1 Peter 4:11
If any man speak, let him speak as the oracles of God; if any man minister, let him do it as of the ability which God gives: that God in all things may be glorified through Jesus Christ, to whom be praise and dominion for ever and ever. Amen.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(11) If any man speak.—St. Peter proceeds to speak of two particular forms taken by this “manifold grace of God;” (1) the power to speak; (2) the power to minister. The speaking is, of course, public preaching in the Church; and the man who does so is to do it “as oracles of God.” The article is not added in the Greek, so that it must not be pressed to mean “speaking on the model, or in accordance with the doctrines of., the Old Testament.” Rather, the emphatic word is “of God;” and the Apostle means that the preacher is not to trust to his own natural powers and wit, or to seek applause for himself, but to act as one possessed of powers not his own; to speak only that which God inspires him to speak. This clause must not be taken as being in this place complete in itself. It is apparently only introduced to give point to what follows, the intention of the whole paragraph being to enforce liberality. It is easy to recognise in spiritual things the principle of God being all in all; and St. Peter bids them apply the same principle to material gifts. “Recollect that whatever you possess, you possess from God in trust for the Church. Just as the man who preaches is to preach as a mere mouthpiece of God, so the man who gives must consider himself as being but God’s dispenser, that in this, too, God may have all the glory.” For the same kind of rhetorical effect, see 1Peter 2:17, last Note.

If any man minister.—This does not mean “ministering” in the congregation, or spiritual ministrations of any sort, but giving the good things of this life for the benefit of the poor. The word rendered “ability” not unfrequently expresses (like our word “resources”) a sufficiency of wealth; and the word which appears as “giveth” is the same which is used of supplying material blessings in 2Corinthians 9:10. In a compound form, the same verb occurs in Galatians 3:5, Colossians 2:19, 2Peter 1:5-11; and the substantive in Ephesians 4:16, Philippians 1:19. The original classical meaning of the word is to pay the expenses of putting a play on the stage, which at Athens was a public burden borne by the wealthier citizens in turn, like the shrievalty of an English county. Thus the wealthy Christian who supports the Church and relieves all the poor is not really the Church’s patron: he is a responsible manager; but the paymaster is God.

That God in all things may be glorified.—How clearly St. Peter works it out: “the manifold grace of God,” “as oracles of God,” “out of the resources of which God is paymaster,” “that God in all things may be glorified.” The “all things” means emphatically that in these money matters as much as in the spiritual works God’s honour is concerned. For a most touching expansion of this text, see the Epistle of St. Theonas, Patriarch of Alexandria, to the High Chamberlain of the Emperor Diocletian, an English translation of which may be seen in The Persecution of Diocletian, by the same hand as these Notes.

Through Jesus Christ.—They see and feel that, had it not been for Jesus Christ, these rich men would not have been so liberal; and when they thus thank Him for it, they are in effect thanking God.

To whom.—That is, to God, rather than to Jesus Christ. And it should be, “to whom is,” or belongs, rather than “to whom be,” and “the glory and the dominion,” not “glory and dominion.”

4:7-11 The destruction of the Jewish church and nation, foretold by our Saviour, was very near. And the speedy approach of death and judgment concerns all, to which these words naturally lead our minds. Our approaching end, is a powerful argument to make us sober in all worldly matters, and earnest in religion. There are so many things amiss in all, that unless love covers, excuses, and forgives in others, the mistakes and faults for which every one needs the forbearance of others, Satan will prevail to stir up divisions and discords. But we are not to suppose that charity will cover or make amends for the sins of those who exercise it, so as to induce God to forgive them. The nature of a Christian's work, which is high work and hard work, the goodness of the Master, and the excellence of the reward, all require that our endeavours should be serious and earnest. And in all the duties and services of life, we should aim at the glory of God as our chief end. He is a miserable, unsettled wretch, who cleaves to himself, and forgets God; is only perplexed about his credit, and gain, and base ends, which are often broken, and which, when he attains, both he and they must shortly perish together. But he who has given up himself and his all to God, may say confidently that the Lord is his portion; and nothing but glory through Christ Jesus, is solid and lasting; that abideth for ever.If any man speak - As a preacher, referring here particularly to the office of the ministry.

