with the pressing need
to be released from (Josephus, 18:14; Plutarch ( 14:3). Thuccydides (3.82.4 ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/1347.htm - 8k

2936. ktizo -- to build, create
... is habitable or useful. [This is also the meaning of this term from Homer
to Josephus.]. Word Origin a prim. verb Definition to build ...
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/2936.htm - 7k

Library

The Life of Flavius Josephus
The Life of Flavius Josephus. <. The Life of Flavius Josephus Flavius Josephus.
Produced by David Reed Table of Contents. Title Page. ...
//christianbookshelf.org/josephus/the life of flavius josephus/

Flavius Josephus.
... COLLECTION OF TESTIMONIES OF UNBELIEVERS. FLAVIUS JOSEPHUS. ... Josephus might, however,
have reckoned the crucifixion of Jesus among the calamities of the Jews. ...
//christianbookshelf.org/schaff/the person of christ/flavius josephus.htm

How Josephus was Discovered by a Woman, and was Willing to Deliver ...
... CHAPTER 8. How Josephus Was Discovered By A Woman, And Was Willing To Deliver Himself
Up To The Romans; And What Discourse He Had With His Own Men, When They ...
/.../chapter 8 how josephus was.htm

Josephus
... Chapter XIII. Josephus. Josephus, [2398] the son of Matthias, priest of Jerusalem,
taken prisoner by Vespasian and his son Titus, was banished. ...
/.../jerome and gennadius lives of illustrious men /chapter xiii josephus.htm

Josephus Makes an Attempt Upon Sepphoris but is Repelled. Titus ...
... CHAPTER 4. Josephus Makes An Attempt Upon Sepphoris But Is Repelled. Titus
Comes With A Great Army To Ptolemais. 1. Now the auxiliaries ...
/.../chapter 4 josephus makes an.htm

Josephus and the Works which He Has Left.
... Book III. Chapter IX."Josephus and the Works which he has left. 1. After
all this it is fitting that we should know something ...
/.../pamphilius/church history/chapter ix josephus and the works.htm

The Manner in which Josephus Mentions the Divine Books.
... Book III. Chapter X."The Manner in which Josephus mentions the Divine
Books. 1. [675] "We have not, therefore, a multitude of ...
/.../pamphilius/church history/chapter x the manner in which.htm

Concerning John of Gichala. Josephus Uses Stratagems against the ...
... Concerning John Of Gichala. Josephus Uses Stratagems Against The Plots John Laid
Against Him And Recovers Certain Cities Which Had Revolted From Him. ...
/.../chapter 21 concerning john of.htm

Fragment xxxii. Josephus Says, that when Moses had Been Brought up ...
... Fragment XXXII. Josephus says, that when Moses had been brought up in the royal
palaces´┐Ż [4849] ... xviii. 7. [4850] See Josephus' Antiquities, book ii. chap. ...
/.../fragment xxxii josephus says that.htm

An Extract Out of Josephus's Discourse to the Greeks Concerning ...
... AN EXTRACT OUT OF JOSEPHUS'S DISCOURSE TO THE GREEKS CONCERNING HADES. ...
/.../discourse to the greeks concerning hades/an extract out of josephuss.htm

Thesaurus
Josephus
...JOSEPHUS. jo-se'-fus (Iosephos; Codex Vaticanus reads Phosepos): In 1 Esdras
9:34, corresponding to "Joseph" in Ezra 10:42. JOSEPHUS; FLAVIUS. ...
/j/josephus.htm - 13k

Nabathaeans
... Hellenistic times was Southeast of Palestine, where they had either supplanted or
mingled with the Edomites (compare Malachi 1:1-5). In Josephus' day they were ...
/n/nabathaeans.htm - 11k

Nabataeans
... Hellenistic times was Southeast of Palestine, where they had either supplanted or
mingled with the Edomites (compare Malachi 1:1-5). In Josephus' day they were ...
/n/nabataeans.htm - 11k

