Scofield Reference Notes
Also I in the first year of Darius the Mede, even I, stood to confirm and to strengthen him.
And now will I shew thee the truth. Behold, there shall stand up yet three kings in Persia; and the fourth shall be far richer than they all: and by his strength through his riches he shall stir up all against the realm of Grecia.
The spirit of prophecy here returns to that which more immediately concerned Daniel and his royal masters--the near future of the empire in which he was Song great a personage. Four kings were yet to follow in Media-Persia. Then will come Alexander the "mighty king" of Grecia (v.3). The division of Alexander's empire into four parts (v.4) as already predicted Dan 8:22 is foretold. The troublous course of affairs in two parts of the disintegrated Alexandrian empire, Syria and Egypt, is then traced down to verse 20. Here Antiochus Epiphanes, the "little horn" of Chapter 8., occupies the vision down to verse 36. His pollution of the sanctuary is again mentioned. (Cf) See Scofield Note: "Dan 8:9". From verse 36 the interpretation is of the final "little horn" Dan 7:8,24-26, See Scofield Note: "Dan 11:35".
Margin three kings
Ahasuerus, Ezra 4:6, Artaxerxes, Ezra 4:7, and Darius called "Hystaspes" Ezra 4:24.
Xerxes, who invaded Greece BC 483-480.
And a mighty king shall stand up, that shall rule with great dominion, and do according to his will.
Alexander the Great, B.C. 332. See Dan 8:5-8,21,22.
And when he shall stand up, his kingdom shall be broken, and shall be divided toward the four winds of heaven; and not to his posterity, nor according to his dominion which he ruled: for his kingdom shall be plucked up, even for others beside those.
And the king of the south shall be strong, and one of his princes; and he shall be strong above him, and have dominion; his dominion shall be a great dominion.
i.e. "south" of Palestine. Egypt is meant.
Margin his princes
i.e. One of Alexander's princes; historically Ptolemy Lagidae.
Margin he shall
Not the "king of the south" (Ptolemy Lagidae, to whom Egypt was given), but the "king of the north" Dan 11:6, Seleucus, to whom Syria was given:
And in the end of years they shall join themselves together; for the king's daughter of the south shall come to the king of the north to make an agreement: but she shall not retain the power of the arm; neither shall he stand, nor his arm: but she shall be given up, and they that brought her, and he that begat her, and he that strengthened her in these times.
Margin they shall
i.e. the descendants and successors of Ptolemy Lagidae and Seleucus, not those very personages. The prediction was fulfilled in the marriage of Berenice, daughter of Ptolemy Philadelphus, to Antiochus Theos, third king of Syria, B.C. 285-247.
But out of a branch of her roots shall one stand up in his estate, which shall come with an army, and shall enter into the fortress of the king of the north, and shall deal against them, and shall prevail:
Margin branch of her roots
Ptolemy Euergetes, brother of Berenice, who invaded Syria as described in Dan 11:7-9.
And shall also carry captives into Egypt their gods, with their princes, and with their precious vessels of silver and of gold; and he shall continue more years than the king of the north.
So the king of the south shall come into his kingdom, and shall return into his own land.
But his sons shall be stirred up, and shall assemble a multitude of great forces: and one shall certainly come, and overflow, and pass through: then shall he return, and be stirred up, even to his fortress.
Margin but his sons
Mt 11:10-19, prophetic foreview of the wars of Egypt and Syria, Palestine, Dan 11:17, the battleground, B.C. 284-175.
And the king of the south shall be moved with choler, and shall come forth and fight with him, even with the king of the north: and he shall set forth a great multitude; but the multitude shall be given into his hand.
And when he hath taken away the multitude, his heart shall be lifted up; and he shall cast down many ten thousands: but he shall not be strengthened by it.
For the king of the north shall return, and shall set forth a multitude greater than the former, and shall certainly come after certain years with a great army and with much riches.
And in those times there shall many stand up against the king of the south: also the robbers of thy people shall exalt themselves to establish the vision; but they shall fall.
So the king of the north shall come, and cast up a mount, and take the most fenced cities: and the arms of the south shall not withstand, neither his chosen people, neither shall there be any strength to withstand.
Margin king of the north
Antiochus the Great, B.C. 198.
But he that cometh against him shall do according to his own will, and none shall stand before him: and he shall stand in the glorious land, which by his hand shall be consumed.
He shall also set his face to enter with the strength of his whole kingdom, and upright ones with him; thus shall he do: and he shall give him the daughter of women, corrupting her: but she shall not stand on his side, neither be for him.
Margin daughter of women
Probably a reference to the marriage of Cleopatra to an Egyptian king, Ptolemy Philometor.
After this shall he turn his face unto the isles, and shall take many: but a prince for his own behalf shall cause the reproach offered by him to cease; without his own reproach he shall cause it to turn upon him.
[ Margin isles
i.e. of Greece.
Margin prince for his own
i.e. Historically on of the Scipios: the power of Rome felt in the East for the first time.
Then he shall turn his face toward the fort of his own land: but he shall stumble and fall, and not be found.
Then shall stand up in his estate a raiser of taxes in the glory of the kingdom: but within few days he shall be destroyed, neither in anger, nor in battle.
Margin a raiser of taxes
A reference to the tribute exacted of the son of Antiochus the Great by the Romans.
And in his estate shall stand up a vile person, to whom they shall not give the honour of the kingdom: but he shall come in peaceably, and obtain the kingdom by flatteries.
And with the arms of a flood shall they be overflown from before him, and shall be broken; yea, also the prince of the covenant.
And after the league made with him he shall work deceitfully: for he shall come up, and shall become strong with a small people.