Let him speak as the oracles of God - As the oracles of God speak; to wit, in accordance with the truth which God has revealed, and with an impressive sense of the responsibility of delivering a message from him. The word rendered "oracles" (λόγια logia) means, properly, something "spoken" or "uttered"; then anything uttered by God - a divine communication - a revelation. See the Romans 3:2 note; Hebrews 5:12 note. See the general duty here inculcated illustrated at length in the notes at Romans 12:6-8. The passage here has a strong resemblance to the one in Romans.

If any man minister - διακονεῖ diakonei. This may refer either, so far as the word is concerned, to the office of a deacon, or to any service which one renders to another. See 1 Peter 4:10. The word commonly refers to service in general; to attendance on another, or to aid rendered to another; to the distribution of alms, etc. It seems probable that the word here does not refer to the office of a deacon as such, because the speciality of that office was to take charge of the poor of the church, and of the funds provided for them, (see Acts 6:2-3;) but the apostle here says that they to whom he referred should "minister as of the ability which God giveth," which seems to imply that it was rather to distribute what was their own, than what was committed to them by the church. The word may refer to any aid which we render to others in the church, as distributing alms, attending on the sick, etc. Compare the notes at Romans 12:7-8.

As of the ability which God giveth - In regard to property, talent, strength, influence, etc. This is the limit of all obligation. No one is bound to go beyond his ability; everyone is required to come up to it. Compare Mark 14:8; Luke 17:10.

That God in all things may be glorified - That he may be honored; to wit, by our doing all the good we can to others, and thus showing the power of his religion. See the notes at 1 Corinthians 10:31.

Through Jesus Christ - That is, as the medium through whom all those holy influences come by which God is honored.

To whom - That is, to God; for he is the main subject of the sentence. The apostle says that in all things he is to be glorified by us, and then adds in this doxology that he is worthy to be thus honored. Compare Revelation 1:6; See the notes at 2 Timothy 4:18. Many, however, suppose that the reference here is to the Son of God. That it would be true of him, and appropriate, see the notes at Romans 9:5.

11. If any … speak—namely, as a prophet, or divinely taught teacher in the Church assembly.

as the, &c.—The Greek has no article: "as oracles of God." This may be due to Greek: "God," having no article, it being a principle when a governed noun omits the Greek article that the governing noun should omit it, too. In Ac 7:38 also, the Greek article is wanting; thus English Version, "as the oracles of God," namely, the Old Testament, would be "right," and the precept be similar to Ro 12:6, "prophesy according to the analogy of the faith." But the context suits better thus, "Let him speak as (becomes one speaking) oracles OF God." His divinely inspired words are not his own, but God's, and as a steward (1Pe 4:10) having them committed to him, he ought so to speak them. Jesus was the pattern in this respect (Mt 7:29; Joh 12:49; 14:10; compare Paul, 2Co 2:17). Note, the very same term as is applied in the only other passages where it occurs (Ac 7:38; Ro 3:2; Heb 5:12), to the Old Testament inspired writings, is here predicated of the inspired words (the substance of which was afterwards committed to writing) of the New Testament prophets.

minister—in acts; the other sphere of spiritual activity besides speaking.

as of—"out of" the store of his "strength" (Greek, physical power in relation to outward service, rather than moral and intellectual "ability"; so in Mr 12:30).

giveth—Greek, "supplieth"; originally said of a choragus, who supplied the chorus with all necessaries for performing their several parts.

that God in all things may be glorified—the final end of all a Christian's acts.

through Jesus Christ—the mediator through whom all our blessings come down to us, and also through whom all our praises ascend to God. Through Christ alone can God be glorified in us and our sayings and doings.

to whom—Christ.

be—Greek, "is."

for ever and ever—Greek, "unto the ages of the ages."

If any man speak; viz. authoritatively, and by way of office, as a public teacher in the church; though this may be accommodated to private Christians in their charitative instructions of others, yet it seems especially meant of teaching officers.

Let him speak as the oracles of God: this relates not only to the manner of speaking, that it be with faith in that word the preacher speaketh, and a due reverence of it, but to the matter likewise, that he preach nothing but the pure word of God, and do not obtrude upon the hearers the fancies, figments, or traditions of men, instead of the oracles of God.

If any man minister: this may be understood either:

1. More particularly of the work of deacons, Acts 6:1-15, who were to serve tables, Acts 6:2, distribute the alms of the church, and take care of the poor; or:

2. More generally of any ministry in the church, distinct from that of teaching, (of which he spake before), as the dispensing of sacraments, exercise of discipline, &c.

