Isaiah 41:2
Who raised up the righteous man from the east, called him to his foot, gave the nations before him, and made him rule over kings? he gave them as the dust to his sword, and as driven stubble to his bow.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(2) Who raised up . . .—More accurately, Who hath raised up from the East the man whom Righteousness calls (or, whom He calls in righteousness) to tread in His steps. (Comp. Isaiah 45:2.) The man so raised up to rule over the “islands” and the “peoplesis none other than Koresh (Cyrus), the future restorer of Israel. The thought of Cyrus as working out the righteousness of God is dominant in these chapters (Isaiah 42:6; Isaiah 45:13). In the rapidity of his conquest, the prophet bids men see the proof that he is doing God’s work. So Jeremiah speaks of Nebuchadnezzar as the servant of Jehovah (Jeremiah 27:6). One may notice, if only to reject, the exposition of the Targum, followed by some commentators, which refers the verse to the call of Abraham and the victory of Genesis 14.

He gave them.—Better, He giveth them, the future seen as present. The LXX. and some modern critics follow a reading which gives, he maketh them as dust, their sword as stubble.

Isaiah 41:2-3. Who raised up — Into being and power? Was it not my work alone? The righteous man — Many expositors understand this of Abraham, who was a person eminently righteous, and was called from the other side of the Euphrates, which lay eastward from Judea, and who performed the things here mentioned, partly in his own person, conquering five kings and their people with them, (Genesis 14.,) and following God he knew not whither; and partly by his posterity, whose exploits may well be ascribed to him, not only because they came out of his loins, but also, and especially, because all their successes and victories were given to them for Abraham’s sake, and by the virtue of God’s covenant made with him. And this interpretation seems to receive some countenance from Isaiah 41:5-6, which agree well with the practice of the Canaanites and neighbouring nations; who, upon Israel’s march toward them, were filled with great consternation, and used all possible diligence in seeking both to their idols and to men for help against them. To which may be added, that Abraham was called out of the east; and his posterity were introduced into the land of Canaan, in order to destroy the idolaters of that country; and they were established there on purpose to stand as a barrier against idolatry, then prevailing, and threatening to overrun the whole face of the earth. But though the particulars here mentioned by the prophet are most, or all of them, applicable to Abraham, yet Lowth, Vitringa, and many other commentators of great authority, think that they more exactly belong to Cyrus, and that upon a comparison of them with what is asserted Isaiah 41:25; Isaiah 45:1; Isaiah 45:13; and Isaiah 46:11, there can be no doubt that he is here meant. Cyrus might be called a righteous man, or, a man of righteousness, as the Hebrew rather means, because he was raised up in righteousness, as is said of him Isaiah 45:13, and was God’s great instrument, to manifest his faithfulness in fulfilling his promise of delivering his people out of Babylon, and his justice in punishing the enemies and oppressors of his people, the Babylonians; upon which account the Medes, who served under Cyrus in his expedition, are called God’s sanctified ones, Isaiah 13:3; Isaiah 13:17. And all the other expressions here used are very applicable to him, and were verified in him. He came from the east, from Persia, which was directly eastward from Judea and from Babylon. He was raised up by God in an eminent and extraordinary manner, as is observed both by sacred and profane historians. To him also all the following particulars agree, as we shall see. And although these things were yet to come, yet the prophet speaks of them as if they were already past, a practice not unusual with the prophets. And as in the former chapter, (Isaiah 41:27,) he speaks of God’s people as if they were actually in captivity in Babylon, so here he speaks of them as if they were actually brought out of it by Cyrus. And by this instance he pleads his cause against the Gentiles and their idols; because this was an evident proof of God’s almighty power, (as the prediction of it was of his infinite wisdom,) and of the vanity and weakness of idols, which eminently appeared in the destruction of the Babylonians, who were a people mad upon their idols, and yet were destroyed together with their idols, Jeremiah 50:38; Jeremiah 51:47. Called him to his foot — To march after him, and under his banner against Babylon. Thus Barak’s army is said to be at his feet, Jdg 4:10. Gave the nations before him, &c. — Subdued nations and kings before him. Gave them as the dust to his sword — To be put to flight as easily as the dust is scattered by the wind. He pursued them, and passed safely — Went on in the pursuit with great ease, safety, and success; even by the way that he had not gone — By unknown paths; which is added as a further evidence of God’s providential care of him. This was verified both in Abraham and in Cyrus.41:1-9 Can any heathen god raise up one in righteousness, make what use of him he pleases, and make him victorious over the nations? The Lord did so with Abraham, or rather, he would do so with Cyrus. Sinners encourage one another in the ways of sin; shall not the servants of the living God stir up one another in his service? God's people are the seed of Abraham his friend. This is certainly the highest title ever given to a mortal. It means that Abraham, by Divine grace, was made like to God, and that he was admitted to communion with Him. Happy are the servants of the Lord, whom he has called to be his friends, and to walk with him in faith and holy obedience. Let not such as have thus been favoured yield to fear; for the contest may be sharp, but the victory shall be sure.Who raised up - This word (העיר hē‛yr) is usually applied to the act of arousing one from sleep Sol 2:7; Sol 3:5; Sol 8:4; Zechariah 4:1; then to awake, arouse, or stir up to any enterprise. Here it means, that God had caused the man here referred to, to arouse for the overthrow of their enemies; it was by his agency that he had been led to form the plans which should result in their deliverance. This is the first argument which God urges to induce his people to put confidence in him, and to hope for deliverance; and the fact that he had raised up and qualified such a man for the work, he urges as a proof that he would certainly protect and guard his people.

