INTRODUCTION TO 1 CHRONICLES p>This and the following book were reckoned by the Jews as one book, as appears by the Masoretic note at the end of the second book, and as is affirmed by Origen (a) and Jerom (b); and they were by the ancients (c) called Chronicles, as they are by us; but they are different from the book of the chronicles of the kings of Israel and Judah, so often mentioned in the preceding books, seeing several things there referred to, as in them, are not to be found here; though no doubt many things here recorded were taken from thence under a divine direction. In the Greek version, and so in the Vulgate Latin version after that, they are called "Paralipomena", that is, things passed over or omitted, because they contain several anecdotes which are not to be found in the books of Samuel and Kings. The Hebrew title of them is, "Dibre Hayamim", words of days, day books or diaries, and what the Greeks call "Ephemerides"; though, as "yamim" sometimes signifies years, they may be named "annals"; and so the Arabic inscription is,
"the Books of Annals;''
and because they chiefly respect the kings of Judah, the Syriac inscription is,
"the Book of the Things that were done in the Times of the Kings of Judah.''
The Targum is,
"the Book of Genealogies, the Words of Days, which were from the Days of the World;''
because the first ten chapters consist of genealogies beginning from Adam. The inspired penman of these books must live after the return of the Jews from the Babylonish captivity, since he carries down the genealogy of the kings and princes of Judah beyond that time, 1 Chronicles 3:17. It is generally thought by the Jews and Christians that Ezra was the writer of them, with which agrees the age in which he lived; and as it may seem, from the last of these books ending with the same words with which that under his name begins: so the Talmudists (d) say, that Ezra wrote his own book, and the genealogy of the chronicles unto his own, or unto Velo, "and he had brethren", 2 Chronicles 21:2 and Jarchi affirms that he wrote them by the hand or means of Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi, inspired prophets; though some Jewish writers (e) suppose they were written partly by him, and partly by Nehemiah; that all to 2 Chronicles 21:2 were written by Ezra, and the rest by Nehemiah. Kimchi thinks that Ezra was not the first author and writer of these books, but that the books of Chronicles and Annals of the kings of Judah, and of the kings of Israel, were separately written before him; but that he only revised them, and with the men of the great synagogue added the genealogies, and put them into the canon of the Scriptures (f). Spinosa (g) fancies they were written after Judas Maccabaeus had restored the temple, since the historian tells what families dwelt in Jerusalem in the times of Ezra, 1 Chronicles 9:1 and speaks of the porters, 1 Chronicles 9:17 two of which are mentioned, Nehemiah 11:19 as if Ezra could not describe the families that lived when he did, or name the porters of the temple, since it was finished and dedicated in his time, Ezra 6:15, but however there is no doubt to be made of the authenticity of these books, since not only they have always been acknowledged by the Jews as a part of the canonical Scripture, and by ancient Christians, as appears by the catalogues of Melito (h) and Origen (i); but there are plain references to them in the New Testament. The genealogy of Christ, by the evangelists, is formed out of them; the doxology in Revelation 5:12 as some have observed, comes very near to what is used by David, 1 Chronicles 29:11 and the passages in Acts 7:48 contain the sense of what is expressed in 2 Chronicles 2:5. The use and design of these books are chiefly to give a larger account of the kingdom of Judah, especially after the division of it from the ten tribes, and of the kings thereof, than what is given in the preceding books, as in the last of these books; and particularly they ascertain the genealogy of Christ, that it might be clear and plain of what tribe and family the Messiah came, that he descended from the tribe of Judah, and from the kings of the house of David, as in this first book. They both contain an history from Adam, to the deliverance of the Jews from their captivity in Babylon. The first of these books reaches, according to Hottinger (k), to A. M. 2985, and the latter is an history of four hundred and seventy two years. According to Bishop Usher (l) the former contains a course of 2990 years, and the latter of four hundred and seventy eight.