He shall enter peaceably even upon the fattest places of the province; and he shall do that which his fathers have not done, nor his fathers' fathers; he shall scatter among them the prey, and spoil, and riches: yea, and he shall forecast his devices against the strong holds, even for a time.
And he shall stir up his power and his courage against the king of the south with a great army; and the king of the south shall be stirred up to battle with a very great and mighty army; but he shall not stand: for they shall forecast devices against him.
Yea, they that feed of the portion of his meat shall destroy him, and his army shall overflow: and many shall fall down slain.
And both these kings' hearts shall be to do mischief, and they shall speak lies at one table; but it shall not prosper: for yet the end shall be at the time appointed.
Then shall he return into his land with great riches; and his heart shall be against the holy covenant; and he shall do exploits, and return to his own land.
At the time appointed he shall return, and come toward the south; but it shall not be as the former, or as the latter.
Margin come toward the south
Antiochus Epiphanes' second expedition against Egypt. Stopped by the mandate of Rome, Dan 11:30, he turns against the Jews:
For the ships of Chittim shall come against him: therefore he shall be grieved, and return, and have indignation against the holy covenant: so shall he do; he shall even return, and have intelligence with them that forsake the holy covenant.
And arms shall stand on his part, and they shall pollute the sanctuary of strength, and shall take away the daily sacrifice, and they shall place the abomination that maketh desolate.
This is historic -- the act of Antiochus Epiphanes. Mt 24:15 refers to Dan 12:11, See Scofield Note: "Dan 9:27".
And such as do wickedly against the covenant shall he corrupt by flatteries: but the people that do know their God shall be strong, and do exploits.
e.g. the Maccabees. B.C. 168 and following.
And they that understand among the people shall instruct many: yet they shall fall by the sword, and by flame, by captivity, and by spoil, many days.
Now when they shall fall, they shall be holpen with a little help: but many shall cleave to them with flatteries.
And some of them of understanding shall fall, to try them, and to purge, and to make them white, even to the time of the end: because it is yet for a time appointed.
 the time of the end
Here the prophetic foreview, having traced the history of the two parts of Alexander's empire which had to do with Palestine and the Jews, viz. Syria and Egypt, to the time of Antiochus Epiphanes, and having described his career, overleaps the centuries to "the time of the end," when he of whom Antiochus Epiphanes was a type, the "little horn" of Dan 7:8 the "Beast out of the sea" of Rev 13:4-10 shall appear (cf) See Scofield Note: "Dan 7:8". Prophecy does not concern itself with history as such, but only with history as it affects Israel and the Holy Land. Antiochus Epiphanes was insignificant as compared with historical personages whom the Bible does not mention, but he scourged the covenant people and defiled God's altar, thus coming into prophetic light. From verse 36 the "little horn" of Dan 7:8,24-26 fills the scene. His prosperity lasts until "the indignation" (the "time of trouble" of Dan 12:1 Mt 24:21 is accomplished (Dan 11:36). This is parallel with Rev 17:10-14 19:19-21. Dan 11:37-45 supply details not mentioned in the N.T. The expression "God of his fathers" (Dan 11:37) has been held to indicate that the "king" is an apostate Jew, but this does not accord with Dan 9:26 which was fulfilled by the Gentile armies of Rome. The "little horn" is an apostate, but from Christianity, not Judaism (cf) 1Jn 2:18,19. Dan 11:38-45 describe his career. Substituting "the god of forces" (i.e. forces of nature) for the true God (Dan 11:38,39), he soon presents himself as that god (cf) 2Th 2:3,4. While his career lasts he is an irresistible conqueror Dan 11:40-44). He established his palace in Jerusalem, probably at the time of his supreme act of blasphemous impiety Dan 9:27 12:11 Mt 24:15 2Th 2:4. From this time begins the great tribulation Dan 12:1 Mt 24:21 which runs its course during the last half of Daniel's seventieth week, viz. three and one half years Dan 7:25 12:7,11 Rev 13:5. Scofield "Rev 19:20".
And the king shall do according to his will; and he shall exalt himself, and magnify himself above every god, and shall speak marvellous things against the God of gods, and shall prosper till the indignation be accomplished: for that that is determined shall be done.
Margin he shall exalt
The Beast. Dan 11:36-45 Dan 12:11 7:8 Rev 19:20.
Neither shall he regard the God of his fathers, nor the desire of women, nor regard any god: for he shall magnify himself above all.
But in his estate shall he honour the God of forces: and a god whom his fathers knew not shall he honour with gold, and silver, and with precious stones, and pleasant things.
Thus shall he do in the most strong holds with a strange god, whom he shall acknowledge and increase with glory: and he shall cause them to rule over many, and shall divide the land for gain.
And at the time of the end shall the king of the south push at him: and the king of the north shall come against him like a whirlwind, with chariots, and with horsemen, and with many ships; and he shall enter into the countries, and shall overflow and pass over.
He shall enter also into the glorious land, and many countries shall be overthrown: but these shall escape out of his hand, even Edom, and Moab, and the chief of the children of Ammon.
He shall stretch forth his hand also upon the countries: and the land of Egypt shall not escape.
But he shall have power over the treasures of gold and of silver, and over all the precious things of Egypt: and the Libyans and the Ethiopians shall be at his steps.
But tidings out of the east and out of the north shall trouble him: therefore he shall go forth with great fury to destroy, and utterly to make away many.
And he shall plant the tabernacles of his palace between the seas in the glorious holy mountain; yet he shall come to his end, and none shall help him.
See Scofield Note: "Dan 11:2".