The righteous man from the east - Hebrew, צדק tsedeq - 'righteousness.' The Septuagint renders it literally, Δικαιοσὺνην Dikaiosunēn - 'righteousness.' The Vulgate renders it, 'The just;' the Syriac as the Septuagint. The word here evidently means, as in our translation, the just or righteous man. It is common in the Hebrew, as in other languages, to put the abstract for the concrete. In regard to the person here referred to, there have been three principal opinions, which it may be proper briefly to notice.

1. The first is, that which refers it to Abraham. This is the interpretation of the Chaldee Paraphrast, who renders it, 'Who has publicly led from the east Abraham, the chosen of the just;' and this interpretation has been adopted by Jarchi, Kimchi, Abarbanel, and by the Jewish writers generally. They say that it means that God had called Abraham from the east; that he conducted him to the land of Canaan, and enabled him to vanquish the people who resided there, and particularly that he vanquished the kings of Sodom and Gomorrah, and delivered Lot from their hands Genesis 14; and that this is designed by God to show them that he who had thus raised up Abraham would raise up them also in the east. There are, however, objections to this interpretation which seem to be insuperable, a few of which may be referred to.

(a) The country from which Abraham came, the land of Chaldea or Mesopotamia, is not commonly in the Scriptures called 'the east,' but the north (see Jeremiah 1:13-15; Jeremiah 4:6; Jeremiah 6:1; Jeremiah 23:8; Jeremiah 25:9, Jeremiah 25:26; Jeremiah 31:8; Jeremiah 46:10; Jeremiah 50:3; Daniel 11:6, Daniel 11:8, Daniel 11:11. This country was situated to the northeast of Palestine, and it is believed is nowhere in the Scriptures called the country of the east.

(b) The description which is here given of what was accomplished by him who was raised up from the east, is not one that applies to Abraham. It supposes more important achievements than any that signalized the father of the faithful. There were no acts in the life of Abraham that can be regarded as subduing the 'nations' before him; as ruling over 'kings;' or as scattering them like the dust or the stubble. Indeed, he appears to have been engaged but in one military adventure - the rescue of Lot - and that was of so slight and unimportant a character as not to form the peculiarity of his public life. Had Abraham been referred to here, it would have been for some other trait than that of a conqueror or military chieftain.

(c) We shall see that the description and the connection require us to understand it of another - of Cyrus.

2. A second opinion is, that it refers directly and entirely to the Messiah. Many of the fathers, as Jerome, Cyril, Eusebius, Theodoret, Procopius, held this opinion. But the objections to this are insuperable.

(a) It is not true that the Messiah was raised up from the east. He was born in the land of Judea, and always lived in that land.

