Isaiah 32:10
Many days and years shall you be troubled, you careless women: for the vintage shall fail, the gathering shall not come.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(10) Many days and years . . .—Literally, days to the year, a phrase after the pattern of “add ye year to year” in Isaiah 29:1, but implying, not the long continuance of the trouble, but its quick arrival, as in “a year and a day.”

The vintage shall fail . . .—The words are commonly taken as predicting a literal failure of the vine-crop, and therefore of the supply of wine for the banquets of the rich. A truer insight into the language of a poet-prophet would lead to our seeing in it a symbol of the failure of all forms of earthly joy.

32:9-20 When there was so much provocation given to the holy God, bad times might be expected. Alas! how many careless ones there are, who support self-indulgence by shameful niggardliness! We deserve to be deprived of the supports of life, when we make them the food of lusts. Let such tremble and be troubled. Blessed times shall be brought in by the pouring out of the Spirit from on high; then, and not till then, there will be good times. The present state of the Jews shall continue until a more abundant pouring out of the Spirit from on high. Peace and quietness shall be found in the way and work of righteousness. True satisfaction is to be had only in true religion. And real holiness is real happiness now, and shall be perfect happiness, that is, perfect holiness for ever. The good seed of the word shall be sown in all places, and be watered by Divine grace; and laborious, patient labourers shall be sent forth into God's husbandry.Many days and years - Margin, 'Days above a year.' This is a literal translation of the Hebrew. Septuagint, 'Make mention of a day of a year in sorrow, with hope.' Targum, 'Days with years.' Kimchi supposes it means 'two years.' Grotius supposes it means 'within three years.' Various other interpretations may be seen in Poole's Synopsis. Gesenius renders it, 'For a year's time,' according to the common expression 'a year and a day,' denoting a complete year, and supposes that it means a considerable time, a long period. The phrase literally means 'the days. upon (or beyond) a year,' and may denote a long time; as the entire days in a year would denote a long period of suffering. Lowth renders it, not in accordance with the Hebrew, 'Years upon years.' Noyes, 'One year more, and ye shall tremble.' Perhaps this expresses the sense; and then it would denote not the length of time which they would suffer, but would indicate that the calamities would soon come upon them.

For the vintage shall fail - A large part of the wealth and the luxury of the nation consisted in the vintage. When the vine failed, there would be, of course, great distress. The sense is, that in consequence of the invasion of the Assyrians, either the people would neglect to cultivate the lands, or they would fail to collect the harvest. This might occur either from the dread of the invasion, or because the Assyrian would destroy everything in his march.

10. Many days and years—rather, "In little more than a year" [Maurer]; literally, "days upon a year" (so Isa 29:1).

vintage shall fail—through the arrival of the Assyrian invader. As the wheat harvest is omitted, Isaiah must look for the invasion in the summer or autumn of 714 B.C., when the wheat would have been secured already, and the later fruit "gathering," and vintage would be still in danger.

Many days and years, Heb. Days above a year, i.e. a year and some days; which notes either,

1. The time from this prophecy to the beginning of this judgment; or rather,

2. The time of the continuance of it, that it should last for above one year; as indeed this did, and no longer; for Hezekiah reigned in all but twenty-nine years, 2 Kings 18:2, and Sennacherib came in his fourteenth year, and after his defeat and departure God promised and added to him fifteen years more, 2 Kings 20:6.

The vintage shall fail, during the time of the Assyrian invasion. And this commination is here added to qualify the foregoing promise, and to warn them, that although God would give them so good a king, and there should be some reformation of their former abuses under the government of Ahaz; yet as there were many sins among them not yet repented of, so they should be severely chastised for them.

The gathering, to wit, of the other fruits of the earth; as that feast which was observed after the gathering of all the fruits was called the feast of ingathering, Exodus 23:16. Many days and years shall ye be troubled,.... Or, "days above a year" (k); a year, and somewhat more, yet not two years; which some understand of the time from this prophecy, until their troubles began, by the invasion of Sennacherib; and others of the continuance of it, it lasting more than a year; or, "days with a year"; so Kimchi, days upon a year, year upon year, one year after another; and so denotes a long duration of their troubles; and so the troubles of the Jews, before their utter destruction by the Romans, lasted a great while, and since to this day; for the prophecy respects those times. Kimchi says it may be interpreted of the destruction of the whole land of Israel, and of the destruction of the temple in the days of Zedekiah; or of the destruction of the second temple, that is, by the Romans:

for the vintage shall fail; being spoiled by the enemy, or taken for their own use; and so there would be no wine to cheer their hearts, and make them merry:

the gathering shall not come; of the other fruits of the earth; when the time of ingathering should come, at which there was a feast that bore that name, there should be none to be gathered in; the consequence of which must be a famine, and such there was before and at the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans.