Let him do it as of the ability which God giveth; i.e. not remissly and coldly, but diligently and strenuously, and with his might, as far as God enables him; this being to do it faithfully, which is especially required in a steward, 1 Corinthians 4:2.

That God in all things may be glorified; in all your gifts, and the communications of them: q.d. God doth not adorn you with his gifts so as to bereave himself of his glory, but that you should give him the honour of them.

Through Jesus Christ; from whom ye have received the gifts, Ephesians 4:8, and by whom you are enabled to glorify God; and by whom alone what ye do can be accepted of God. See Ephesians 3:21. If any man speak, let him speak as the oracles of God,.... This is an application of the above general rule to a particular case, the public ministry of the word, for that is here meant: "if any man speak"; not in any manner, or on any subject; not in a private way, or about things natural and civil; but in public, and concerning divine things: "let him speak": this is rightly supplied in our translation; and in which it is supported and confirmed by the Syriac and Arabic versions, who both supply the same way: "as the oracles of God"; by which are meant the writings of the Old Testament, the sacred Scriptures; see Romans 3:2 so called, because they come from God, are breathed and spoken by him, and contain his mind and will, and are authoritative and infallible; and according to these he is to speak who speaks in public on divine subjects, both as to the matter and manner of his speech: the matter of it must be agreeably to the divinely inspired word of God, must be fetched out of it, and confirmed by it; and he is to speak every thing that is in it, and keep back nothing, but declare the whole counsel of God, and only what is in it, without mixing his own chaff, or the doctrines of men with it; and it should be spoken in a manner agreeably to it, not as the word of man, but as the word of God; and not in words which man's wisdom teacheth, but in the words of the Holy Ghost; and with all boldness, for so the Gospel ought to be spoken; and with all certainty and assurance, constantly affirming the things of it, for nothing is more sure than they are; and with all openness, plainness, and freedom, making truth manifest, laying it plain and open before men, as it ought to be; and that with all reverence and godly fear, which becomes both speaker and hearer. The apostle next proceeds to mention another case, to which the above rule is applicable;

if any man minister, let him do it as of the ability which God giveth; that is, if any man minister in temporal things to the supply of the poor; if a private man, and in a private way, let him do it in proportion to his ability, as God has prospered him in the world; or if an officer of the church, a deacon; and which seems to be the sense, for so the word used signifies, if any man perform the office, or act the part of a deacon, let him do it according to what God, in his providence, has put into his hands; that is, of the church's stock, which he should minister with simplicity and cheerfulness. A like division of church offices into public preaching of the word, and ministering to the wants of the poor, is here made, as in Romans 12:6. The end of all this is,

that God in all things may be glorified through Jesus Christ; or by all means, as the Arabic version renders it; by all ways and methods proper; for the glory of God should be the principal view in every action of life: hence the Syriac version adds to the phrase, "in all things", for the sake of explanation, "which ye do"; by sobriety, by prayer, by watching unto it; by exercising fervent charity, and using hospitality one to another; by ministering the gift as it is received; by the public ministration of the word; and by supplying the wants of the poor, whether in a personal or in a church way: or in all gifts, whether private or public, temporal or spiritual; since they all come from God, and men are accountable to him for them; and therefore should be used so as to glorify him by them, and give him the glory of them; and not glory in them, as if not received from him: or in all the members of the church, whether officers, as pastors and deacons, or private Christians; all should so behave in their respective stations, as God may have glory: "through Jesus Christ": through whom all grace is communicated, by whom all gifts are bestowed, and by virtue of grace and strength received from him every good work is performed to the glory of God:

to whom be praise and dominion for ever and ever; meaning either to God the Father, from whom every good gift comes; who is the God of all grace, of whom, and through whom, and to whom, are all things; and therefore the praise and glory of all belongs to him; and who has the dominion over all creatures and things, and has the disposal of all in nature, providence, and grace: or to Jesus Christ, out of whose fulness manifold grace, grace for grace, is received; and who having ascended on high, has received gifts for men, and gives them to them, and so is worthy of all praise; and who, as God, has the kingdom of nature and providence equally with the Father, and, as Mediator, the kingdom of grace, the government of the church; and whose dominion will be from sea to sea, and from the rivers to the ends of the earth; and of whose kingdom there will be no end.

Amen; so let it be, so shall it be.

{10} If any man speak, let him speak as the oracles of God; if any man minister, let him do it as of the ability which God giveth: that God in all things may be glorified through Jesus Christ, to whom be praise and dominion for ever and ever. Amen.