(b) The description here is by no means one that applies to him. It is the description of a warrior and a conqueror; of one who subdued nations, and scattered them before him.

(c) The connection and design of the passage does not admit of the interpretation. That design is, to lead the Jews in exile to put confidence in God, and to hope for a speedy rescue. In order to this, the prophet directs them to the fact that a king appeared in the east, and that he scattered the nations; and from these facts they were to infer that they would themselves be delivered, and that God would be their protector. But how would this design be accomplished by a reference to so remote an event as the coming of the Messiah?

3. The third opinion, therefore, remains, that this refers to Cyrus, the Persian monarch, by whom Babylon was taken, and by whom the Jews were restored to their own land. In support of this interpretation, a few considerations may be adverted to.

(a) It agrees with the fact in regard to the country from which Cyrus came for purposes of conquest. He came from the land which is everywhere in the Scriptures called the East.

(b) It agrees with the specifications which Isaiah elsewhere makes, where Cyrus is mentioned by name, and where there can be no danger of error in regard to the interpretation (see Isaiah 44:28; Isaiah 45:1-4, Isaiah 45:13). Thus in Isaiah 46:11, it is said of Cyrus, 'Calling a ravenous bird from the east, the man that executeth my commandments from a far country.

(c) The entire description here is one that applies in a remarkable manner to Cyrus, as will be shown more fully in the notes at the particular expressions which occur.

continued...

2. Who—else but God? The fact that God "raiseth up" Cyrus and qualifies him for becoming the conqueror of the nations and deliverer of God's people, is a strong argument why they should trust in Him. The future is here prophetically represented as present or past.

the righteous man—Cyrus; as Isa 44:28; 45:1-4, 13; 46:11, "from the East," prove. Called "righteous," not so much on account of his own equity [Herodotus, 3.89], as because he fulfilled God's righteous will in restoring the Jews from their unjust captivity. Raised him up in righteousness. The Septuagint takes the Hebrew as a noun "righteousness." Maurer translates, "Who raised up him whom salvation (national and temporal, the gift of God's 'righteousness' to the good, Isa 32:17; compare Isa 45:8; 51:5) meets at his foot" (that is, wherever he goes). Cyrus is said to come from the East, because Persia is east of Babylon; but in Isa 41:25, from the north, in reference to Media. At the same time the full sense of righteousness, or righteous, and of the whole passage, is realized only in Messiah, Cyrus' antitype (Cyrus knew not God, Isa 45:4). He goes forth as the Universal Conqueror of the "nations," in righteousness making war (Ps 2:8, 9; Re 19:11-15; 6:2; 2:26, 27). "The idols He shall utterly abolish" (compare Isa 7:23, with Isa 2:18). Righteousness was always raised up from the East. Paradise was east of Eden. The cherubim were at the east of the garden. Abraham was called from the East. Judea, the birthplace of Messiah, was in the East.

called … to … foot—called him to attend His (God's) steps, that is, follow His guidance. In Ezr 1:2, Cyrus acknowledges Jehovah as the Giver of his victories. He subdued the nations from the Euxine to the Red Sea, and even Egypt (says Xenophon).

dust—(Isa 17:13; 29:5; Ps 18:42). Persia, Cyrus' country, was famed for the use of the "bow" (Isa 22:6). "Before him" means "gave them into his power" (Jos 10:12). Maurer translates, "Gave his (the enemy's) sword to be dust, and his (the enemy's) bow to be as stubble" (Job 41:26, 29).

Who? what man or god? Was it not my alone work? The idols were so far from assisting me, that they did their utmost to oppose me in it.

Raised up into being and power, stirring up his spirit, and strengthening him to the work.