(a) Apud Eusch. Eccl. Hist. l. 6. c. 25. (b) Ad Dominionem, tom. 3. fol. 7. C. (c) Hieron. Praefat. in lib. Reg. tom. 3. fol. 6. B. (d) T. Bab. Bava Bathra, fol. 15. 1.((e) Shalssalet Hakabala, Abarbinel in Josuam, fol. 3. 3. (f) Vid. Buxtorf. de Punct. Antiqu. par. 1. p. 182. (g) Tract. Theolog. Politic. c. 10. p. 184. (h) Apud Euseb. Eccl. Hist. l. 4. c. 26. (i) Apud ib. l. 6. c. 25. (k) Thesaur. Philolog. l. 2. c. 1. p. 514, 515. (l) Annal. Vet. Test. p. 56. (m) Tiberias, c. 14.
INTRODUCTION TO 1 Chronicles 1
This chapter gives us the genealogy of the patriarchs from Adam to Noah, 1 Chronicles 1:1 of the sons of Noah, and their posterity, to Abraham, 1 Chronicles 1:5 of the sons of Abraham and their posterity, 1 Chronicles 1:28 and of the sons of Esau, 1 Chronicles 1:35 and of the kings and dukes that reigned in Edom, 1 Chronicles 1:43.
Adam, Sheth, Enosh,Adam, Seth,.... These first four verses exactly agree with the account of the antediluvian patriarchs in Genesis 5:1, the first letter in Adam is larger than usual, as a memorial, as Buxtorf (m) observes, of the first and only man, from whence mankind had their beginning, and whose history the author had undertaken to write.
Kenan, Mahalaleel, Jered,
Henoch, Methuselah, Lamech,
Noah, Shem, Ham, and Japheth.
The sons of Japheth; Gomer, and Magog, and Madai, and Javan, and Tubal, and Meshech, and Tiras.The sons of Japheth, Gomer,.... Here begins the genealogy of the sons of Noah after the flood; of the sons of Japheth the elder, in this and the two following verses; next of the sons of Ham, the younger brother, 1 Chronicles 1:8, then of Shem, whose posterity are mentioned last, because from him, in the line of Heber, sprang Abraham, the ancestor of the Jewish nation, of whom the Messiah was to come, for whose sake this genealogy is given, 1 Chronicles 1:17. The whole is the same with the account in
And the sons of Gomer; Ashchenaz, and Riphath, and Togarmah.
And the sons of Javan; Elishah, and Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim.
The sons of Ham; Cush, and Mizraim, Put, and Canaan.
And the sons of Cush; Seba, and Havilah, and Sabta, and Raamah, and Sabtecha. And the sons of Raamah; Sheba, and Dedan.
And Cush begat Nimrod: he began to be mighty upon the earth.
And Mizraim begat Ludim, and Anamim, and Lehabim, and Naphtuhim,
And Pathrusim, and Casluhim, (of whom came the Philistines,) and Caphthorim.
And Canaan begat Zidon his firstborn, and Heth,
The Jebusite also, and the Amorite, and the Girgashite,
And the Hivite, and the Arkite, and the Sinite,
And the Arvadite, and the Zemarite, and the Hamathite.
The sons of Shem; Elam, and Asshur, and Arphaxad, and Lud, and Aram, and Uz, and Hul, and Gether, and Meshech.
And Arphaxad begat Shelah, and Shelah begat Eber.
And unto Eber were born two sons: the name of the one was Peleg; because in his days the earth was divided: and his brother's name was Joktan.
And Joktan begat Almodad, and Sheleph, and Hazarmaveth, and Jerah,
Hadoram also, and Uzal, and Diklah,
And Ebal, and Abimael, and Sheba,
And Ophir, and Havilah, and Jobab. All these were the sons of Joktan.
Shem, Arphaxad, Shelah,
Eber, Peleg, Reu,
Serug, Nahor, Terah,
Abram; the same is Abraham.