(10) He reckons up two kinds of these gifts as chief, that is, the office of teaching in the Church, and the other ecclesiastical functions, in which two things especially are to be observed: that is, that the pure word of God be taught, and whatever is done, be referred to the glory of God the Father in Christ, as to the proper mark.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
1 Peter 4:11. Species duas generi subjicit (Vorstius). From the general term χάρισμα, Peter selects two special functions for greater prominence.

εἴ τις λαλεῖ] λαλεῖν is here the preaching in the church, which includes the προφητεύειν, διδάσκειν, and παρακαλεῖν, mentioned in Romans 12:6-8. Pott is inexact in paraphrasing εἴ τις λαλεῖ by εἴ τις ἔχει τὸ χάρισμα τοῦ λαλεῖν (so, too, Schott: “if any one have the gift and vocation to speak”), for λαλεῖν is not the gift, but the exercise of it. It is arbitrary to limit the application of the term to the official duties of the elders (Hemming: si quis docendi munus in ecclesia sustinet), for in the assemblies every one who possessed the necessary χάρισμα was at liberty to speak.

ὡς λόγια Θεοῦ] λαλείτω ἃ λαλεῖ must be supplied; or better still, with Wiesinger: λαλοῦντες; cf. ἕκαστοςδιακονοῦντες above; λόγια—as in classical Greek, chiefly of oracular responses—is applied in the N. T. only to the utterances or revelations of God; either to those in the O. T., as in Acts 7:38, Romans 3:2, or those in the N. T., as Hebrews 5:12. The idea, prophecies, is too narrow. This exhortation presupposes that whoever speaks in the congregation, gives utterance, not to his own thoughts, but to the revelations of God, and it demands that he should do so in a manner (ὡς) conformable to them.

εἴ τις διακονεῖ] διακονεῖν must not be understood as applying to the official work of the appointed deacons only; it embraces quaevis ministeria in ecclesia ab docendi officio distincta (Gerhard; so, too, Wiesinger, who here cites Romans 12:8 and 1 Corinthians 12:28), but it refers specially to the care of the poor, the sick, and the strangers, either official, or according to the free-will of individual members of the church.

ὡς ἐξ ἰσχύος κ.τ.λ.] sc. διακονείτω, or better διακονοῦντες: “so ministering, as of,” etc. Here, too, it is presumed that the person ministering is not wanting in that strength which God supplies, and the exhortation is, that he should exercise his ability in a way corresponding with the fact, that he received the strength necessary thereto from God, and not as “of himself possessing it.” χορηγεῖν, besides in this passage, occurs only in 2 Corinthians 9:10. (ἐπιχορηγεῖν is to be met with frequently, e.g. 2 Peter 1:5.)

ἵνα] as stating their purpose, refers back to the exhortations in 1 Peter 4:10-11, with special reference to the determinative clauses introduced by ὡς.

ἐν πᾶσιν] “in all things” (Wiesinger), i.e. “in the practice of all the gifts, the exercise of which was connected with matters relating to the churches” (Schott); not equivalent to ἐν πᾶσιν ἔθνεσιν (Oec.), or “in you all” (de Wette: “as His true instruments”); cf. 1 Timothy 3:11.

δοξάζηται ὁ Θεός] “in order that God may be glorified,” i.e. that He obtain the praise, since it will be evident from your conduct that you as His οἰκονόμοι have received (καθὼς ἔλαβε) all things (τὰ λόγια, τὴν ἰσχύν) from Him.

διὰ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ] belongs to δοξάζηται, and points out that not the ability only, for the λαλεῖν and διακονεῖν, is communicated to the Christian through the agency of Christ,[251] but that all actual employment of it is effected by Christ. It is mistaken, with Hofmann,—who is not justified in appealing to Romans 16:27 and Hebrews 13:21 in support of his assertion,—to connect ΔΙᾺ Ἰ. ΧΡ. with the following relative clause. Such a view is opposed not only to the natural construction, but to the thought, since God did not receive His ΔΌΞΑ and His ΚΡΆΤΟς first through Christ.