The righteous man, Heb. righteousness, which is put for a man of righteousness, as pride is put for a proud man, Psalm 36:11, and deceit for a deceitful man, Psalm 109:2; for it is evident from the following words that he spake here of a person. But who this person is, is much disputed by interpreters. Some understand it of Christ. And doubtless the person here spoken of was an eminent type of Christ, and so in a mystical sense it may belong to him. But the things here said to be done by this righteous man, seem to agree much better unto a man of war than unto the Prince of peace. And therefore this place is immediately understood either,

1. Of Abraham, who was a person eminently righteous, and came out of Chaldea, which sometimes seems to be called the east, as Isaiah 2:6 Zechariah 8:7, who did the things here mentioned; partly in his own person, conquering five kings, and the nations with them, Ge 14, and following God he knew not whither; and partly by his posterity, whose exploits may well be ascribed to him, not only because they came out of his loins, but also and especially because all their successes and victories were given to them for Abraham’s sake, and by the virtue of God’s promise and covenant made with Abraham, for the giving of Canaan to him and to his seed for ever. And this interpretation may seem to receive some countenance from Isaiah 41:5,6, which agrees well to the practice of the Canaanites and neighbouring nations; who upon Israel’s march towards them were filled with great consternation, and used all possible diligence in seeking both to their idols and to men for help against them, as we read in that sacred history. And thus God’s argument against idolatry is taken from an illustrious example of God’s infinite power, put forth in saving his people, and destroying their enemies before them; and of the impotency of idols to hinder him in that work. Or,

2. Of Cyrus, who might be called a righteous man; or, as it is in the Hebrew, a man of righteousness; because he was raised up in righteousness, as it is said of him, Isaiah 14:13, and was God’s great instrument to manifest his righteousness; both his faithfulness, in fulfilling his promise of delivering his people out of Babylon after seventy years (righteousness being often put for faithfulness); and his justice, in punishing the enemies and oppressors of his people, the wicked Babylonians; upon which account the Medes, who served under Cyrus in his expedition against the Babylonians, are called God’s sanctified ones, Isaiah 13:3. And all the other expressions here used are very applicable to him, and were verified in him. He came from the east; from Persia, which was directly eastward, both from Judea and from Babylon, and which is called the east in this very case, Isaiah 46:11. He was raised up by God in an eminent and extraordinary manner, as is noted both by sacred and profane historians; and therefore this very word is used concerning him and his army, not only here, but elsewhere; as Isaiah 13:17 Jer 1 9 51:1,11. To him also all the following passages agree, as we shall see. And although this great person and action were yet to come, yet the prophet speaks of them as if they were already past, as the prophets most frequently do. And as in the clause of the former chapter he speaks of God’s people as if they were actually in the captivity of Babylon, Isaiah 41:27, so here he speaks of them as if they were actually brought out of Babylon by Cyrus. And by this instance he pleads his cause against the Gentiles and their idols, because this was an evident proof of God’s almighty power, and of the vanity and weakness of idols, which eminently appeared in the destruction of the Babylonians, who were a people mad upon their idols, as is said, Jeremiah 50:38, and yet were destroyed together with their idols, Jeremiah 51:47. From the east; from a country eastward from Judea, as Chaldea was in part, but Persia more directly. Called him to his foot; to march after him, and under God’s banner, against Babylon. Thus Barak’s army is said to be at his feet, Judges 4:10. Compare also Genesis 30:30.

Gave the nations before him, and made him rule over kings; subdued nations and their kings before him.

He gave them as the dust; to be beaten by him as small as dust, as is said, Psalm 18:42. Or, to be put to flight as easily as the dust is scattered by the wind, as the following clause expounds this. Who raised up the righteous man from the east,.... The Targum interprets this of Abraham; and so the Talmud (h); and this way go most Jewish and Christian commentators, and to him the characters agree; he was a righteous man, believed in Christ for righteousness, had the righteousness of faith when circumcised, did justice, and wrought righteousness himself, and required his children and servants to do the same, Genesis 15:6, he was raised up out of an idolatrous family, from Ur of the Chaldees, on the other side the river Euphrates, which lay east of Judea; he was called by the Lord to his foot, as it follows, and was obedient to him; he went forth at his command, not knowing whither he went, Hebrews 11:8. God gave him by promise the land of Canaan, possessed by several "nations", and which his seed afterwards inherited; yea, he made him, in a spiritual sense, "the father of many nations", even of all believers, in all nations of the world, Genesis 15:18, he made him a conqueror "over" the "kings" that had vanquished the kings of Sodom and Gomorrah, and plundered their cities; who were no more able to stand before him, though he had no more than three hundred and eighteen servants of his household, than "dust and stubble" can resist the force of a mighty wind; he "pursued them" in an unknown tract, got an entire victory over them, without being hurt or losing a man; which was so extraordinary an affair, that Melchizedek, priest of the most high God, and a type of Christ, went forth to meet him, and blessed him, Genesis 14:14, and who but the mighty God could or did raise up this man, and make him what he was, and do the things he did? some, as Aben Ezra, and several Christian writers also, think that Cyrus is meant, spoken of as raised up already, though to come, in the manner of prophetic language, called the ravenous bird from the east, Isaiah 46:11, who came from Persia, which lay east of Judea;