Onias
... priests of the name of Onias, and a 4th Onias who did not become a high priest but
was known as the builder of the temple of Leontopolis (Josephus, Ant, XIII ...
/o/onias.htm - 10k

Flavius
... Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia JOSEPHUS; FLAVIUS. jo-se'-fus ... with there.
Among these were several priests, whom Josephus knew. About ...
/f/flavius.htm - 13k

Peraea
... pe-re'-a (he Peraia, Peraios, Peraites): 1. The Country: This is not a Scriptural
name, but the term used by Josephus to denote the district to which the ...
/p/peraea.htm - 10k

Arbela
... way that leadeth to Galgala, and pitched their tents before Masaloth, which is in
Arbela, and after they had won it they slew much people." Josephus says that ...
/a/arbela.htm - 9k

Felix (11 Occurrences)
... (see Josephus, Ant. xx. ... Both Tacitus and Josephus refer to his succeeding Cumanus,
Josephus stating that it was at the instigation of Jonathan the high priest. ...
/f/felix.htm - 15k

Province (66 Occurrences)
... in 6 AD, and was broken only during the years 41-44 AD, when Herod Agrippa was granted
royal authority over the land (Josephus, Josephus, Antiquities XIX, viii ...
/p/province.htm - 38k

False.
... The revolts in this period were generally connected with religious pretensions in
the leaders (Josephus, BJ, II, xiii, 4-"deceived and deluded the people under ...
/f/false..htm - 16k

Subtopics

Josephus

Related Terms

Nabathaeans

Nabataeans

Onias

Flavius

Peraea

Arbela

Felix (11 Occurrences)

Province (66 Occurrences)

False.

Theocracy

Christs (2 Occurrences)

Antonius

Herodias (7 Occurrences)

Sanhedrin (19 Occurrences)

Artaxerxes (14 Occurrences)

Sadducees (14 Occurrences)

Ezranehemiah

I-iii

Ezra-nehemiah

Introduction (3 Occurrences)

Bethsaida (7 Occurrences)

Precious (128 Occurrences)

Ptolemy

Stones (244 Occurrences)

Kittim (8 Occurrences)

Judaea (45 Occurrences)

Jabneh (1 Occurrence)

Jabneel (2 Occurrences)

Ladder (1 Occurrence)

Gentiles (150 Occurrences)

Sanctuary (250 Occurrences)

Emmaus (1 Occurrence)

Praetorium (8 Occurrences)

Baruch (24 Occurrences)

Cleopatra

Adonijah (28 Occurrences)

Annas (4 Occurrences)

Aretas (1 Occurrence)

Sodom (49 Occurrences)

Ophel (6 Occurrences)

Country

Samaritans (9 Occurrences)

Court (172 Occurrences)

Capernaum (16 Occurrences)

Pharisees (86 Occurrences)

Samaria (123 Occurrences)

Proselyte (2 Occurrences)

Tabor (12 Occurrences)

Sabbatical (1 Occurrence)

Procurator

Asmoneans

Shiloah (1 Occurrence)

Siloah (1 Occurrence)

Essenes

Shelah (18 Occurrences)

Apostles (79 Occurrences)

Moabites (26 Occurrences)

Darius (26 Occurrences)

Tabernacle (333 Occurrences)

Nazirite (10 Occurrences)

Parthians (1 Occurrence)

Bath (13 Occurrences)

Vale (20 Occurrences)

Kiriath-jearim (17 Occurrences)

Kol

King's (375 Occurrences)

Kiriathjearim

Nahash (9 Occurrences)

Urim (8 Occurrences)

Jehoahaz (22 Occurrences)

Jadon (1 Occurrence)

Jason (5 Occurrences)

Lysanias (1 Occurrence)

Lasthenes

Lysimachus

Lysias (3 Occurrences)

Liver (16 Occurrences)

Interpretation (45 Occurrences)

Ituraea (1 Occurrence)

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