As a close, the doxology: , may be referred either to ΘΕΌς (Oecumenius Calvin, Bengel, de Wette, Brückner, Wiesinger, Weiss, Schott, Hofmann) or to . ΧΡΙΣΤΟῦ (Grotius, Calov, Steiger). The first is the correct application, since Ὁ ΘΕΌς is the subject of the clause and Ἡ ΔΌΞΑ points back to ΔΟΞΆΖΗΤΑΙ. Comp. chap. 1 Peter 5:11. The doxology states the reason of the ἽΝΑ ΔΟΞΆΖΗΤΑΙ Ὁ ΘΕΌς (Schott); because God is (ἐστιν) the glory and the power, therefore the endeavours of the church should be directed to bring about a lively acknowledgment of this, to the praise of God.

Identical with this is the doxology, Revelation 1:6 (cf. also Revelation 5:13).

[251] Calvin: quia quicquid habemus ad ministrandum virtutis solus ipse nobis suggerit.1 Peter 4:11 follows the primitive division of ministry into that of the word and that of tables (Acts 6:2-4); compare prophecy and ministry (in narrower sense like διακονεῖ here) of Romans 12:6.—λαλεῖ covers all the speaking described in 1 Corinthians 12:8; 1 Corinthians 12:10, to one by means of the spirit hath been given a word of wisdom, etc.… 1 Corinthians 14:6; 1 Corinthians 14:26.—ὡς λόγια θεοῦ (perhaps echoes κατὰ τὴν ἀναλογίαν of Romans 12:6) as being God’s oracles or as speaking God’s oracles. The Seer is the model for the Christian preacher: Numbers 24:4, φησὶν ἀκούων λόγια θεοῦ. His message is the particular grace of God which he has to administer like the prophets and evangelists, 1 Peter 1:10-12.—διακονεῖ includes all forms of the ministration of God’s gifts other than those of speech—primarily almsgiving, hospitality and the like.—ἵνα, κ.τ.λ. A liturgical formula such as this is necessarily capable of many special meanings.—ἐνπᾶσιν may refer particularly to the gifts or their possessors—hardly to the Gentiles as Oec. suggests (Matthew 5:1)—but so to limit it would be a gratuitious injustice to the author. The saying ἐν τούτῳ ἐδοξάσθη ὁ πατήρ μου ἵνα καρπὸν πολὺν φέρητε καὶ γενήσεσθε ἐμοὶ μαθηταί is sufficient to justify this appendix to the exhortation love one another in deedδιὰ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, through Jesus Christ through whom the spirit descended on each of you, Acts 2:33, through whom you offer a sacrifice of praise (Hebrews 13:15); cf. δοξαξέτω τὸν θεὸν ἐν ὀνόματι τούτῳ.— … The insertion of ἐστιν changes the doxology to a statement of fact and thus supports the interpretation of as referring of the immediate antecedent Jesus Christ. Already He possesses the glory and the victory; realising this His followers endure joyfully their present suffering and defeat.11. If any man speak, let him speak as the oracles of God] The words cover the gifts of tongues, prophecy, teaching, knowledge, counsel, in St Paul’s fuller classification (Romans 12:6-8; 1 Corinthians 12-14.). These gifts, St Peter teaches, were only used rightly when the speaker’s utterances were in harmony with what were already recognised as “oracles of God.” The word is used of Old Testament revelations in Acts 7:38; Romans 3:2, but we may think of it as including also those made through the prophets and teachers of the Christian Church. The fact that Papias, Bishop of Hierapolis, who came within the circle of Apostolical teaching, wrote a book on the Oracles of the Lord Jesus (Euseb. Hist. Eccl., iii. 39), makes it probable that St Peter included our Lord’s teaching, possibly also the Epistles of St Paul, which he speaks of as “Scripture” (2 Peter 3:16), under this title. The essential unity of Apostolic teaching was not to be disturbed by private eccentricities of interpretation or theoretical speculation.

if any man minister, let him do it as of the ability which God giveth] The ministering here spoken of (diakonein) can hardly be limited to the special work of those who bore the name of “minister” or “deacon” as a title of office, but takes in all works of ministration in act as distinct from teaching, visiting the sick and needy, teaching children, helping those that were in trouble. Men were to set about that work also as stewards of a gift. The strength to work for others was not their own but was supplied by God. The word for “giveth,” used by St Paul in 2 Corinthians 9:10, and again in a compound form by St Peter in 2 Peter 1:5, had, as its primary meaning in Classical Greek, that of defraying the expense of a chorus in the performance of a drama. As this took its place among the more munificent acts of a citizen’s social life, the verb came to be connected with the general idea of large or liberal giving, and was used in that sense long after the original association had died out of it.