whom God called to his foot, and who performed his pleasure, and executed his counsel, and so said to be a "righteous man" in that respect; and is expressly said to be "raised up in righteousness"; before whom the Lord subdued "nations", and loosed the loins of "kings"; see Isaiah 44:28, some understand it of him as a type of Christ, who is the righteous One, or "righteousness" itself, as the word properly signifies, the Lord our righteousness; whose name is "Oriens", or the east, the rising sun in the east, Zechariah 3:8, the angel ascending from the east, Revelation 7:2, born in the eastern part of the world; called to be the servant of the Lord, and was; to whom he has given the Heathen for his inheritance, and made him his firstborn, higher than the kings of the earth, and whom he will overcome and slay with his twoedged sword: but since rather Christ is the person speaking, and concerning whom the controversy is, therefore some person distinct from him must be meant; and I am inclined to think, with Coeceius, that the Apostle Paul is intended, that wonderful man; though this sense is rejected by Vitringa: he was a "righteous" one, made so by the righteousness of Christ; he believed in it, and was a preacher of it, and lived a holy and righteous life and conversation; whom the Lord raised up for uncommon service and usefulness, and to whom he appeared personally to make him a minister, and send him out to do his work; he was raised up in the eastern part of the world, in Judea, being a Hebrew of the Hebrews, and from thence sent forth into various parts; see Acts 26:16,

called him to his foot; and though he was like a furious lion, raging against his saints, breathing out slaughter and threatenings against them, and in the height of his rage and fury; yet was at once, at the call of Christ, made as tame as a lamb, and said, "Lord, what wilt thou have me to do?" he was willing to do anything and everything he pleased, Acts 9:1 and when he signified it as his will that he should preach his Gospel, he was not disobedient, he did not confer with flesh and blood, but at once set about it with the greatest zeal and readiness:

gave the nations before him; made him an apostle of the Gentiles, or of the nations, and made those Gentiles or nations obedient by word and deed; he triumphed in Christ everywhere, and diffused the savour of his knowledge in every place, Romans 11:13,

and made him rule over kings? governors, princes, potentates, and kings of the earth; he had power over their spirits, being an instrument either of converting them, as Sergius Paulus the Roman deputy, from whence some think he had his name; or to make them to tremble at his discourses, as Felix the Roman governor; and of bringing them at least to own there was something in the Christian religion, as Agrippa, a crowned head, who was obliged to confess he had almost persuaded him to be a Christian, Acts 13:7, and of bringing their kingdoms, and the inhabitants of them, into subjection to Christ:

he gave them as dust to his sword, and as driven stubble to his bow; whose weapons were not carnal, but spiritual, and mighty through God; his sword was the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God; his bow and arrows were the Gospel, and the truths of it, in whose ministry Christ went forth conquering, and to conquer: and this being attended with the power of God, men could no more stand against them than dust and stubble before the wind.

(h) T. Bab. Sabbat, fol. 156. 2. Bava Bathra, fol. 15. 1. Sanhedrin, fol. 108. 2. and Taanith, fol. 21. 1.

Who raised up the {c} righteous man from the east, called him to his foot, gave the nations before him, and made him rule over kings? he gave them as the dust to his sword, and as driven stubble to his bow.