(k) "dies super annum", Vatablus; "dies ultra annum", Cocceius.

Many days and years shall ye be troubled, {g} ye careless women: {h} for the vintage shall fail, the gathering shall not come.

(g) Meaning that the affliction would continue long and when one year was past, yet they should look for new plagues.

(h) God will take from you the means and opportunities, which made you contemn him: that is, abundance of worldly goods.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
10. Many days and years] The Hebr. reads literally “days beyond a year,” probably a current popular phrase like “year and day.” Both A.V. and R.V. regard the expression as accus. of duration, but the context shews that it fixes the point of time when ease and security give place to anxiety. The meaning is “in little more than a year.” Comp. the less definite note of time in ch. Isaiah 29:1.

The feature of the judgment which is emphasised is the failure of the vintage and the fruit harvest (gathering); what follows shews that this is not the result of natural causes, but of a wholesale devastation of the land. The significance of the prediction would depend greatly on the season of the year at which it was uttered; on any natural interpretation of his words, the prophet means to assert that the next year’s harvest will never be gathered.Verse 10. - Many days and years shall ye be troubled; rather, in a year and days; i.e. "in less than two years." The object of the prophet is not to fix the duration of the trouble, but to mark the time of its commencement (comp. Isaiah 29:1). Shall ye be troubled; rather, shall ye tremble, or shudder (so Deuteronomy 2:25; Psalm 77:18; Psalm 99:1; Isaiah 5:25; Isaiah 64:2; Jeremiah 33:9, etc.). Ye careless women; rather, ye confident ones. The word is different from that employed in vers. 9 and 11. The vintage shall fail; literally, has failed - "the perfect of prophetic certitude" (Cheyne). Some critics understand a literal failure, or destruction, of the vintage through the invasion of the Assyrians. Others suggest a refer-once to Isaiah 5:4-7. The vineyard of the Lord (Judah) has utterly failed to bring forth grapes - there is no ingathering - therefore destruction shall fall upon it. The second is an opened understanding, following upon the ban of hardening. "And the eyes of the seeing no more are closed, and the ears of the hearing attend. And the heart of the hurried understands to know, and the tongue of stammerers speaks clear things with readiness." It is not physical miracles that are predicted here, but a spiritual change. The present judgment of hardening will be repealed: this is what Isaiah 32:3 affirms. The spiritual defects, from which many suffer who do not belong to the worst, will be healed: this is the statement in Isaiah 32:4. The form תּשׁעינה is not the future of שׁעה here, as in Isaiah 31:1; Isaiah 22:4; Isaiah 17:7-8 (in the sense of, they will no longer stare about restlessly and without aim), but of שׁעה equals שׁעע, a metaplastic future of the latter, in the sense of, to be smeared over to closed (see Isaiah 29:9; Isaiah 6:10; cf., tach in Isaiah 44:18). On qâshabh (the kal of which is only met with here), see at Isaiah 21:7. The times succeeding the hardening, of which Isaiah is speaking here, are "the last times," as Isaiah 6:1-13 clearly shows; though it does not therefore follow that the king mentioned in Isaiah 32:1 (as in Isaiah 11:1.) is the Messiah Himself. In Isaiah 32:1 the prophet merely affirms, that Israel as a national commonwealth will then be governed in a manner well pleasing to God; here he predicts that Israel as a national congregation will be delivered from the judgment of not seeing with seeing eyes, and not hearing with hearing ears, and that it will be delivered from defects of weakness also. The nimhârı̄m are those that fall headlong, the precipitate, hurrying, or rash; and the עלּגים, stammerers, are not scoffers (Isaiah 28:7., Isaiah 19:20), as Knobel and Drechsler maintain, but such as are unable to think and speak with distinctness and certainty, more especially concerning the exalted things of God. The former would now have the gifts of discernment (yâbhı̄n), to perceive things in their true nature, and to distinguish under all circumstances that which is truly profitable (lâda‛ath); the latter would be able to express themselves suitably, with refinement, clearness, and worthiness. Tsachōth (old ed. tsâchōth) signifies that which is light, transparent; not merely intelligible, but refined and elegant. תּמהר gives the adverbial idea to ledabbēr (Ewald, 285, a).
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