that God in all things may be glorified] This is pointed out as the end to be aimed at in the use of all gifts whether of speech or action. In so teaching, St Peter was but reproducing what he had heard from his Lord’s lips, “that men may see your good works and glorify your Father which is in Heaven” (Matthew 5:16), perhaps also what he had read in St Paul’s Epistles, that men should “do all to the glory of God” (1 Corinthians 10:31).

to whom be praise and dominion for ever and ever. Amen] It was but natural with St Peter, as with St Paul, that the thought of “glorifying” should be followed up by the utterance of a doxology. For “praise” it would be better to read glory as expressing the sequence of thought more clearly, and instead of “for ever and ever,” for ages of ages. It may be noted, as probable evidence that the Apostle is using a liturgical formula, that precisely the same combination is used by St John in Revelation 1:6, and is found also, in a fuller form, in Revelation 5:13. The use of the Amen (from the Hebrew for “fixed, settled, true,” and so meaning “verily,”) as commonly in the Gospels,—confirms this view. It was as in Romans 1:25; Romans 9:5, 1 Corinthians 14:16, the natural close of a liturgical utterance of belief or adoration.1 Peter 4:11. Ὡς λόγια Θεοῦ, as it were oracles) that is, let him speak the things which God supplies, at the present time.—ὡς ἐξ ἰσχύος, as out of the strength) with activity.—ἐν πᾶσι, in all things) for all men and all things are of Him, and through Him, and to Him.—, to whom) To God. There is a similar expression respecting Christ, 2 Peter 3:18.—ἠ δόξα, the glory) for instance, of wisdom, which utters the oracles.—τὸ κράτος, the strength) which gives power to the righteous. The same doxology occurs, ch. 1 Peter 5:11.Verse 11. - If any man speak, let him speak as the oracles of God. St. Peter proceeds to give examples of the proper use of gifts. One of those gifts is utterance. The apostle means all Christian utterance, whether public in the Church, or private in Christian conversation or ministrations to the sick. The second clause may be also rendered, as in the Revised Version, "speaking as it were oracles of God." It is more natural to supply the participle" speaking" than "let him speak," after the analogy of διακονοῦντες ("ministering") in ver. 10. For the word λόγια, oracles, see Acts 7:38; Romans 3:2; also Hebrews 5:12, in which last place the Scriptures of the New Testament seem to be intended. The apostle's meaning may be either that the Christian teacher was to speak as do the oracles of God, that is, the Scriptures, or (and the absence of the article rather favors this view) that he was so to yield himself to the guidance of the Holy Spirit, that his teaching should be the teaching of God; he was to seek no praise or reward for himself, but only the glory of God. Those who with single-hearted zeal seek God's glory do speak as it were oracles of God, for he speaketh by them (camp. Mark 13:11). If any man minister, let him do it as of the ability which God giveth. Again it is better to supply the participle "ministering." Whatever a man's gifts may be, he must minister them for the good of the whole Church (see ver. 9; also Romans 12. S; 1 Corinthians 12:28). And this he must do as of the strength which God supplieth; the strength is not his - God giveth it. The verb χορηγεῖ, rendered "giveth," is used in classical Greek first of supplying the expenses of a chorus, then of liberal giving generally; it occurs in 2 Corinthians 9:10. The compound, ἐπιχορηγεῖν, is more common; St. Peter has it in the Second Epistle (1. 5, 11). That God in all things may be glorified through Jesus Christ. The glory of God should be the one end of all Christian work. The Lord himself had said so in the sermon on the mount, in words doubtless well remembered by the apostle (Matthew 5:16; camp. 1 Corinthians 10:31). To whom be praise and dominion forever and ever. Amen; rather, as in the Revised Version, whose is the glory and dominion for the ages of ages. It is thought by some that St. Peter is here quoting from some ancient form of prayer; the use of the "Amen," and the resemblance to Revelation 1:6 and Rev 5:13, seem to favor this supposition. It is uncertain whether this doxology is addressed to God the Father or to the Lord Jesus Christ; the order of the words is in favor of the latter view, and the doxology closely resembles that in Revelation 1:6. Oracles (λόγια)

In classical Greek, of the oracular responses of heathen deities. Here, divine utterances or revelations. Compare Acts 7:38; Romans 3:2; Hebrews 5:12.

Giveth (χορηγεῖ)

Only here and 2 Corinthians 9:10. Peter uses the compound ἐπιχορηγέω, furnish, in 2 Peter 1:5; which see.

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