(c) Who called Abraham (who was the pattern of God's justice in delivering his Church) from the idolatry of the Chaldeans to go to and fro at his commandment and placed him in the land of Canaan.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
2. Who hath stirred up … foot] A much-disputed clause. Two points may be regarded as settled; (1) that the abstract noun çédeq cannot be rendered “righteous man” (A.V. following Vulg.); and (2) that it is not to be treated as obj. to “stirred up” (A.V., LXX., Vulg.), but belongs to the second member of the sentence (Heb. accentuation). On the whole the most satisfactory translation is: Who hath stirred up from the sun-rising (him whom) victory meets at every step? (lit. “at his foot” cf. Genesis 30:30). Comp. R.V. marg. The Heb. verbs for “meet” and “call” are distinct in origin, but closely resemble each other; and the forms are constantly interchanged. The bare sense of “victory” is perhaps an extreme use of çédeq (= righteousness) but it is in the line of the prophet’s characteristic use of the expression. It means the outward manifestation that one is in the right, and when, as here, the tribunal is the battle-field, right is equivalent to victory (see Appendix, Note II). If the ordinary sense of “righteousness” is to be retained, the word must be taken as adv. acc., as in R.V.: Who hath raised up one from the east, whom he calleth in righteousness to his foot?

gave] giveth. made him rule over] It is perhaps necessary (with Ewald or Hitzig) to change the vowels, rendering, subdueth (as in ch. Isaiah 45:1).

he gave them as the dust to his sword] The words would naturally read, “he maketh his sword as dust.” But this is an unnatural figure for the swiftness of Cyrus’s conquests; we must either take “his” as equivalent to “their” (which is obviously objectionable), or with the LXX. change the suffix to plur., he maketh their sword as dust. So the next clause: their bow as driven stubble.

2, 3. The marvellous career of Cyrus is vividly described in highly poetical language. That the reference is to Cyrus (who is first named in ch. Isaiah 44:28) is unquestionable; although the Jewish exegetes (with the exception of Aben Ezra), and even Calvin, follow the Targ. in applying the verses to Abraham, and his victory over the four kings (Genesis 14).Verse 2. - Who raised up the righteous man, etc.? rather, who raised up from the East one whom righteousness will call to his foot. It is generally agreed among moderns that the reference is to Cyrus, who is further referred to in ver. 25, in Isaiah 44:28; Isaiah 45:1-4, 13; and Isaiah 46:11. Cyrus, whether we regard him as King of Persia, or as King of Elam (Susiana), would come from a land lying east of Babylon. "Righteousness called him to his foot" when God, the Righteous One, made him his minister, and gave him a certain task to perform (Isaiah 44:28). Gave the nations before him; rather, gives, or will give. (On the rapid conquests of Cyrus, see Herod., 1:75-191; and comp. 'Ancient Monarchies,' vol. 4. pp. 354-377.) That he was God's instrument must be admitted by all who allow that the course of history is determined by a superintending Providence. Made him rule over kings. Mr. Cheyne translates, "makes him trample upon kings," which seems to give the true sense. It was certainly not the general policy of Cyrus to establish under him a number of subject kings, but rather to rule the conquered countries by means of Persian or Median governors (see Herod., 1:153, 156; 'Transactions of the Society of Bibl. Archaeol.,' vol. 7. p. 166) He gave them as the dust to his sword, etc.; or, according to some, he maketh their sword as dust, and their bow as driven stubble. The result is the same, whichever we regard as the true construction. The prophecy tells of the ease and completeness with which Cyrus vanquished his enemies. Such of the Israelites are required first of all to be brought to a consciousness of the folly of idolatry are not called Israel at all, because they place themselves on a part with the gōyı̄m. But now the prophet addresses those of little faith, who nevertheless desire salvation; those who are cast down, but not in utter despair. "Why sayest thou, O Jacob, and speakest, O Israel, My way is hidden from Jehovah, and my right is overlooked by my God?" The name Jacob stands here at the head, as in Isaiah 29:22, as being the more exquisite name, and the one which more immediately recalled their patriarchal ancestor. They fancied that Jehovah had completely turned away from them in wrath and weariness. "My way" refers to their thorny way of life; "my right" (mishpâtı̄) to their good right, in opposition to their oppressors. Of all this He appeared to take no notice at all. He seemed to have no thought of vindicating it judicially (on the double min, away from him, see Ges. 154, 3, c).
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