The sons of Abraham; Isaac, and Ishmael.The sons of Abraham,.... The famous and well known ancestor of the Jews; of Ishmael his firstborn, and his posterity; of his sons by Keturah; and of Isaac and his sons, an account is given from hence to the end of 1 Chronicles 1:34 entirely agreeing with that in Genesis 25:1.
These are their generations: The firstborn of Ishmael, Nebaioth; then Kedar, and Adbeel, and Mibsam,
Mishma, and Dumah, Massa, Hadad, and Tema,
Jetur, Naphish, and Kedemah. These are the sons of Ishmael.
Now the sons of Keturah, Abraham's concubine: she bare Zimran, and Jokshan, and Medan, and Midian, and Ishbak, and Shuah. And the sons of Jokshan; Sheba, and Dedan.
And the sons of Midian; Ephah, and Epher, and Henoch, and Abida, and Eldaah. All these are the sons of Keturah.
And Abraham begat Isaac. The sons of Isaac; Esau and Israel.
The sons of Esau; Eliphaz, Reuel, and Jeush, and Jaalam, and Korah.The sons of Esau,.... The firstborn of Isaac; his posterity are named in this and the two following verses, as in Genesis 36:1 only it should be observed, that Timna, 1 Chronicles 1:36 is not the name of a man, but was the concubine of Eliphaz, the eldest son of Esau, and the mother of Amalek, Genesis 36:12, and so in the Arabic version it is read,"and Timna, which was the concubine of Eliphaz, the son of Esau, bare him Amalek;''and so the Alexandrian copy of the Septuagint.
The sons of Eliphaz; Teman, and Omar, Zephi, and Gatam, Kenaz, and Timna, and Amalek.
The sons of Reuel; Nahath, Zerah, Shammah, and Mizzah.
And the sons of Seir; Lotan, and Shobal, and Zibeon, and Anah, and Dishon, and Ezer, and Dishan.And the sons of Seir,.... This man and his posterity were not of the race of Esau, but are mentioned because they were a family into which Esau, and a son of his, married, and whose possessions he and his obtained. The account from hence, to the end of 1 Chronicles 1:42 is the same with Genesis 36:20, with some little variation of names.
And the sons of Lotan; Hori, and Homam: and Timna was Lotan's sister.
The sons of Shobal; Alian, and Manahath, and Ebal, Shephi, and Onam. And the sons of Zibeon; Aiah, and Anah.
The sons of Anah; Dishon. And the sons of Dishon; Amram, and Eshban, and Ithran, and Cheran.
The sons of Ezer; Bilhan, and Zavan, and Jakan. The sons of Dishan; Uz, and Aran.
Now these are the kings that reigned in the land of Edom before any king reigned over the children of Israel; Bela the son of Beor: and the name of his city was Dinhabah.Now these are the kings that reigned in the land of Edom,.... Which had its name from Esau, who was so called, Genesis 25:30. From hence, to the end of the chapter, an account is given of the kings and dukes of Edom, in the same order as in Genesis 30:31.
And when Bela was dead, Jobab the son of Zerah of Bozrah reigned in his stead.
And when Jobab was dead, Husham of the land of the Temanites reigned in his stead.
And when Husham was dead, Hadad the son of Bedad, which smote Midian in the field of Moab, reigned in his stead: and the name of his city was Avith.
And when Hadad was dead, Samlah of Masrekah reigned in his stead.
And when Samlah was dead, Shaul of Rehoboth by the river reigned in his stead.
And when Shaul was dead, Baalhanan the son of Achbor reigned in his stead.
And when Baalhanan was dead, Hadad reigned in his stead: and the name of his city was Pai; and his wife's name was Mehetabel, the daughter of Matred, the daughter of Mezahab.
Hadad died also. And the dukes of Edom were; duke Timnah, duke Aliah, duke Jetheth,
Duke Aholibamah, duke Elah, duke Pinon,
Duke Kenaz, duke Teman, duke Mibzar,
Duke Magdiel, duke Iram. These are the dukes of Edom.